Luke 22:3
Then entered Satan into Judas surnamed Iscariot, being of the number of the twelve.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(3-6) Then entered Satan into Judas surnamed Iscariot.—See Notes on Matthew 26:14-16; Mark 14:10-11. St. Luke stands alone in the first three Gospels as thus describing the origin of the Traitor’s guilt. John 13:27 shows, however, that such a way of speaking had become common, though he places the “entrance” at a later stage. The use of the name Satan for the devil, as the author of the many forms of human evil, is, it need hardly be said, a prominent feature in St. Paul’s writings (1Corinthians 7:5; 2Corinthians 2:11; 2Corinthians 12:7. et al.). Compare also St. Peter’s speech in Acts 5:3, where Satan appears as instigating the sin of Ananias and Sapphira.

22:1-6 Christ knew all men, and had wise and holy ends in taking Judas to be a disciple. How he who knew Christ so well, came to betray him, we are here told; Satan entered into Judas. It is hard to say whether more mischief is done to Christ's kingdom, by the power of its open enemies, or by the treachery of its pretended friends; but without the latter, its enemies could not do so much evil as they do.Then entered Satan into Judas - It is not necessary to suppose that Satan entered personally into the body of Judas, but only that he brought him under his influence; he filled his mind with an evil passion, and led him on to betray his Master. The particular passion of which Satan made use was "avarice" - probably the besetting sin of Judas. To show its exceeding evil and baseness, it is only necessary to say that when it produced its "appropriate" effect in this case, it led to the betraying and crucifixion of the Son of God. We may learn, also, that when Satan "tempts" people, he commonly does it by exciting and raising to the highest pitch their native passions. He does not make them act contrary to their nature, but leads them on to "act out" their proper disposition.

Satan - This word properly means an adversary or an accuser. It is the name which in the Scriptures is commonly given to the prince or leader of evil spirits, and is given to him because he is the "accuser or calumniator" of the righteous (see Revelation 12:10; compare Job 1:6-9), as well as because he is the "adversary" of God.

Being of the number of the twelve - One of the twelve apostles. This greatly aggravated his crime. He should have been bound by most tender ties to Jesus. He was one of his family - long with him, and, treated by him with every mark of kindness and confidence; and nothing could more enhance his guilt than thus to make use of this confidence for the commission of one of the basest crimes.

3. Then entered Satan, &c.—but not yet in the full sense. The awful stages of it were these: (1) Covetousness being his master—passion, the Lord let it reveal itself and gather strength by entrusting him with "the bag" (Joh 12:6), as treasurer to Himself and the Twelve. (2) In the discharge of that most sacred trust he became "a thief," appropriating its contents from time to time to his own use. Satan, seeing this door into his heart standing wide open, determines to enter by it, but cautiously (2Co 2:11); first merely "putting it into his heart to betray Him" (Joh 13:2), suggesting the thought to him that by this means he might enrich himself. (3) This thought was probably converted into a settled purpose by what took place in Simon's house at Bethany. (See Mt 26:6, and see on [1717]Joh 12:4-8.) (4) Starting back, perhaps, or mercifully held back, for some time, the determination to carry it into immediate effect was not consummated till, sitting at the paschal supper, "Satan entered into him" (see on [1718]Joh 13:27), and conscience, effectually stifled, only rose again to be his tormentor. What lessons in all this for every one (Eph 4:27; Jas 4:7; 1Pe 5:8, 9)!Ver. 3-14. See Poole on "Matthew 26:14", and following verses to Matthew 26:19. See Poole on "Mark 14:10", and following verses to Mark 14:16. Then entered Satan into Judas,.... At the same time that the sanhedrim were sitting, and consulting about the death of Christ, Satan, or the adversary, as the word signifies, the devil, who is the enemy of the Messiah, the woman's seed, entered into Judas; not corporeally, as he did into those that were possessed by him; but he entered "into his heart", as the Ethiopic version renders it; he put it into his heart to betray him, as it is said in John 13:2 he stirred up, and worked upon the corruptions of his heart; suggested evil things to his mind, and baited his temptations agreeable to his malice and covetousness: and this man was

surnamed Iscariot; to distinguish him from another apostle of the same name; concerning this his surname; see Gill on Matthew 10:4, See Gill on John 13:2.

Being of the number of the twelve; apostles, or disciples of Jesus, as the Persic version reads, and which is an aggravation of his sin: now this being two days before the passover, shows, that the sop which Judas took, after which the devil entered into him, John 13:27 could not be the passover sop, but was the sop he ate at the supper in Bethany, in the house of Simon the leper, so long before it.

{2} Then entered Satan into Judas surnamed Iscariot, being of the number of the twelve.

(2) God by his wonderful providence causes him to be the minister of our salvation who was the author of our destruction.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
Luke 22:3-6. See on Matthew 26:14-16; Mark 14:10 f. Luke passes over the history of the anointing, having already related an earlier one (Luke 7:37).

εἰσῆλθε] The part played by the devil, who “sensus omnes occupat” (Calvin), is conceived of as an actual intrusion, as εἰσέρχεσθαι is the word constantly used to express the intrusion of demons into bodies (Luke 8:30; Luke 8:32 f., Luke 11:27). Comp. John 13:27 (in regard to John 13:2, see on the passage).

Ἰσκαρ.] See on Matthew 10:4.

ὄντα ἐκ τοῦ ἀρ. τ. δ.] familiar to the reader (Luke 6:16), but a tragic addition.

Luke 22:4. τοῖς στρατηγοῖς] As ὁ στρατηγός is the chief of all the Levitical temple guards (Acts 4:1; Acts 5:26; Joseph. Bell. vi. 5. 3), איש הר הבית, probably the leaders of the several guards who were placed under Him are here meant also, consequently the entire Levitical body of officers. Comp. χιλίαρχοι, 3 Esdr. Luke 1:9. See Lightfoot, p. 879.

Luke 22:5. συνέθεντο] The several moments in the incident, as these are accurately traced by Luke, are: (1) Judas opens the correspondence, Luke 22:4; (2) they are pleased thereat; (3) they engage (Herod. ix. 53; Xen. Anab. i. 9. 7, Hell. iii. 5. 6; Herodian, v. 3. 23; Joseph. Antt. xiii. 4. 7; 4Ma 4:16) to give him money; and the last step is, (4) Judas makes his acknowledgment, promises (ἐξωμολ., spopondit; elsewhere only the simple form is used in this sense, as Plat. Symp. p. 196 C; Jeremiah 44:25; Joseph. Antt. viii. 4. 3), and seeks henceforth a favourable opportunity, etc.

Luke 22:6. ἄτερ ὄχλου] without attracting a crowd. The opposite is μετὰ ὄχλου, Acts 24:18. Comp. Hom. Il. v. 473: φῆς που ἄτερ λαῶν πόλιν ἑξέμεν. The word ἄτερ, frequently occurring in the poets, occurs only here and at Luke 22:35 in the New Testament. Comp. 2Ma 12:15; rarely, moreover, in the later Greek prose writers, as Plut. Num. xiv.; Dion. Hal. iii. 10.Luke 22:3-6. Judas (Matthew 26:14-16, Mark 14:10-11). At this point in Mt. (Matthew 26:6-13) and Mk. (Mark 14:3-9) comes in the anointing at Bethany omitted by Lk.—εἰσῆλθεν Σατανᾶς, Satan entered into Judas. Lk. alone of the synoptists thus explains the conduct of Judas. Cf. John 13:2. Lk.’s statement is stronger even than John’s, suggesting a literal possession. Only so could he account for such behaviour on the part of a disciple towards such a Master. It was a natural view for a devout evangelist in the Apostolic Age, but, taken literally, it would be fatal to the moral significance of the act of the traitor, which, while presenting a difficult psychological problem, doubtless proceeded from can scious motives.—ἐκ τοῦ ἀριθμοῦ, of the number, but how far from the spirit which became that privileged body!3-6. The Traitor and the Priests.

3
. Then entered Satan into Judas] No other expression seems adequately to explain his wickedness. It began in avarice, disappointment, and jealousy; and, when he had long weakened his soul by indulgence in these dark, besetting sins, the imaginary loss of the “300 pence” of which he would have had the disposal (John 12:4-5; Mark 14:10), — the now undisguised announcement of our Lord that He should be not only rejected, but crucified (Matthew 20:19)—the consequent shattering of all Messianic hopes—the growing sense that he was becoming distasteful to his Master and his fellows—the open rebuke which he had drawn on his own head by his hypocritic greed at Bethany (John 12:6)—the rumoured hostility of all the most venerated authorities of the nation—all these formed the climax of his temptations:—and then, at last, the tempting opportunity met the susceptible disposition. “Instead of dominion—service; instead of power—per-

secution; instead of honour—shame; this was all that was left of his hopes and prospects once so brilliant.” His crime was but the epitome of months—perhaps years—of secret faithlessness. “Dicitur Satan in reprobos intrare, cum reverso Dei metu, extincta rationis luce, pudore etiam excusso, sensus omnes occupat.” Calvin.

Iscariot] See on Luke 6:16.Luke 22:3. Εἰσῆλθε, entered) The time of the fact[230] is indicated in John 13:27 [“After receiving the sop.”] [It was before the day of unleavened bread that the thing (the entrance of Satan into Judas) so fearful to speak of occurred: Luke 22:7, John 13:1.—V. g.]

[230] i.e. Not the first entrance of Satan, but his taking full possession of Judas. Comp. Luke 22:3; Luke 22:6.—E. and T.Verses 3-6. - Judas Iscariot betrays his Master. Then entered Satan into Judas surnamed Iscariot, being of the number of the twelve. And he went his way, and communed with the chief priests and captains, how he might betray him unto them. And they were glad. This was their chance. In the very heart of the Galilaean Teacher's own company a traitor showed himself, one who knew well the plans of his Master. With his help the Sanhedrin and the priestly party would be enabled to effect the arrest privately. They then must trust to Roman jealousy to help them to carry out their evil design. The expression, "Then entered Satan into Judas," is a strong one, and definitely shows that, in the opinion of these inspired compilers of the Gospels, there was a person who bore rule over the powers of evil. The character and history of the faithless friend of Jesus is mournfully interesting. For one to whom such splendid chances were offered to fall so low, is an awful mystery. It is clear that the betrayal was no sudden impulse. He set up self as the one object of all his thoughts, and followed Jesus because he believed that, in following him, he could best serve his own interests. His ambition was cruelly disappointed by his Master's gradual unfolding his views respecting his kingdom, which was not to be of this world. He was still further shocked by the undisguised announcement on the part of his Master, whose greatness and power Judas recognized from the first, that he would be rejected by the nation, and even put to death, has been suggested, as an explanation of the betrayal, that at the last he seems to have fancied that he could force the manifestation of Christ's power by placing him in the hands of his enemies; but the acceptance of a reward, miserable though it was, seems to point to vulgar greed, and to the idea of making friends with the dominant party in the state now that his Master evidently looked forward to a violent death, as the real motives of the betrayal. The question has been asked whether Christ, in his choice of Judas as one of the twelve, read the inmost depths and issues of his character. Canon Westcott, in a profound note on John 13:18, writes "that the records of the gospel lead us to believe that the Lord had perfect human knowledge realized in a human way, and therefore limited in some sense, and separable in consciousness from his perfect Divine omniscience. He knew the thoughts of men absolutely in their manifold possibilities, and yet as man, not in their actual future manifestation." These mysteries "underlie all religious life, and, indeed, all finite life - for finite being includes the possibility of sin and the possibility of fellowship between the Creator and the creature Thus we may be content to have this concrete mystery as an example - the most terrible example - of the issues of the two fundamental mysteries of human existence." Satan

See on Luke 13:16.

Iscariot

See on Matthew 10:5.

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