And I am sure that the king of Egypt will not let you go, no, not by a mighty hand.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)I am sure.—Heb., I know, which is more suitable, since it is God who speaks, and to Him the future is known with as absolute a certainty as the past.
No, not by a mighty hand.—Rather, not even under a mighty hand (ne quidem valida manu castigatus, Rosenmüller). Pharaoh, even when chastised by My mighty hand, will not voluntarily permit of your departure (see Exodus 14:5-23).I am sure; I know it infallibly beforehand.
No, not by a mighty hand; though he see and feel the miraculous and dreadful works of a strong, yea, almighty hand, yet he will not consent to your going; which the history makes good. Nor did he let them go till he could hold them no longer, till the fear of his own life, and the clamours of his people, forced him to give way to it. And yet after that he repents of his permission, and laboured to bring them back again. Others, but or except by a strong hand, i.e. except by my almighty power he be forced to it. Both translations come to the same sense.
no, not by a mighty hand; the mighty power of God displayed once and again, even in nine plagues inflicted on him, until the tenth and last came upon him; or "unless by a mighty hand" (d), even the almighty hand of God; prayers, entreaties, persuasions, and arguments, will signify nothing, unless the mighty power of God is exerted upon him.And I am sure that the king of Egypt will not let you go, no, not by a mighty hand.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)19. But I know. The pron. is emphatic.
no, not by a mighty hand] not even when severely smitten by God’s hand,—as in the first nine plagues. But it is strange that the tenth plague (when the Pharaoh did let them go) should be excluded. What we expect (cf. v. 20) is, ‘except by a mighty hand’ (so LXX.); and this ought probably to be read (אם לא for ולא). Mighty hand as Exodus 6:1, Exodus 13:9, Exodus 32:11; Numbers 20:20 (of Edom): and often in Dt. (esp. in the combination ‘a mighty hand and stretched out arm,’ Deuteronomy 4:34, Deuteronomy 5:15 al.).
19–20. But the Pharaoh will not let Israel go, till the Egyptians have experienced the power of Jehovah’s hand.Verse 19. - I am sure. Literally, "I know," a better rendering, since, "I am sure" implies something leas than knowledge. No, not by a mighty hand. Or "not even by a mighty hand." Pharaoh will not be willing to let you go even when my mighty hand is laid upon him. (See Exodus 8:15, 19, 32; Exodus 9:12, 35; Exodus 10:20, 27.) "But by strong hand" (marg.) is a rendering which the rules of grammar do not permit. Genesis 15:7), in this way, אהיה אשׁר אהיה, "I am that I am," and designated Himself by this name as the absolute God of the fathers, acting with unfettered liberty and self-dependence. This name precluded any comparison between the God of the Israelites and the deities of the Egyptians and other nations, and furnished Moses and his people with strong consolation in their affliction, and a powerful support to their confidence in the realization of His purposes of salvation as made known to the fathers. To establish them in this confidence, God added still further: "This is My name for ever, and My memorial unto all generations;" that is to say, God would even manifest Himself in the nature expressed by the name Jehovah, and by this He would have all generations both know and revere Him. שׁם, the name, expresses the objective manifestation of the divine nature; זבר, memorial, the subjective recognition of that nature on the part of men. דּר דּר, as in Exodus 17:16 and Proverbs 27:24. The repetition of the same word suggests the idea of uninterrupted continuance and boundless duration (Ewald, 313a). The more usual expression is ודר ידר, Deuteronomy 32:7; Psalm 10:6; Psalm 33:11; or דּרים דּר, Psalm 72:5; Psalm 102:25; Isaiah 51:8.
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