Ezekiel 45:13
This is the oblation that ye shall offer; the sixth part of an ephah of an homer of wheat, and ye shall give the sixth part of an ephah of an homer of barley:
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(13) The oblation.—Ezekiel 45:13-16 provide for a regular tax to be paid to the prince, in order that he may be able to furnish the required offerings at the sanctuary. This, like the oblation of land (Ezekiel 45:1), is described as a “heave offering,” and was the sixtieth part of the grain, the hundredth of the oil, and the two-hundredth of the flock, all being from the year’s increase.

Ezekiel 45:13-16. This is the oblation, &c. — The Hebrew word here translated oblation, distinguished from the first-fruits, (see note on Ezekiel 45:1,) signifies the portion belonging to the Levites out of the fruits of the earth, when they were gathered in: see Ezekiel 44:30. For which reason St. Jerome, upon the place, supposes the following words to express the proportion the people ought to pay the Levites out of the increase of their ground; which by their rabbins was determined to amount to at least a sixtieth part: after which separation a tenth part was to be paid out of the remainder. The portions allotted to the priests and Levites were not intended only for their own maintenance; but likewise to make a constant provision for those sacrifices, both ordinary and extraordinary, which were appointed by the law: see Malachi 3:10. And one lamb out of the flock, out of two hundred — This offering is enjoined, besides the setting apart the firstborn for the use of the priests and Levites, for making provision for the daily burnt-offering, Numbers 28:3, and for burnt-offerings and peace-offerings, or sacrifices of thanksgiving, that were to be made upon proper occasions. Out of the fat pastures of Israel — This implies that these lambs were to be the best and fattest of their kind, as all other tithes and things dedicated to God were to be. To make reconciliation for them — This effect is ascribed to burnt-offerings, as well as to those which were properly sacrificed for sin. All the people, &c., shall give this oblation for the prince — Or, with the prince; that is, the people shall join with the prince in making these oblations; whereas those that follow in the next verse are to be at the sole charge of the prince.

45:1-25 In the period here foretold, the worship and the ministers of God will be provided for; the princes will rule with justice, as holding their power under Christ; the people will live in peace, ease, and godliness. These things seem to be represented in language taken from the customs of the times in which the prophet wrote. Christ is our Passover that is sacrificed for us: we celebrate the memorial of that sacrifice, and feast upon it, triumphing in our deliverance out of the Egyptian slavery of sin, and our preservation from the destroying sword of Divine justice, in the Lord's supper, which is our passover feast; as the whole Christian life is, and must be, the feast of the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth.The offerings. to be made by the people through the prince for the service of the sanctuary. In the Mosaic Law the offerings for the sacrifices of the ordinary festivals were left to the free will of the people. Here they are reduced to regular order and the amounts ordained. In later days there were often shortcomings in these respects Malachi 3:8. This is obviated, and regularity ensured in the new order of things. No mention is made of wine for the drink-offering, or of bullocks for the burnt-offering, so that the enumeration is not complete.13-15. In these oblations there is a progression as to the relation between the kind and the quantity: of the corn, the sixth of a tenth, that is, a sixtieth part of the quantity specified; of the oil, the tenth of a tenth, that is, an hundredth part; and of the flock, one from every two hundred. In the daily service, the morning and evening sacrifice, there must be wheat and barley flour.

Sixth part of an ephah; sixtieth part of an homer, about one half bushel, and one peck, and one quarter of a peck, and three pints, or near it; so some. Others abate the odd measures, and say the ephah was about our half bushel, as indeed it can be no more; if the homer were thirty bushels, the ephah a tenth part of the homer, that is, three bushels, the sixth part of the ephah amounts to four gallons, or half a bushel.

This is the oblation that ye shall offer,.... Not at the dedication of the temple, to be built in time to come, as Kimchi thinks; nor for the daily sacrifices, as others; but for the maintenance of the priests, that is, the ministers of the Gospel; for here begin the rules for the right ordering of ecclesiastical affairs of those times:

the sixth part of an ephah of an homer of wheat, and ye shall give the sixth part of an ephah of an homer of barley: this confirms that an "ephah" was for dry measure, of wheat and barley; and as it was the tenth part of an homer, a sixtieth part of an homer of wheat and barley was to be given for this service; that is, if a man had an homer of wheat or of barley, he was to give a sixtieth part of it for the use of the ministers of the Lord: the meaning is, that the people should give freely and liberally, according to their substance, for their support and maintenance,

This is the oblation that ye shall offer; the sixth part of an ephah of an homer of wheat, and ye shall give the sixth part of an ephah of an homer of barley:
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
13. oblationoffer] The people are addressed. The due which they shall pay the prince is one sixtieth in grain. For, of an homer, rather: out of an homer.

Verses 13-15. - The offerings the people' should present are next specified.

(1) Of wheat, the sixth part of an ophah of (out, of, or from) an homer; i.e. the sixtieth part of an homer, equal to about one-tenth of a bushel (ver. 13).

(2) Of barley, the same (ver. 13).

(3) Of oil, a tenth part of a bath out of the cor, or homer of ten Baths, i.e. the hundredth part of every homer, equal to a little more than half a gallon (ver. 14).

(4) Of the flock, one lamb or kid (שֶׂה, meaning either) out of the flock, out of two hundred, out of the fat - or well-watered (see Genesis 13:10) - pastures of Israel, i.e. one of every two hundred, and never the worst, but always the best. These oblations should be made for the maintenance of the necessary sacrificial worship in the new temple, for the meal, burnt, and peace or thank offerings that should there be presented to make reconciliation or atonement for the house of Israel. Compared with the offerings prescribed by the Law of Moses, these discover important variations.

(1) Of flour, the Law demanded one-tenth of an ephah of fine flour with a lamb (Exodus 29:40), with a ram two-tenths (Numbers 15:6), with a bullock three-tenths (Numbers 15:9); of wheat and of barley Ezekiel's Torah requires one-sixteenth of an ephah for each, i.e. one-third in all.

(2) Of oil, the Mosaic ordinance was, with a lamb should be presented one-fourth of a bin, i.e. one-twenty-fourth of a bath; with a ram, one-third of a bin, i.e. one-eighteenth of a bath; with a bullock one-half of a hin, i.e. one-twelfth of a bath. Ezekiel's ordinance was in every case one-tenth of a bath.

(3) Of animals, the Pentateuchal legislation left the necessary victims, whether rams, goats, or bullocks, to be provided by the offerers at their own free-will, stipulating as compulsory only the firstborn of the flocks and herds (Exodus 13:2, 12; Exodus 22:29, 30; Leviticus 27:26; Numbers 3:13; Numbers 8:17; Deuteronomy 15:19), the first ripe fruits of the earth (Exodus 22:29; Numbers 18:12), and the tithes, or tenths, of seed, fruit, the herd and flock (Leviticus 27:30-33); the Ezekelian omits the latter, but ordains in lieu of the former that one animal out of every two hundred in every flock shall be obligatory on Jehovah's worshippers. Thus the demands of Ezekiel's Torah surpass those of the earlier or Mosaic Torah in quantity as well as quality. That these demands are definitely specified does not prove they should partake rather of the nature of a tax than of a free-will offering. That they were not to be regarded as taxes is shown by the absence of any allusion to penalties for neglect of payment; that they were designed to be looked upon as free-will offerings is plain from the circumstance that Jehovah never supposes for a moment that these generous offerings will be withheld; and perhaps all that is really signified by them is that the liberality of Jehovah's people in the future age should greatly exceed that which had been practiced at any former time. Ezekiel 45:13The Heave-offerings of the People. - Ezekiel 45:13. This is the heave-offering which ye shall heave: The sixth part of the ephah from the homer of wheat, and ye shall give the sixth part of the ephah from the homer of barley; Ezekiel 45:14. And the proper measure of oil, from the bath of oil a tenth of the bath from the cor, which contains ten baths or a homer; for ten baths are a homer; Ezekiel 45:15. And one head from the flock from two hundred from the watered land of Israel, for the meat-offering, and for the burnt-offering, and for the peace-offerings, to make atonement for them, is the saying of the Lord Jehovah. Ezekiel 45:16. All the people of the land shall be held to this heave-offering for the prince in Israel. Ezekiel 45:17. And upon the prince shall devolve the burnt-offerings, and the meat-offering, and the drink-offering at the feasts, the new moons, and the Sabbaths, at all the festivals of the house of Israel; he shall provide the sin-offering, and the meat-offering, and the burnt-offering, and the peace-offerings, to make atonement for the house of Israel. - The introductory precepts to employ just measures and weights are now followed by the regulations concerning the productions of nature to be paid by the Israelites to the prince for the sacrificial worship, the provision for which was to devolve on him. Fixed contributions are to be levied for this purpose, of wheat, barley, oil, and animals of the flock - namely, according to Ezekiel 45:13-15, of corn the sixtieth part, of oil the hundredth part, and of the flock the two hundredth head. There is no express mention made of wine for the drink-offering, or of cattle, which were also requisite for the burnt-offering and peace-offering, in addition to animals from the flock. The enumeration therefore is not complete, but simply contains the rule according to which they were to act in levying what was required for the sacrifices. The word שׁשּׁיתם in Ezekiel 45:13 must not be altered, as Hitzig proposes; for although this is the only passage in which שׁשּׁה occurs, it is analogous to חמּשׁ in Genesis 41:34, both in its formation and its meaning, "to raise the sixth part." A sixth of an ephah is the sixtieth part of a homer. חק, that which is fixed or established, i.e., the proper quantity. הבּת השּׁמן is in apposition to השּׁמן (for the article, see the comm. on Ezekiel 43:21), the fixed quantity of oil, namely of the bath of oil-i.e., the measure of that which is to be contributed from the oil, and that from the bath of oil-shall be the tenth part of the bath from the cor, i.e., the hundredth part of the year's crop, as the cor contained ten baths. The cor is not mentioned in the preceding words (Ezekiel 45:11), nor does it occur in the Mosaic law. It is another name for the homer, which is met with for the first time in the writings of the captivity (1 Kings 5:2, 25; 2 Chronicles 2:9; 2 Chronicles 27:5). For this reason its capacity is explained by the words which are appended to מכּור: 'עשׂרת הבּתּים וגו, from the cor (namely) of ten baths, one homer; and the latter definition is still further explained by the clause, "for ten baths are one homer." - Ezekiel 45:15. ממּשׁקה, from the watered soil (cf. Genesis 13:10), that is to say, not a lean beast, but a fat one, which has been fed upon good pasture. לכפּר עליהם indicates the general purpose of the sacrifices (vid., Leviticus 1:4). - Ezekiel 45:16. The article in העם, as in הבּת ni sa ,העם ni in Ezekiel 45:14. היה אל, to be, i.e., to belong, to anything - in other words, to be held to it, under obligation to do it; היה על (Ezekiel 45:17), on the other hand, to be upon a person, i.e., to devolve upon him. In בּכל־מועדי the feast and days of festival, which have been previously mentioned separately, are all grouped together. 'עשׂה את החטּאת וגו' .rehtegot, to furnish the sin-offering, etc., i.e., to supply the materials for them.

So far as the fact is concerned, the Mosaic law makes no mention of any contributions to the sanctuary, with the exception of the first-born, the first-fruits and the tithes, which could be redeemed with money, however. Besides these, it was only on extraordinary occasions - e.g., the building of the tabernacle - that the people were called upon for freewill heave-offerings. But the Mosaic law contains no regulation as to the sources from which the priests were to meet the demands for the festal sacrifices. So far, the instructions in the verses before us are new. What had formerly been given for this object as a gift of spontaneous love, is to become in the future a regular and established duty, to guard against that arbitrary and fitful feeling from which the worship of God might suffer injury. - To these instructions there are appended, from Ezekiel 45:18 onwards, the regulations concerning the sacrifices to be offered at the different festivals.

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