John 19:28
After this, Jesus knowing that all things were now accomplished, that the scripture might be fulfilled, said, I thirst.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(28) Comp. accounts of the darkness and death in Matthew 27:45-50; Mark 15:33-39; Luke 23:44-46.

Knowing that all things were now accomplished, that the scripture might be fulfilled.—It is difficult to give the exact meaning of the words in English. In the original the words for “accomplished” and “fulfilled” are derived from the same root, and the latter word is not the ordinary formula of quotation which we have had, e.g., in John 13:18 (see Note there). The Vulgate has “Postea sciens Jesus quia omnia consummata sunt ut consummaretur Scriptural Perhaps the nearest English rendering is “that all things were now completed that the Scripture might be accomplished.” But then there arises the difficult question, Is this connected with the words which follow, or not? The margin assumes that it is, and refers to Psalm 69:21. On the other hand (1) St. John’s custom is to quote the fulfilment of Scripture as seen in the event after its occurrence; (2) he does not here use the ordinary words which accompany such a reference; (3) the actual meaning of “knowing that all things were now accomplished” seems to exclude the idea of a further accomplishment, and to refer to the whole life which was an accomplishment of Scripture; (4) the context of words as they occur in the Psalm (John 19:22 et seq.) cannot be understood of our Lord. There seems to be good reason, therefore, for understanding the words “that the Scripture might be completed,” of the events of the whole life, and not of the words which immediately follow.

I thirst.—He had refused the usual stupefying drink at the moment of crucifixion (comp. Notes on Matthew 27:34; Matthew 27:48), but now all has been accomplished, the moment of His departure is at hand, and He seeks relief from the physical agony of the thirst caused by His wounds.

John 19:28-30. After this — After what is related above; and after other events recorded by the other evangelists, such as the three hours supernatural darkness, and the doleful exclamation of Jesus, Eloi, Eloi, &c., of which see notes on Matthew 27:46-47; Mark 15:34; Jesus, knowing that all things — All the grievous and terrible sufferings he had to endure; were now upon the point of being accomplished — And being parched with a violent drought: that the scripture might be fulfilled — Where the Messiah is described as crying out, My tongue cleaveth to my jaws, and in my thirst they gave me vinegar to drink, (Psalm 22:15; Psalm 69:21,) to show that he endured all that had been foretold concerning him; saith, I thirst. Now there was set — As usual on such occasions; a vessel full of vinegar — Near the cross: as vinegar and water was the common drink of the Roman soldiers, perhaps this vinegar was set here for their use. And they filled a sponge with vinegar, and put it upon hyssop — That is, a stalk of hyssop; and put it to his mouth — In a contemptuous manner. See note on Matthew 27:48. “There must have been some plant in Judea of the lowest class of trees, or shrubs, which was either a species of hyssop, or had a strong resemblance to what the Greeks called υσσωπος; inasmuch as the Hellenist Jews always distinguished it by that name. It is said of Solomon, (1 Kings 4:33,) that he spake of trees, from the cedar tree that is in Lebanon, even unto the hyssop that springeth out of the wall. Now they did not reckon among trees any plants but such as had durable and woody stalks, see note on Matthew 6:30. That their hyssop was of this kind, is evident also from the uses of sprinkling, to which it is in many cases appointed by the law to be applied.” — Campbell. When Jesus had received the vinegar, he said, It is finished — The predictions of the prophets that respect my personal ministry are all fulfilled. The important work of man’s redemption is accomplished. The demands of the law, and of divine justice, are satisfied, and my sufferings are now at an end. It appears from Matthew, Mark, and Luke, that in speaking these words he cried with an exceeding loud voice; probably to show that his strength was not exhausted, but that he was about to give up his life of his own accord. Having thus shouted, he addressed his Father, with a tone of voice proper in prayer; saying, Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit, and then bowed his head, and gave up the ghost — Leaving us the best pattern of a recommendatory prayer in the article of death. See note on Matthew 27:50; Luke 23:46.19:19-30 Here are some remarkable circumstances of Jesus' death, more fully related than before. Pilate would not gratify the chief priests by allowing the writing to be altered; which was doubtless owing to a secret power of God upon his heart, that this statement of our Lord's character and authority might continue. Many things done by the Roman soldiers were fulfilments of the prophecies of the Old Testament. All things therein written shall be fulfilled. Christ tenderly provided for his mother at his death. Sometimes, when God removes one comfort from us, he raises up another for us, where we looked not for it. Christ's example teaches all men to honour their parents in life and death; to provide for their wants, and to promote their comfort by every means in their power. Especially observe the dying word wherewith Jesus breathed out his soul. It is finished; that is, the counsels of the Father concerning his sufferings were now fulfilled. It is finished; all the types and prophecies of the Old Testament, which pointed at the sufferings of the Messiah, were accomplished. It is finished; the ceremonial law is abolished; the substance is now come, and all the shadows are done away. It is finished; an end is made of transgression by bringing in an everlasting righteousness. His sufferings were now finished, both those of his soul, and those of his body. It is finished; the work of man's redemption and salvation is now completed. His life was not taken from him by force, but freely given up.See the notes at Matthew 27:46-50.

That the scripture might be fulfilled, saith, I thirst - See Psalm 69:21. Thirst was one of the most distressing circumstances attending the crucifixion. The wounds were highly inflamed, and a raging fever was caused, usually, by the sufferings on the cross, and this was accompanied by insupportable thirst. See the notes at Matthew 27:35. A Mameluke, or Turkish officer, was crucified, it is said in an Arabic manuscript recently translated, on the banks of the Barada River, under the castle of Damascus. He was nailed to the cross on Friday, and remained until Sunday noon, when he died. After giving an account of the crucifixion, the narrator proceeds: "I have heard this from one who witnessed it; and he thus remained until he died, patient and silent, without wailing, but looking around him to the right and the left, upon the people. But he begged for water, and none was given him; and the hearts of the people were melted with compassion for him, and with pity on one of God's creatures, who, yet a boy, was suffering under so grievous a trial. In the meantime the water was flowing around him, and he gazed upon it, and longed for one drop of it; and he complained of thirst all the first day, after which he was silent, for God gave him strength" - Wiseman's Lectures, pp. 164, 165, ed.

28-30. After this, Jesus knowing that all things were now accomplished—that is, the moment for the fulfilment of the last of them; for there was one other small particular, and the time was come for that too, in consequence of the burning thirst which the fevered state of His frame occasioned (Ps 22:15).

that the scripture—(Ps 69:21).

might be fulfilled saith, I thirst. Now there was set a vessel full of vinegar—on the offer of the soldiers' vinegar, see on [1912]Joh 19:24.

and they—"one of them," (Mt 27:48).

Ver. 28,29. David said, Psalm 69:21, to signify his enemies multiplying afflictions upon him, They gave me also gall for my meat; and in my thirst they gave me vinegar to drink; which he spake metaphorically. Part of these words were without a figure literally fulfilled in Christ, who was the Son of David; for he crying out upon the cross that he thirsted, there being no other liquor at hand, or this being set on purpose for this end, they dip a spunge in it, and give it to him to drink; whether to stupify his sense, or to prolong his life in those torments, or barely to quench his thirst, is hard to determine. It is probable that it was such a kind of refreshment as they allowed to ordinary malefactors in his circumstances, the particulars of which usage we are not able to determine. After this,.... After he had committed his mother to the care of John, which was about the sixth hour, before the darkness came over the land: and three hours after this was the following circumstance, which was not without the previous knowledge of Christ:

Jesus knowing that all things were now accomplished; or just upon being accomplished, were as good as finished; and as they were to be, would be in a very short time; even all things relating to his sufferings, and the circumstances of them, which were afore appointed by God, and foretold in prophecy, and of which he had perfect knowledge:

that the Scripture might be fulfilled: might appear to have its accomplishment, which predicted the great drought and thirst that should be on him, Psalm 22:15 and that his enemies at such a time would give him vinegar to drink, Psalm 69:21

saith, I thirst; which was literally true of him, and may be also understood spiritually of his great thirst and eager desire after the salvation of his people.

{9} After this, Jesus knowing that all things were now accomplished, that the scripture might be fulfilled, saith, I thirst.

(9) Christ when he has taken the vinegar, yields up the Spirit, indeed drinking up in our name that most bitter and severe cup of his Father's wrath.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
John 19:28. Μετὰ τοῦτο] Not indefinitely later, but after this scene with Mary and John.

εἰδὼς, κ.τ.λ.] as He was aware (John 13:1) that His death was already at hand, that consequently all was already accomplished, in order to bring the Scripture to fulfilment, in respect of the accomplishment of its predictions concerning His earthly work, He now still desires, at this goal of accomplishment, a refreshment, and says: I thirst. Accordingly, ἵνα τελ. ἡ γράφη is to be referred to πάντα ἤδη τετέλ., as Cyril (?), Bengel, Michaelis, Semler, Thalem., van Hengel (Annot. p. 62 ff.), Paulus, Tholuck, Hofmann,[248] Luthardt, Lange, Baeumlein, Scholten, Steinmeyer, have connected it, This is the correct construction, because ΠΆΝΤΑ ἬΔΗ ΤΕΤΈΛ. leaves us no room to think of a fulfilment of Scripture still remaining behind, and consequently excludes the connection of ἵνα τελ. ἡ γρ. with ΛΈΓΕΙ; because, further, ΤΕΛΕΙΏΘΗ is selected simply for the sake of its reference to τετέλ. (it is the ΠΛΉΡΩΣΙς of Scripture, to which now nothing more is wanting), and because John never makes the statement of purpose, “that the Scripture might be fulfilled,” precede the moment of fulfilment, and even where a single definite fact is the fulfilling element, always actually adduces the passage of Scripture in question (John 17:12 is a retrospective indication of a passage already before adduced). Hence the ordinary interpretation must be given up (Chrysostom, Theophylact, Euth. Zigabenus, Ruperti, and many others, including Lücke, De Wette, Brückner, Strauss, B. Crusius, Baur, Ewald, Hengstenberg, Godet), that ἵνα τελ., Κ.Τ.Λ. refers to ΛΈΓΕΙ· ΔΙΨῶ, so that it contains the scriptural ground of the thirst, to which Jesus gave expression, and of the drinking of the vinegar which was given to Him, and Psalm 69:22 is the passage intended; where, however, the drinking of vinegar is the work of scorn and of malice, which would not be at all appropriate here, since it is simply the quenching of thirst immediately before death that is in question, without other and further background.

πάντα ἤδη τετέλ.] τουτέστιν ὅτι οὑδὲν λείπει τῇ οἰκονομίᾳ, Chrysostom; ἬΔΗ (already) points to the very early occurrence of His death (Nonnus: θοῶς).

[248] Weissag. u. Erf. II. p. 146. On the other hand, Hofmann, in the Schriftbew. II. 1, p. 314, has altered his views, and connects ἵνα τελ. ἡ γρ. with λέγει.John 19:28. Μετὰ τοῦτοΔιψῶ. “After this, Jesus knowing that all things are now finished, that the scripture might be completely fulfilled, saith, I thirst.” Jesus did not feel thirsty and proclaim it with the intention of fulfilling scripture—which would be a spurious fulfilment—but in His complaint and the response to it, John sees a fulfilment of Psalm 69:22, εἰς τὴν δίψαν μου ἐπότισάν με ὄξος. Only when all else had been attended to (εἰδὼς κ. τ. λ.) was He free to attend to His own physical sensations.28–30. The two words from the Cross, ‘I Thirst,’ ‘It is Finished’

28. After this] See on John 19:38.

knowing] Comp. John 13:1.

were now accomplished] Rather, are already finished. The very same word is used here as in John 19:30, and this identity must be preserved in translation.

that the scripture, &c.] Many critics make this depend on ‘are already finished,’ in order to avoid the apparent contradiction between all things being already finished and something still remaining to be accomplished. But this construction is somewhat awkward. It is better to connect ‘that … fulfilled’ with ‘saith,’ especially when Psalm 69:21 speaks so plainly of the thirst. The apparent contradiction almost disappears when we remember that the thirst had been felt sometime before it was expressed. All things were finished, including the thirst; but Christ alone knew this. In order that the prophecy might be accomplished, it was necessary that He should make known His thirst. ‘Brought to its due end’ or ‘made perfect’ is the natural meaning of the very unusual expression translated ‘fulfilled.’John 19:28. Μετὰ τοῦτο, after this) after this one event which immediately preceded. [After the parting of the garments, whereby the Scripture which was immediately before quoted by John obtained its fulfilment.—V. g.] [The conjecture is somewhat different, which is exhibited almost in these words in the Harm., p. 569: “The phrase μετὰ τοῦτο seems rather to refer to the whole Acts of the crucifixion, than the address to His mother and the disciple mentioned in John 19:26-27, as immediately preceding. For John, having brought Mary to his dwelling, returned to the cross, John 19:35; from which we may gather the inference, that not only was she brought into the house out of the open air before the darkness, but even that immediately after the first word spoken by Jesus on the cross, which was directed to the Father, the second word had regard to His mother, whom He observed beneath His cross.” Let the impartial Reader weigh well in what way best the statements which the Gnomon has, as to the order of these events, can be made to harmonise with those which we have now brought forward, as well from the Harm. Ev. as also from the Germ Vers.—E. B.] Τοῦτο differs from ταῦτα, ch. John 11:11. The former is never taken adverbially.—εἰδὼς, knowing) Believers also, in the agony of the last conflict, may perceive that the issue (end) is near.—πάντα, all things) for instance, those things which are recorded in John 19:24, even concerning minor matters.—τετέλεσται, ἵνα τελειωθῇ) The verb τελέω applies to events; τελειόω, to Holy Scripture. The verb διψῶ, I thirst, and the verb τετέλεσται, it is finished (‘consummated’), are closely connected. The thirst had been, in the case of the body of Jesus, what the dereliction by the Father had been in His soul. In His journey on foot He had felt weariness (ch. John 4:6); in His voyage, He had been overpowered by sleep (Mark 4:38); in the desert previously, He had felt hunger (Matthew 4:2); and now, in fine, on the cross, the most extreme and burning thirst, after His sweat, His goings back and forward [between Caiaphas, Herod, Pilate, and the people], His speaking, His scourging, and the nails. Amidst all these He had not said, He is in pain; for the fact spoke for itself as to His pains, which were foretold in Scripture; but He does speak of His thirst, in which all the rest have their confluence and termination, and thereby He asks for a drink. For the Scripture had foretold both the thirst and the drink. Thirst is wont both to be felt most, and to be quenched, only then when one’s toil has been completely ended: ἵνα, that, may be joined with λέγει, He saith.Verses 28, 29. - (c) "I thirst" - the last agony. Verse 28. - It does not come within the purpose of John to record the portents which attended the final scene - either the supernatural darkness on the one hand, or the rending of the veil of the temple on the other. He does not record the visions of the saints, nor the testimony of the centurion (see Matthew 27:45-56; Mark 15:33-39; Luke 23:44-49). He does not record the further quotation of Psalm 22; the cry, "Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani?" nor the misinterpretation of the multitudes; nor the jeer at his dying agonies. But he does record two of the words of the Lord, which they had omitted. He, moreover, implies that he had purposely left these omissions to be filled up from the synoptists, for he adds, After this, Jesus, knowing that all things had been (τετέλεσται) now finished, said, I thirst, in order that the Scripture might be fulfilled. John heard in this word the comprehensive cry which gathered up all the yearnings and agonies of his soul, which fulfilled its travail, which expressed the awful significance of his suffering, and strangely filled up the prophetic picture (Psalm 69:21). Were accomplished (τετέλεσται)

Rev., with stricter rendering of the perfect tense, are finished. Finished corresponds better with it is finished, John 19:30. This sentence may be taken with the preceding one, or with that which follows.

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