And you shall anoint Aaron and his sons, and consecrate them, that they may minister to me in the priest's office.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)Thou shalt anoint Aaron.—Comp. Exodus 29:7; Leviticus 8:12.
And his sons.—See Exodus 29:21.
That they may minister unto me.—As Aaron and his sons were unfit to minister until the holy oil had been poured on them, so Christian priests can be no otherwise fitted to discharge their office than by their receiving that effluence of the Holy Spirit which the holy oil typified.
After the art of the apothecary - According to Jewish tradition, the essences of the spices were first extracted, and then mixed with the oil. The preparation of the anointing oil, as well as of the incense, was entrusted to Bezaleel Exodus 37:29, and the care of preserving it to Eleazar, the son of Aaron Numbers 4:16. In a later age, it was prepared by the sons of the priests 1 Chronicles 9:30.
hin—a word of Egyptian origin, equal to ten pints. Being mixed with the olive oil—no doubt of the purest kind—this composition probably remained always in a liquid state, and the strictest prohibition issued against using it for any other purpose than anointing the tabernacle and its furniture.Exodus 40:15 Leviticus 4:3,5,16; Exodus 16:32 21:10. This anointing of them signified both God’s election or calling them to this office, and the inward qualifications requisite for it, to wit, the gifts and graces of the Holy Ghost, which are oft designed by this word of anointing, as Isaiah 61:1 Daniel 9:24 1Jo 2:27, and the solemn setting apart of Christ, the true High Priest, for the mediatorial office.
and consecrate them, that they may minister unto me in the priest's office; by anointing them, and by other rites mentioned in the preceding chapter; whereby they were set apart for that office, and were qualified for it, and had authority to exercise it.And thou shalt anoint Aaron and his sons, and consecrate them, that they may minister unto me in the priest's office.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)30. Aaron and his sons] In Exodus 29:7 (cf. Leviticus 8:12), 29 anointing is prescribed only for Aaron (the high priest), and his successors in the same office: and that originally it was only the high priest who was anointed seems to follow from the fact that he is called distinctively ‘the anointed priest,’ Leviticus 4:3; Leviticus 4:5; Leviticus 4:16; Leviticus 6:22 (cf. Exodus 16:32, Exodus 21:10; Exodus 21:12, Numbers 35:25). The extension of the ceremony to his ‘sons’ (the ordinary priests) must represent a later usage: it is found here, Exodus 28:41, Exodus 40:15, Leviticus 7:36; Leviticus 10:7, Numbers 3:3. It is difficult to resist the inference that these passages belong to a later stratum of P. The reference can hardly be to the sprinkling with oil and blood noticed in Exodus 29:21, Leviticus 8:30; for this is not termed ‘anointing,’ and is subsequent to the anointing proper (Exodus 29:7; Leviticus 8:12).Verse 30 - And thou shalt anoint Aaron, etc. Not till all his surroundings had received sanctification was Aaron to be consecrated. The tent, the ark, the table, the candlestick, the altar of incense, the brazen altar, the laver, and its base, each and all were to be touched with the holy oil, and thereby formally dedicated to God's service (Leviticus 8:10, 11), and then at last was Moses to "pour of the anointing oil upon Aaron's head, and anoint him, to sanctify him" (ib, 12). So God constantly prepares men's spheres for them before he inducts them into their spheres. Even in the next world our Blessed Lord "prepares places for us." Psalm 45:9) is either the generic name for cassia, or else refers to a different species. The proportion in which these spices were to be taken was 500 shekels or 14 1/2 lbs. of myrrh, half the quantity, i.e., 7 lbs, of cinnamon, and the same of calamus and cassia; in all, therefore, 21 lbs. of dry spices, which were to be mixed with one hin of oil (about 5 quarts) and 14 lbs. of liquid myrrh. These proportions preclude the supposition, that the spices were pulverized and mixed with the oil and myrrh in their natural condition, for the result in that case would have been a thick mess: they rather favour the statement of the Rabbins, that the dry spices were softened in water and boiled, to extract their essence, which was then mixed with oil and myrrh, and boiled again until all the watery part had evaporated. An artificial production of this kind is also indicated by the expressions מרקחת רקח "spice-work of spice-mixture," and רקח מעשׂה "labour (work) of the perfumer or ointment-maker."
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