Exodus 30:30
And you shall anoint Aaron and his sons, and consecrate them, that they may minister to me in the priest's office.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(30) Thou shalt anoint Aaron.—Comp. Exodus 29:7; Leviticus 8:12.

And his sons.—See Exodus 29:21.

That they may minister unto me.—As Aaron and his sons were unfit to minister until the holy oil had been poured on them, so Christian priests can be no otherwise fitted to discharge their office than by their receiving that effluence of the Holy Spirit which the holy oil typified.

30:22-38 Directions are here given for making the holy anointing oil, and the incense to be used in the service of the tabernacle. To show the excellency of holiness, there was this spiced oil in the tabernacle, which was grateful to the sight and to the smell. Christ's name is as ointment poured forth, So 1:3, and the good name of Christians is like precious ointment, Ec 7:1. The incense burned upon the golden altar was prepared of sweet spices. When it was used, it was to be beaten very small; thus it pleased the Lord to bruise the Redeemer, when he offered himself for a sacrifice of a sweet-smelling savour. The like should not be made for any common use. Thus God would keep in the people's minds reverence for his own services, and teach us not to profane or abuse any thing whereby God makes himself known. It is a great affront to God to jest with sacred things, and to make sport with his word and ordinances. It is most dangerous and fatal to use professions of the gospel of Christ to forward wordly interests.An oil of holy ointment - Rather, a holy anointing oil.

After the art of the apothecary - According to Jewish tradition, the essences of the spices were first extracted, and then mixed with the oil. The preparation of the anointing oil, as well as of the incense, was entrusted to Bezaleel Exodus 37:29, and the care of preserving it to Eleazar, the son of Aaron Numbers 4:16. In a later age, it was prepared by the sons of the priests 1 Chronicles 9:30.

24. cassia—from the same species of tree as the cinnamon—some think the outer bark of that tree. All these together would amount to one hundred twenty pounds, troy weight.

hin—a word of Egyptian origin, equal to ten pints. Being mixed with the olive oil—no doubt of the purest kind—this composition probably remained always in a liquid state, and the strictest prohibition issued against using it for any other purpose than anointing the tabernacle and its furniture.

Not all of them, but only those who succeed him in the high priest’s office, as appears from Exodus 40:15 Leviticus 4:3,5,16; Exodus 16:32 21:10. This anointing of them signified both God’s election or calling them to this office, and the inward qualifications requisite for it, to wit, the gifts and graces of the Holy Ghost, which are oft designed by this word of anointing, as Isaiah 61:1 Daniel 9:24 1Jo 2:27, and the solemn setting apart of Christ, the true High Priest, for the mediatorial office. And thou shall anoint Aaron and his sons,.... Them alone, and not others, as Aben Ezra, who were typical of Christ anointed with the Spirit of God without measure, to his various offices of prophet, priest and King; and also of all the saints, who are anointed priests to God, to offer up spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God through Christ:

and consecrate them, that they may minister unto me in the priest's office; by anointing them, and by other rites mentioned in the preceding chapter; whereby they were set apart for that office, and were qualified for it, and had authority to exercise it.

And thou shalt anoint Aaron and his sons, and consecrate them, that they may minister unto me in the priest's office.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
30. Aaron and his sons] In Exodus 29:7 (cf. Leviticus 8:12), 29 anointing is prescribed only for Aaron (the high priest), and his successors in the same office: and that originally it was only the high priest who was anointed seems to follow from the fact that he is called distinctively ‘the anointed priest,’ Leviticus 4:3; Leviticus 4:5; Leviticus 4:16; Leviticus 6:22 (cf. Exodus 16:32, Exodus 21:10; Exodus 21:12, Numbers 35:25). The extension of the ceremony to his ‘sons’ (the ordinary priests) must represent a later usage: it is found here, Exodus 28:41, Exodus 40:15, Leviticus 7:36; Leviticus 10:7, Numbers 3:3. It is difficult to resist the inference that these passages belong to a later stratum of P. The reference can hardly be to the sprinkling with oil and blood noticed in Exodus 29:21, Leviticus 8:30; for this is not termed ‘anointing,’ and is subsequent to the anointing proper (Exodus 29:7; Leviticus 8:12).Verse 30 - And thou shalt anoint Aaron, etc. Not till all his surroundings had received sanctification was Aaron to be consecrated. The tent, the ark, the table, the candlestick, the altar of incense, the brazen altar, the laver, and its base, each and all were to be touched with the holy oil, and thereby formally dedicated to God's service (Leviticus 8:10, 11), and then at last was Moses to "pour of the anointing oil upon Aaron's head, and anoint him, to sanctify him" (ib, 12). So God constantly prepares men's spheres for them before he inducts them into their spheres. Even in the next world our Blessed Lord "prepares places for us." The Holy Anointing Oil. - This was to be prepared from the best perfumes ראשׁע בּשׂמים, where ראשׁע, caput, the principal or chief, is subordinate to בּשׂמים), viz., of four fragrant spices and olive-oil. The spices were, (1) liquid myrrh, as distinguished from the dry gum; - (2) קנּמן־בּשׂם, cinnamon of fragrance, the name having been introduced to the Semitic nations along with the thing itself, and then by the Phoenicians to the Greeks and Romans (κίνναμον, cinnamum): whether it came from Ceylon, the great mart of cinnamon, is very doubtful, as there is not word that can be discovered in the Indian dialects corresponding to cinnamon; - (3) cane of fragrance, the κάλαμος ἀρωματικός, calamus odoratus, of the Greek sand Romans, i.e., the scented calamus which is imported from India; - and (4) kiddah, probably cassia, and possibly the species called κιττώ in Dioscor. 1, 12, in which case קציעה (Psalm 45:9) is either the generic name for cassia, or else refers to a different species. The proportion in which these spices were to be taken was 500 shekels or 14 1/2 lbs. of myrrh, half the quantity, i.e., 7 lbs, of cinnamon, and the same of calamus and cassia; in all, therefore, 21 lbs. of dry spices, which were to be mixed with one hin of oil (about 5 quarts) and 14 lbs. of liquid myrrh. These proportions preclude the supposition, that the spices were pulverized and mixed with the oil and myrrh in their natural condition, for the result in that case would have been a thick mess: they rather favour the statement of the Rabbins, that the dry spices were softened in water and boiled, to extract their essence, which was then mixed with oil and myrrh, and boiled again until all the watery part had evaporated. An artificial production of this kind is also indicated by the expressions מרקחת רקח "spice-work of spice-mixture," and רקח מעשׂה "labour (work) of the perfumer or ointment-maker."
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