Philippians 1:13
So that my bonds in Christ are manifest in all the palace, and in all other places;
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(13) My bonds in Christ are manifest.—Properly, My bonds are made manifest as in Christi.e., my captivity is understood as being a part of my Christian life and work, and so becomes a starting-point for the preaching of the gospel. So St. Paul made it to the Jews (Acts 28:20), “For the hope of Israel am I bound in this chain.” (Comp. Ephesians 6:20, “I am an ambassador in bonds.”)

In all the palace, and in all other places.—The word “palace” is prætorium. It is elsewhere used in the New Testament: first, of the palace of Pilate; in Matthew 27:27, Mark 15:16, apparently, of the soldiers’ guardroom, or barrack; in John 18:28; John 18:33; John 19:9, of “the hall of judgment;” and next in Acts 23:35, of the “judgment hall of Herod,” evidently forming a part of the palace of Felix. (It may be noted that coincidence with this last passage is the chief, and almost the sole, argument for the untenable idea that this Epistle belongs to the Cæsarean and not the Roman captivity.) Its sense here has been disputed. It has been variously interpreted as the emperor’s palace, or the praetorian barrack attached to it, or the prætorian camp outside the walls. Its original meaning of “the head-quarters of a general” would lend itself well enough to any of these, as a derivative sense. The first or the second sense (which is virtually the same) is the interpretation of all ancient commentators, and suits best with the mention of “Caesar’s household” in Philippians 4:22, but not very well with the historical statement in Acts 28:16-30, that St. Paul dwelt “in his own hired house,” “with a soldier that kept him.” The other sense suits better with this last statement, and also with the delivery of the prisoner “to the captain of the guard,” i.e., literally, the commander of the camp, or prætorian prefect, and perhaps with abstract probability in the case of an obscure Jewish prisoner. But the difficulty is that, although the word might be applied to any of these places, yet, as a matter of fact, it is not found to be so applied. Moreover, we notice here that the words “in all other places” are an inaccurate rendering of a phrase really meaning “to all the rest” (see marginal reading). The connection therefore seems even in itself to suggest that the “prætorium” may more properly refer to a body of men than to a place. Accordingly (following Dr. Lightfoot), since the word “prætorium” is undoubtedly used for the “prætorian guard,” it seems best to take that sense here. “My bonds” (says the Apostle) “are known in all the prætorian regiments”—for the soldiers, no doubt, guarded him by turns—“and to all the rest of the world, whether of soldiers or of citizens.” This would leave it an open question where St. Paul was imprisoned, only telling us that it was under praetorian surveillance;

1:12-20 The apostle was a prisoner at Rome; and to take off the offence of the cross, he shows the wisdom and goodness of God in his sufferings. These things made him known, where he would never have otherwise been known; and led some to inquire after the gospel. He suffered from false friends, as well as from enemies. How wretched the temper of those who preached Christ out of envy and contention, and to add affliction to the bonds that oppressed this best of men! The apostle was easy in the midst of all. Since our troubles may tend to the good of many, we ought to rejoice. Whatever turns to our salvation, is by the Spirit of Christ; and prayer is the appointed means of seeking for it. Our earnest expectation and hope should not be to be honoured of men, or to escape the cross, but to be upheld amidst temptation, contempt, and affliction. Let us leave it to Christ, which way he will make us serviceable to his glory, whether by labour or suffering, by diligence or patience, by living to his honour in working for him, or dying to his honour in suffering for him.So that my bonds in Christ - Margin, "for." The meaning is, his bonds in the cause of Christ. He was imprisoned because he preached Christ (see the notes, Ephesians 6:20), and was really suffering because of his attachment to the Redeemer. It was not for crime, but for being a Christian for had he not been a Christian, he would have escaped all this. The manner of Paul's imprisonment was, that he was permitted to occupy a house by himself, though chained to a soldier who was his guard; Acts 28:16. He was not in a dungeon indeed, but he was not at liberty, and this was a severe mode of confinement. Who would wish to be chained night and day to a living witness of all that he did; to a spy on all his movements? Who would wish to have such a man always with him, to hear all he said, and to see all that he did? Who could well bear the feeling that he could never be alone - and never be at liberty to do anything without the permission of one too who probably had little disposition to be indulgent?

Are manifest - That is, it has become known that I am imprisoned only for the sake of Christ - Grotius. The true reason why I am thus accused and imprisoned begins to be understood, and this has awakened sympathy for me as an injured man. They see that it is not for crime, but that it is on account of my religious opinions, and the conviction of my innocence has spread abroad, and has produced a favorable impression in regard to Christianity itself. It must have been a matter of much importance for Paul to have this knowledge of the real cause why he was imprisoned go abroad. Such a knowledge would do much to prepare others to listen to what he had to say - for there is no man to whom we listen more readily than to one who is suffering wrongfully.

In all the palace - Margin, "Or, Caesar's court." Greek, ἐν ὅλῳ τῷ πραιτωρίῳ en holō tō praitōriō - in all the praetorium. This word properly denotes the general's tent in a camp; then the house or palace of a governor of a province, then any large hall, house, or palace. It occurs in the New Testament only in the following places: Matthew 27:27, where it is rendered "common hall"; Mark 15:16, rendered "Praetorium"; John 18:28, John 18:33; John 19:9; Acts 23:35, rendered "judgment hall"; and here in Philippians 1:13. It is employed to denote:

(1) the palace of Herod at Jerusalem, built with great magnificence at the northern part of the upper city, westward of the temple, and overlooking the temple;

(2) the palace of Herod at Caesarea, which was probably occupied by the Roman procurator; and,

(3) in the place before us to denote either the palace of the emperor at Rome, or the praetorian camp, the headquarters of the praetorian guards or cohorts.

These cohorts were a body of select troops instituted by Augustus to guard his person, and have charge of the city; see Robinson (Lexicon), Bloomfield, Rosenmuller, and some others, understand this of the praetorian camp, and suppose that Paul meant to say that the cause of his imprisonment had become known to all the band of the praetorians.

Grotius says that the usual word to denote the residence of the emperor at Rome was palatium - palace, but that those who resided in the provinces were accustomed to the word "praetorium," and would use it when speaking of the palace of the emperor. Chrysostom says that the palace of the emperor was called praetorium, by a Latin word derived from the Greek; see Erasmus in loc. Calvin supposes that the palace of Nero is intended. The question about the meaning of the word is important, as it bears on the inquiry to what extent the gospel was made known at Rome in the time of Paul, and perhaps as to the question why he was released from his imprisonment. It the knowledge of his innocence had reached the palace, it was a ground of hope that he might be acquitted; and if that palace is here intended, it is an interesting fact, as showing that in some way the gospel had been introduced into the family of the emperor himself. That the palace or residence of the emperor is intended here, may be considered at least probable from the following considerations:

(1) It is the name which would be likely to be used by the Jews who came up from Judea and other provinces, to denote the chief place of judgment, or the principal residence of the highest magistrate. So it was used in Jerusalem, in Cesarea, and in the provinces generally, to denote the residence of the general in the camp, or the procurator in the cities - the highest representative of the Roman power.

(2) if the remark of Chrysostom, above referred to, be well founded, that this was a common name given to the palace in Rome, then this goes far to determine the question.

(3) in Philippians 4:22, Paul, in the salutation of the saints at Rome to those of Philippi, mentions particularly those of "Caesar's household." From this it would seem that some of the family of the emperor had been made acquainted with the Christian religion, and had been converted. In what way the knowledge of the true cause of Paul's imprisonment had been circulated in the "palace," is not now known. There was, however, close intimacy between the military officers and the government, and it was probably by means of some of the soldiers or officers who had the special charge of Paul, that this had been communicated. To Paul, in his bonds, it must have been a subject of great rejoicing, that the government became thus apprised of the true character of the opposition which had been excited against him; and it must have done much to reconcile him to the sorrows and privations of imprisonment, that he was thus the means of introducing religion to the very palace of the emperor.

And in all other places - Margin, to all others. The Greek will bear either construction. But if, as has been supposed, the reference in the word praetorium is to the palace, then this should be rendered "all other places." It then means, that the knowledge of his innocence, and the consequences of that knowledge in its happy influence in spreading religion, were not confined to the palace, but were extended to other places. The subject was generally understood, so that it might be said that correct views of the matter pervaded the city, and the fact of his imprisonment was accomplishing extensively the most happy effects on the public mind.

13. my bonds in Christ—rather as Greek, "So that my bonds have become manifest in Christ," that is, known, as endured in Christ's cause.

palace—literally, "Prætorium," that is, the barrack of the Prætorian guards attached to the palace of Nero, on the Palatine hill at Rome; not the general Prætorian camp outside of the city; for this was not connected with "Cæsar's household," which Php 4:22 shows the Prætorium here meant was. The emperor was "Prætor," or Commander-in-Chief; naturally then the barrack of his bodyguard was called the Prætorium. Paul seems now not to have been at large in his own hired house, though chained to a soldier, as in Ac 28:16, 20, 30, 31, but in strict custody in the Prætorium; a change which probably took place on Tigellinus becoming Prætorian Prefect. See [2379]Introduction.

in all other places—so Chrysostom. Or else, "TO all the rest," that is, "manifest to all the other" Prætorian soldiers stationed elsewhere, through the instrumentality of the Prætorian household guards who might for the time be attached to the emperor's palace, and who relieved one another in succession. Paul had been now upwards of two years a prisoner, so that there was time for his cause and the Gospel having become widely known at Rome.

Ver. 13,14. And many of the brethren in the Lord, waxing confident by my bonds; and here again, contrary to the expectation of those persecutors, who designed to make havoc of the church, his innocent carriage and constancy in bearing the cross, had all influence upon the greater part of

the brethren (not according to the flesh, Romans 9:3, but) in the service of Christ.

Are much more bold to speak the word without fear; pastors, and teachers, who had been timorous at the first, were greatly imboldened to shake of carnal fear, and to profess and preach Christ crucified, or the cross of Christ, 1 Corinthians 1:18,23, which is the power of God to salvation, Romans 1:16, more confidently than ever; as he and Barnabas had done elsewhere, Acts 13:46; and as Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus, who were but secret disciples before Christ’s sufferings, upon his death owned him openly for their Lord, Matthew 27:57, with John 19:39. So that my bonds in Christ,.... What he had more darkly hinted before, he more clearly expresses here; the things that happened to him were his bonds; he was now a prisoner at Rome and in chains; though he had the liberty of dwelling alone in his own hired house, and of his friends coming to see him and hear him, yet he was bound with a chain, and under the care and guard of a soldier continually, who held one end of it. These bonds of his were not for debt, which he took care not to run into, but chose rather to work with his own hands, and so ministering to his own and the necessities of others, that he might not eat any man's bread for nought; nor for any capital crime, as murder, or theft, or anything that was worthy of death or of bonds; but his bonds were in Christ, or for Christ's sake, for professing Christ and preaching his Gospel; he was a prisoner in the Lord, or for his sake; see Ephesians 4:1. The use of his sufferings, which is more generally signified in Philippians 1:12, is here and in Philippians 1:14 more particularly related, and the several instances of it given, these his bonds for the sake of Christ, he says,

are manifest in all the palace, and in all other places, or "my bonds are manifest in Christ", as the words may be read; that is, by the means of Christ, he causing them to be taken notice of by men, and some of the first rank: by his bonds being manifest may be meant he himself who was bound; who by his bonds became known to persons, to whom in all probability he would otherwise have remained unknown; as to Felix, and Festus, and King Agrippa, and others in Caesar's court: or the Gospel for the sake of which he was bound; this was made manifest and became known, not barely notionally, but savingly and experimentally; and even Christ himself the substance of it, for whom he was laid in bonds, by this means came to be known, "in all the palace". The Arabic version reads it, "in the palace of the emperor". The word "praetorium", here used, signifies sometimes the judgment hall, or court of judicature belonging to the Roman governors, as Herod and Pilate; see Acts 23:35; and if it designs any such court at Rome, then the sense is, that through the apostle's being sent a prisoner to Rome, and his cause heard in the praetorium, or judgment hall, he and the cause of his bonds came to be known by the judges in that court; and which might be the means of the conversion of some of them: sometimes it signifies the general's pavilion in the camp, and sometimes the emperor's palace at Rome, he being the chief "praetor", or magistrate; and so here it seems to design Nero's house or court, where the Gospel, through the apostle's bonds, had made its way to the conversion of many there; see Philippians 4:22; and in all other places; or as the Arabic version renders it, "with all other men"; for it may be understood either of men or places; and that Christ and his Gospel came to be known through the apostle's sufferings, not only in the court of judicature where his cause was tried, or in Caesar's palace, and to many of his courtiers, but in other places in Rome, and parts of the empire, and to many persons there, both Jews and Gentiles; so that what was intended for the disadvantage of the Gospel, proved for the service of it.

So that my bonds {h} in Christ are manifest in all the {i} palace, and in all other places;

(h) For Christ's sake.

(i) In the emperor's court.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
Php 1:13. Ὥστε κ.τ.λ.] so that my bonds became manifest in Christ, etc. This ὥστε introduces the actual result of that προκοπή, and consequently a more precise statement of its nature.[59] Ἐν Χριστῷ does not belong to ΤΟῪς ΔΕΣΜΟΎς ΜΟΥ, alongside of which it does not stand; but ΦΑΝΕΡΟῪς ἘΝ ΧΡΙΣΤ. is to be taken together, and the emphasis is laid on ΦΑΝΕΡΟΎς, so that the ΔΕΣΜΟΊ did not remain ΚΡΥΠΤΟΊ or ἈΠΟΚΡΎΦΟΙ ἘΝ ΧΡΙΣΤῷ, as would have been the case, if their relation to Christ had continued unknown, and if people had been compelled to look upon the apostle as nothing but an ordinary prisoner detained for examination. This ignorance, however, did not exist; on the contrary, his bonds became known in Christ, in so far, namely, that in their causal relation to Christ—in this their specific peculiarity—was found information and elucidation with respect to his condition of bondage, and thus the specialty of the case of the prisoner, became notorious. If Paul had been only known generally as δέσμιος, his bonds would have been ΟὐΚ ἘΜΦΑΝΕῖς ἘΝ ΧΡΙΣΤῷ; but now that, as ΔΈΣΜΙΟς ἘΝ ΚΥΡΊῼ or ΤΟῦ ΚΥΡΊΟΥ (Ephesians 4:1; Ephesians 3:1; Philemon 1:9), as ΠΆΣΧΩΝ Ὡς ΧΡΙΣΤΙΑΝΌς (1 Peter 4:16), he had become the object of public notice, the ΦΑΝΈΡΩΣΙς of his state of bondage, as resting ἐν Χριστῷ, was thereby brought about,—a ΦΑΝΕΡῸΝ ΓΊΝΕΣΘΑΙ, consequently, which had its distinctive characteristic quality in the ἐν Χριστῷ. It is arbitrary to supply ὌΝΤΑς with ἘΝ ΧΡΙΣΤῷ (Hofmann). Ewald takes it as: “shining in Christ,” i.e. much sought after and honoured as Christian. Comp. also Calvin, and Wieseler, Chronol. d. apost. Zeitalt. p. 457. But, according to New Testament usage, φανερός does not convey so much as this; in classical usage (Thuc. i. 17. 2, iv. 11. 3; Xen. Cyr. vii. 5. 58, Anab. vii. 7. 22 and Krüger in loc.) it may mean conspicuous, eminent.

ἐν ὅλῳ τῷ πραιτωρίῳ] ΠΡΑΙΤΏΡΙΟΝ is not the imperial palace in Rome (Chrysostom, Theodoret, Oecumenius, Theophylact, Erasmus, Luther, Beza, Calvin, Estius, Cornelius a Lapide, Grotius, Bengel, and many others, also Mynster, Rheinwald, and Schneckenburger in the Deutsch. Zeitschr. 1855, p. 300), which is denoted in Php 4:22 by ἡ Καίσαρος οἰκία, but was never called praetorium.[60] It could not well, indeed, be so called, as τὸ πραιτώριον is the standing appellation for the palaces of the chief governors of provinces (Matthew 27:27; John 18:28; John 19:9; Acts 23:35); hence it might and must have been explained as the Procurator’s palace in Caesarea, if our epistle had been written there (see especially Böttger, Beitr. I. p. 51 f.). But it is the Roman castrum praetorianorum, the barracks of the imperial body-guard (Camerarius, Perizonius, Clericus, Elsner, Michaelis, Storr, Heinrichs, Flatt, Matthies, Hoelemann, van Hengel, de Wette, Rilliet, Wiesinger, Ewald, Weiss, J. B. Lightfoot, and others), whose chief was the praefectus praetorio, the στρατοπέδων ἔπαρχος, to whom Paul was given in charge on his arrival in Rome (Acts 28:16). It was built by Sejanus, and was situated not far from the Porta Viminalis, on the eastern side of the city.[61] See Suet. Tib. 37; Tac. Ann. iv. 2; Pitiscus, Thesaur. antiq. III. 174; and especially Perizonius, de orig., signif. et usu vocc. praetoris et praetorii, Franeq. 1687, as also his Disquisitio de praetorio ac vero sensu verborum Phil. i. 13, Franeq. 1690; also Hoelemann, p. 45, and J. B. Lightfoot, p. 97 ff. τὸ πραιτώριον does not mean the troop of praetorian cohorts (Hofmann), which would make it equivalent to οἱ πραιτωριανοί (Herodian, viii. 8. 14).[62]

The becoming known in the whole praetorium is explained by the fact, that a praetorian was always present with Paul as his guard (Acts 28:16), and Paul, even in his captivity, continued his preaching without hindrance (Acts 28:30 f.).

καὶ τοῖς λοιποῖς πᾶσι] not in the sense of locality, dependent on ἐν (Chrysostom, Theodoret, Calvin), but: and to all the others, besides the praetorians. It is a popular and inexact way of putting the fact of its becoming still more widely known among the (non-Christian) Romans, and therefore it must be left without any more specific definition. This extensive proclamation of the matter took place in part directly through Paul himself, since any one might visit him, and in part indirectly, through the praetorians, officers of justice, disciples, and friends of the apostle, and the like.[63] Van Hengel, moreover, understands it incorrectly, as if οἱ λοιποί were specially “homines exteri,” “Gentiles,”—a limitation which could only be suggested by the context, and therefore cannot be established by the use of the word in Ephesians 2:3; Ephesians 4:17; 1 Thessalonians 4:13. Equally arbitrary is the limitation of Hofmann: that it refers to those, who already knew about him.

[59] “Rem, qualis sit, addita rei consequentis significatione definit,” Ellendt, Lex. Soph. II. p. 1012. Hofmann’s view, that it stands in the sense of εἰς τοῦτο ὥστε, also amounts to this. But Hoelemann is in error in making it assert the greatness of the προκοπή. Not the greatness, but the salutary effect, is indicated.

[60] Act. Thom. § 3, 17, 18, 19, in Tischendorf, Act. apocr. pp. 192, 204 f., cannot be cited in favour of this designation (in opposition to Rheinwald); the πραιτώρια βασιλικά there spoken of (§ 3) are royal castles, so designated after the analogy of the residences of the Roman provincial rulers. Comp. Sueton. Aug. 72; Tib. 39, et al.; Juvenal, x. 161.

[61] Doubtless there was a praetorian guard stationed in the imperial palace itself, on the Mons Palatinus, as in the time of Augustus (Dio. Cass. liii. 16). See Wieseler, Chronol. d. apost. Zeitalt. p. 404, who understands the station of this palace-guard to be here referred to. But it cannot be proved that after the times of Tiberius, in whose reign the castra praetoriana were built in front of the Viminal gate (only three cohorts having previously been stationed in the city, and that sine castris, Suetonius, Octav. 49), anything else than these castra is to be understood by the wonted term praetorium, στρατόπεδον, when mentioned without any further definition (as Joseph. Antt. xviii. 6. 7: πρὸ τοῦ βασιλείου).

[62] Not even in such passages as Tacitus, Hist. ii. 24, iv. 46; Suetonius, Ner. 7; Plin. H. N. xxv. 2, 6, et al., where the prepositional expression (in praetorium, ex praetorio) is always local.

[63] This suffices fully to explain the situation set forth in ver. 13. The words therefore afford no ground for the historical combination which Hofmann here makes: that during the two years, Acts 28:30, the apostle’s case was held in abeyance; and that only now had it been brought up for judicial discussion, whereby first it had become manifest that his captivity was caused, not by his having committed any crime against the state, but by his having preached Christ, which might not be challenged (?) on the state’s account. As if what is expressly reported in Acts 28:31 were not sufficient to have made the matter known, and as if that διετία ἐν ἰδίῳ μισθώματι precluded the judicial preparation of the case (ver. 7)! As if the increased courage of the πλείονες, ver. 14, were intelligible only on the above assumption! As if, finally, it were admissible to understand, with Hofmann, among these πλείονες all those who “even now before the conclusion of the trial were inspired with such courage by it”!Php 1:13. For the skilful rhetorical structure of Php 1:13-17 see J. Weiss, Beitr., p. 17, who compares Romans 2:6-12.—τὰ δεσμά is, on the whole, more common; see Luke 8:29, Acts 16:26; Acts 20:23. According to Cobet, Mnemosyne, 1858, p. 74 ff. (quoted in W-Sch[4], p. 85, n. 8), the neuter form refers to actual bonds, the masc. to the imprisonment. But there seems to be no distinction, e.g., in Attic Inscrr[5] (see Meisterhans, Gramm. d. attisch. Inschr., p. 112, n. 1025). And Sch. states that the distinction will not apply to LXX.—φαν. ἐν Χ. γεν. It has become plain that he is a prisoner wholly for Christ’s sake, and not on account of any breach of law. γεν. must be translated by the English perfect, for, as Moule (CT[6]) well points out, “our English thought separates present from past less rapidly than Greek”. Of course we must supply δεσμ. as predicate with φαν. γεν.—ἐν ὅλῳ τ. πραιτ. is one of the most keenly contested expressions in the Epistle. Four leading interpretations are found. (1) Those forming the praetorian guard. So Lft[7], Hfm[8], Abbott, Hpt[9], Vinc. This explanation has much in its favour. Those coming up on appeal from the Provinces were handed over for surveillance to the praefecti praetorio (see Marquardt-Momms., ii. 23, p. 972 and n. 2). And Lft[10] (Com., pp. 99–104) has shown conclusively that the word admits of this meaning. (2) The barracks or camp of the praetorian guard. So Lips[11], Kl[12], Alf[13], De W., Myr[14], Ws[15], Von Soden. But none of these Comm[16] bring direct evidence to show that the name praetorium was ever definitely applied to the castra praetoriana, built under Tiberius at the Porta Viminalis (Tac., Ann., iv., 2). (3) The emperor’s palace. So Chr[17], Th. Mps[18], Thdrt[19], Beng., Mynster (Kleine theol. Schriften, p. 184, some strong arguments), Gwynn, Duchesne. In all other passages of N.T. πραιτ. = residence of the ruler. It is said that it would be impossible for anyone writing from Rome to call the palace πραιτ. But; as Gw[20] observes, this is a provincial writing to provincials, and using the word in a familiar sense. Further, the change for the better in Paul’s circumstances is connected with the knowledge that his bonds are in Christ. Is it because the authorities (emperor, etc.) have already begun to take a favourable view of his case that the preaching is allowed to prosper without hindrance and that his associates take courage? This interpretation cannot be dismissed altogether lightly. (4) The judicial authorities. So Mommsen (op. cit., p. 498) and Ramsay (St. Paul, etc., p. 357 ff.). These would be the praefecti praetorio (either one or two) with their assessors and other officials of the imperial court. Momms. quotes from a letter of Trajan to Pliny (Ep. Plin., 57 [65]), in which he decides that a criminal condemned to exile, but, in spite of this, lingering in the province, should be sent in chains ad praefectos praetorii mei, who are not the prison officials but those concerned with the hearing of cases. This explanation also would agree well with what Paul says about his bonds and the progress of the Gospel. We would hesitate to decide between (1) and (4), the context seeming to support the latter, while, perhaps, ὅλῳ favours the former.—καὶ τ. λοιποῖς π. Cf. CIG., i., 1770, ἐπεὶ καὶ ἐν τοῖς λοιποῖς πᾶσιν φανερὰν πεποήκαμεν τήν τε ἰδίαν καὶ τοῦ δήμου τοῦ Ῥωμαίων προαίρεσιν. Apparently a vague phrase = everywhere else.

[4]-Sch. Schmiedel’s Ed. of Winer.

[5]nscrr. Inscriptions.

[6] Cambridge Greek Testament.

[7] Lightfoot.

[8] Hofmann.

[9] Haupt.

[10] Lightfoot.

[11]ips. Lipsius.

[12] Klöpper.

[13] Alford’s Greek Testament.

[14] Meyer.

[15] Weiss.

[16]omm. Commentators.

[17] Chrysostom.

[18] Mps. Theodore of Mopsuestia.

[19]hdrt. Theodoret.

[20] Gwynn.13. So that, &c.] Render, So that my bonds are become manifest (as being) in Christ. In other words, his imprisonment has come to be seen in its true significance, as no mere political or ecclesiastical matter, but due to his union of life and action with a promised and manifested Messiah.

in all the palace] Greek, “in the whole Prœtorium (praitôrion).” The word occurs elsewhere in N. T., Matthew 27:27; Mark 15:16; John 18:28; John 18:33; John 19:9; Acts 23:35; in the sense of the residence, or a part of it, of an official grandee, regarded as a prœtor, a military commander. (Not that the word, in Latin usage, always keeps a military reference; it is sometimes the near equivalent of the word villa, the country residence of a Roman gentleman.) The A.V. rendering here is obviously an inference from these cases, and it assumes that St Paul was imprisoned within the precincts of the residence of the supreme Prætor, the Emperor; within the Palatium, the mansion of the Cæsars on the Mons Palatinus, the Hill of the goddess Pales. In Nero’s time this mansion (whose name is the original of all “palaces”) had come to occupy the whole hill, and was called the Golden House.—The rendering of the A.V. is accepted by high authorities, as Dean Merivale (Hist. Rom. vi. ch. 54), and Mr Lewin (Life and Epistles of St Paul, ii. p. 282). On the other hand Bp Lightfoot (on this verse, Philippians, p. 99) prefers to render “in all the Prætorian Guard,” the Roman life-guard of the Cæsar; and gives full evidence for this use of the word Prœtorium. And there is no evidence for the application of the word by Romans to the imperial Palace. To this last reason, however, it is fair to reply, with Mr Lewin, that St Paul, as a Provincial, might very possibly apply to the Palace a word meaning a residency in the provinces, especially after his long imprisonment in the royal Prœtorium at Cæsarea (Acts 23:35; Acts 24:27). But again it is extremely likely, as Bp Lightfoot remarks, that the word Prœtorium, in the sense of the Guard, would be often on the lips of the “soldiers that kept” St Paul (Acts 28:16); and thus this would be now the more familiar reference. On the whole, we incline to the rendering of Lightfoot, (and of the R.V.) throughout the (whole) Prætorian Guard. Warder after warder came on duty to the Apostle’s chamber (whose locality, on this theory, is nowhere certainly defined in N. T.), and carried from it, when relieved, information and often, doubtless, deep impressions, which gave his comrades knowledge of the Prisoner’s message and of the claims of the Saviour.

Other explanations of the word Prœtorium are (a) the Barrack within the Palatium where a detachment of Prætorians was stationed, and within which St Paul may have been lodged; (b) the great Camp of the Guard, just outside the eastern walls of Rome. But the barrack was a space too limited to account for the strong phrase, “in all the Prætorium”; and there is no evidence that the great Camp was ever called Prætorium.

Wyclif renders, curiously, “in eche moot (council) halle”; Tyndale, Cranmer, and Geneva, “throughout all the judgment hall.”

in all other places] Better, to all other (men); to the Roman “public,” as distinguished from this special class. The phrase points to a large development of St Paul’s personal influence.Php 1:13. Τοὺς δεσμοὺς, bonds) Paul, delivered up along with other prisoners, seemed on the same footing with them: afterwards it became known that his case was different, and so the Gospel prevailed.—φανεροὺς, manifest) Colossians 4:4.—πραιτωρίῳ, in the prœtorium) The court of Cæsar; comp. Php 4:22.—καὶ, and) then.—τοῖς λοιποῖς, in the other) places outside of it; 2 Timothy 4:17. So other, 1 Thessalonians 4:13.Verse 13. - So that my bonds in Christ are manifest; rather, as R.V., so that my bonds became manifest in Christ. At first he seemed like ether prisoners; afterwards it became known that he suffered bonds, not for any crime, but in Christ, i.e. in fellowship with Christ and in consequence of the relation in which he stood to Christ. In all the palace; rather, as R.V., throughout the whole Praetorian Guard; literally, in the whole praetorium, The word elsewhere means a governor's house: Pilate's house in the Gospels, Herod's palace in Acts 23:35. But at Rome the name so used would give unnecessary offense, and there is no proof that it was ever used for the palatium there. St. Paul must have heard it constantly as the name of the Praetorian regiment; he was kept chained to a soldier of that corps (Acts 28:16); and as his guard was continually relieved, his name and sufferings for Christ would become gradually known throughout the force. Others, on the authority of a passage in Dion Cassius, understand the word of the barracks of that part of the Praetorian guard attached to the imperial residence on the Palatine. But the passage relates to the time of Augustus, before the Praetorian cohorts were established by Tiberius in the camp outside of the Colline Gate. And in all other places; rather, as R.V. and to all the rest; generally, that is, throughout the city. My bonds in Christ are manifest (τοὺς δεσμούς μου φανεροὺς ἐν Χριστῷ γενέσθαι)

Bonds and Christ, in the Greek, are too far apart to be construed together. Better, as Rev., my bonds became manifest in Christ. His imprisonment became known as connected with Christ. It was understood to be for Christ's sake. His bonds were not hidden as though he were an ordinary prisoner. His very captivity proclaimed Christ.

In all the palace (ἐν ὅλῳ τῷ πραιτωρίῳ)

Rev., throughout the whole praetorian guard. So Lightfoot, Dwight, Farrar. This appears to be the correct rendering. The other explanations are, the imperial residence on the Palatine, so A.V.; the praetorian barracks attached to the palace, so Eadie, Ellicott, Lumby, and Alford; the praetortan camp on the east of the city, so Meyer.

The first explanation leaves the place of Paul's confinement uncertain. It may have been in the camp of the Praetorians, which was large enough to contain within its precincts lodgings for prisoners under military custody, so that Paul could dwell "in his own hired house," Acts 28:30. This would be difficult to explain on the assumption that Paul was confined in the barracks or within the palace precincts.

The Praetorians, forming the imperial guard, were picked men, ten thousand in number, and all of Italian birth. The body was instituted by Augustus and was called by him praetoriae cohortes, praetorian cohorts, in imitation of the select troop which attended the person of the praetor or Roman general. Augustus originally stationed only three thousand of them, three cohorts, at Rome, and dispersed the remainder in the adjacent Italian towns. Under Tiberius they were all assembled at Rome in a fortified camp. They were distinguished by double pay and special privileges. Their term of service was originally twelve years, afterward increased to sixteen. On completing his term, each soldier received a little over eight hundred dollars. They all seem to have had the same rank as centurions in the regular legions. They became the most powerful body in the state; the emperors were obliged to court their favor, and each emperor on his accession was expected to bestow on them a liberal donative. After the death of Pertinax (a.d. 193) they put up the empire at public sale, and knocked it down to Didius Julianus. They were disbanded the same year on the accession of Severus, and were banished; but were restored by that emperor on a new plan, and increased to four times their original number. They were finally suppressed by Constantine.

The apostle was under the charge of these troops, the soldiers relieving each other in mounting guard over the prisoner, who was attached to his guard's hand by a chain. In the allusion to his bonds, Ephesians 6:20, he uses the specific word for the coupling-chain. His contact with the different members of the corps in succession, explains the statement that his bonds had become manifest throughout the praetorian guard.

In all other places (τοῖς λοιποῖς πᾶσιν)

Rev., correctly, to all the rest; that is, to all others besides the Praetorians.

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