Ephesians 4:21
If so be that you have heard him, and have been taught by him, as the truth is in Jesus:
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(21) If so be that.—The word is the same which is used in Ephesians 3:2, Colossians 1:23, indicating no real doubt, but only that rhetorical doubt which is strong affirmation.

Ye have heard him . . .—The true rendering here is, ye heard Him, and were taught in Him. St. Paul begins with the first means of knowledge, the “hearing” His voice, directly or through His ministers; and then proceeds to describe the fuller and more systematic process of “being taught,” not “by Him” (as in our version), but “in Him,” that is, in that unity with Him which embraces both teachers and taught as with an atmosphere of His presence.

As the truth is in Jesus.—Here by the name “Jesus,” the personal and proper name of the Lord, St. Paul leads us on from the conception of “learning the Christ,” to understand the method of that learning, in the knowledge of the “truth” in the person of Jesus Himself, who declares Himself to be the Truth (John 14:6). By a loving study and knowledge of His person, as set forth to us in the gospel, and brought home to us by His grace, rather than by abstract musing on the office and attributes of “the Christ,” we come to learn the Christ also. The use of the simple name Jesus, so common in the Gospels, is rare indeed in the Epistles, where we constantly find the fuller description “Jesus Christ,” “the Lord Jesus,” “Jesus the Son of God.” Wherever it occurs, it will be found to be distinctive or emphatic. This distinctiveness is most strikingly evident in Romans 8:11 : “If the Spirit of Him who raised up Jesus from the dead dwell in you, He that raised up [the] Christ from the dead shall also quicken your mortal bodies.” The “raising up of Jesus,” is the historical resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth; the “raising up the Christ” points to the mysterious effect of that resurrection on those for whom He is the Mediator. Of the few other passages in which the simple name occurs, some (as Romans 3:26; 2Corinthians 4:10-11; 1Thessalonians 1:10; Hebrews 10:10) are mere reiterations of the name occurring above with the due title of honour; others are quasi-recitals of a creed declaring the historic Jesus (1Corinthians 12:3; 1Thessalonians 4:14; comp. 2Corinthians 11:4). In the Epistle to the Hebrews, where, in accordance with one main purpose of the Epistle, this usage is least rare (see Hebrews 2:9; Hebrews 6:20; Hebrews 7:22; Hebrews 12:2; Hebrews 12:24; Hebrews 13:12), it will be found that in all cases, either special stress is laid on the lowly and suffering humanity of the Lord, or the historic facts of His ministry on earth are referred to. The modern familiarity of use of the simple name “Jesus” has little authority in apostolic usage.

4:17-24 The apostle charged the Ephesians in the name and by the authority of the Lord Jesus, that having professed the gospel, they should not be as the unconverted Gentiles, who walked in vain fancies and carnal affections. Do not men, on every side, walk in the vanity of their minds? Must not we then urge the distinction between real and nominal Christians? They were void of all saving knowledge; they sat in darkness, and loved it rather than light. They had a dislike and hatred to a life of holiness, which is not only the way of life God requires and approves, and by which we live to him, but which has some likeness to God himself in his purity, righteousness, truth, and goodness. The truth of Christ appears in its beauty and power, when it appears as in Jesus. The corrupt nature is called a man; like the human body, it is of divers parts, supporting and strengthening one another. Sinful desires are deceitful lusts; they promise men happiness, but render them more miserable; and bring them to destruction, if not subdued and mortified. These therefore must be put off, as an old garment, a filthy garment; they must be subdued and mortified. But it is not enough to shake off corrupt principles; we must have gracious ones. By the new man, is meant the new nature, the new creature, directed by a new principle, even regenerating grace, enabling a man to lead a new life of righteousness and holiness. This is created, or brought forth by God's almighty power.If so be that ye have heard him - If you have listened attentively to his instructions, and learned the true nature of his religion. There may be a slight and delicate doubt implied here whether they had attentively listened to his instructions. Doddridge, however, renders it, "Seeing ye have heard him;" compare notes on Ephesians 3:2.

And have been taught by him - By his Spirit, or by the ministers whom he had appointed.

As the truth is in Jesus - If you have learned the true nature of his religion as he himself taught it. What the truth was which the Lord Jesus taught, or what his principles implied, the apostle proceeds to state in the following verses.

21. If so be that—not implying doubt; assuming what I have no reason to doubt, that

heard him—The "Him" is emphatic: "heard Himself," not merely heard about Him.

taught by him—Greek, "taught IN Him," that is, being in vital union with Him (Ro 16:7).

as the truth is in Jesus—Translate in connection with "taught"; "And in Him have been taught, according as is truth in Jesus." There is no article in the Greek. "Truth" is therefore used in the most comprehensive sense, truth in its essence, and highest perfection, in Jesus; "if according as it is thus in Him, ye have been so taught in Him"; in contrast to "the vanity of mind of the Gentiles" (Eph 4:17; compare Joh 1:14, 17; 18:37). Contrast Joh 8:44.

If so be that ye have heard him; either heard Christ speaking to you in the gospel, Hebrews 12:25, and then the sense will be the same as in the following clause; or heard him preached to you, and then it may refer to the outward hearing of the word.

And have been taught by him; or taught in him; in or by, as Colossians 1:16 Hebrews 1:2; and then this relates to the power of the word, and the impression made by it upon the heart: q.d. If ye have not only heard of him by the hearing of the ear, but have been effectually taught by the Spirit to know him, and receive his doctrine, Isaiah 54:13 John 6:45.

As the truth is in Jesus; as it really is, and hath been taught by Christ himself, both in his doctrine and example, viz. what is the true way of a Christian’s living; as in the following verses: see John 17:17 Titus 1:1. If so be that ye have heard him,.... Not heard him preach, but heard him preached; and that not merely externally, with the outward hearing of the ear; though oftentimes spiritual conviction and illumination, true faith in Christ, real comfort from him, and establishment and assurance of interest in him, come this way, as to these Ephesians, Ephesians 1:13 but internally, so as to know him, understand his word, and distinguish his voice; so as to approve of him and love him, and believe in him; feel the power of his Gospel, relish his truths, and obey his ordinances, and so bring forth fruit to his glory; as such do, who are quickened by him, whose ears are unstopped, and their hearts opened, and their understandings enlightened; and who have hearing ears, and understanding hearts given them:

and have been taught by him: not personally, but by his Spirit and ministers; for Christ is not only the subject of the ministry of the word, and whom the Spirit of God teaches and directs souls to for righteousness, pardon, cleansing, and for every supply of grace; but he is the efficient cause of teaching; and there is none who teaches like him: and those who are taught by him, are taught

as the truth is in Jesus; as the Gospel is in him, as in its original and subject; for he is truth itself, and grace and truth came by him; and as it was preached by him, and so is pure and unmixed.

If so be that ye have heard him, and have been taught by him, {d} as the truth is in Jesus:

(d) As they have learned who acknowledge Christ indeed, and in good earnest.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
Ephesians 4:21. Εἴγε] tum certe si, as to which, however, there is no doubt (for Paul himself had preached to them Christ, and instructed them in Christ), introduces, as in Ephesians 3:2, in a delicate way the confirmation of the οὐχ οὕτως ἐμάθετε τὸν Χριστόν: assuming, at least, that ye have heard him and have received instruction in him, as it is truth in Jesus, that ye lay aside, etc., that is: if, namely, the preaching, in which ye became aware of Christ, and the instruction, which was imparted to you as Christians, have been in accordance with the fact that true fellowship with Christ consists in your laying aside, etc.

αὐτὸν ἠκούσατε] to be explained after the analogy of the ἐμάθετε τὸν Χριστόν, Ephesians 4:20; but αὐτόν, like ἐν αὐτῷ subsequently, is prefixed with emphasis.

ἐν αὐτῷ] is neither ab eo (Castalio, Gataker, Flatt), nor de eo (Piscator), nor per eum (Beza), nor “illius nomine, quod ad illum attinet” (Bengel); but it is to be explained from the conception ἐν Χριστῷ εἶναι: in Him, in the fellowship of Christ, that is, as Christians. Observe the progress of the discourse, which passes over from the first proclamation of the gospel (αὐτὸν ἠκούσατε) to the further instruction which they have thereupon received as already converted to Christ (ἐν αὐτῷ ἐδιδαχθ.)—two elements, which were previously comprehended in ἐμάθετε τὸν Χριστόν.

καθώς] in the manner how, introduces the mode of the having heard and having been instructed, so that this ἠκούσατε καὶ ἐδιδάχθητε καθὼς κ.τ.λ. corresponds to the previous οὐχ οὕτως ἐμάθετε τὸν Χριστόν, affirmatively stating what οὐχ οὕτως had indicated negatively.

ἐστιν ἀλήθεια ἐν τῷ Ἰησοῦ] Truth it is in Jesus, that ye lay aside, etc., in so far as without this laying aside of your old man there would be no true, but only an apparent fellowship with Jesus.

ἐν τῷ Ἰησοῦ] Paul passes from the official name Χριστός to the personal name Ἰησοῦς, because he, after having previously recalled the preaching made to the Ephesians and instruction concerning the Messiah, now brings into prominence the moral character of this preaching and instruction, and the moral life of true Christianity is contained in believing fellowship with the historical person of the Messiah, with Jesus (comp. 2 Corinthians 4:10 ff.: for “Christi ideam perfectissime et fulgidissime explevit Jesus,” Bengel), whose death has procured for believers their justification, and by virtue of their fellowship with Him the new life (Romans 6:2-3), so that to be ἐν τῷ Ἰησοῦ with a retention of the old man, would be a contradictio in adjecto—would be untruth, and not ἀλήθεια ἐν τῷ Ἰησοῦ. We may add that this transition, unforced also at Ephesians 1:15, from Χριστός to Ἰησοῦς was not necessary; for, had Paul again written ἐν τῷ Χριστῷ, there would therewith, as before, have been presented to the moral consciousness just the historical Christ Jesus. Comp. Galatians 5:24; Colossians 3:10 f. The accusative with the infinitive ἀποθέσθαι ὑμᾶς depends on ἐστιν ἀλήθεια ἐν τῷ Ἰησοῦ, so that it appears as subject of the sentence (Kühner, II. p. 347 f.). Usually ἀποθέσθαι ὑμᾶς is made to depend on ἐδιδάχθητε, in which case καθώς ἐστιν ἀλήθεια ἐν τῷ Ἰησοῦ is very differently explained. Either it is regarded as a parenthesis (Beza, Er. Schmid, Michaelis), as by Rückert, who takes καθώς augmentatively, so that the sense is: “If ye are rightly instructed concerning Christ, ye have not so learned Him, for that would be false; with Him (there where Christ is, lives and rules) there is, in fact, only truth (moral, religious truth) to be met with.” Or καθώς ἐστιν κ.τ.λ. is attached to ἐδιδάχθητε, and then ἀποθέσθαι ὑμᾶς is taken as epexegesis of καθώς ἐστιν κ.τ.λ., in which case ἀλήθεια in turn is differently explained.[236] Or the connection is so conceived of, that a οὕτως is supplied before ἈΠΟΘΈΣΘΑΙ, in which case Jesus appears as model.[237] So also Harless (followed by Olshausen), who, taking ἀλήθεια as moral truth (holiness), justifies ὑμᾶς from the comparison of Jesus with the readers (“as truth is in Jesus, so to lay aside on your part”), in which case Ἰησοῦ, not Χριστῷ, is held to be used, because the man Jesus is set forth as pattern. Matthies likewise makes ἀποθέσθαι, depend on ἐδιδάχθητε, but annexes καθώς κ.τ.λ. as more precise definition to ἐν αὐτῷ: “in Him, as or in as far as the truth is in Jesus, as He is the truth.” So Castalio appears already to have taken it. But all these explanations break down in presence of the ὑμᾶς, which, if ἀποθέσθαι ὑμᾶς belonged to ἐδιδάχθητε, would be quite inappropriate. In particular, it may be further urged (a) in opposition to Rückert, that according to his explanation the parenthesis καθώς ἐστιν ἀλήθεια ἐν τῷ Ἰησοῦ must logically have had its place already after τὸν Χριστόν; (b) in opposition to Harless, that the alleged comparison of Jesus with the readers is at variance with the order of the words, since Paul must have written: καθὼς ἐν τῷ Ἰησοῦ ἀλήθειά ἐστιν, ὑμᾶς ἀποθέσθαι; (c) in opposition to Matthies, that καθὼς κ.τ.λ. does not stand beside ἐν αὐτῷ, and that ἀλήθεια must have had the article. De Wette explains it to this effect: In Jesus there is (as inherent quality, comp. John 8:44) truth (especially in a practical respect), consequently there is implied in the instructions concerning Him the principle and the necessity of moral change. But even thus we may expect, instead of ἀποθ. ὑμᾶς, merely the simple ἀποθέσθαι. Others have attached ἀποθέσθαι ὑμᾶς to Ephesians 4:17, as continuation of the μηκέτι ὑμᾶς περιπατεῖν κ.τ.λ. (Cornelius a Lapide, Bengel, Zachariae; not Wetstein, who at Ephesians 4:22 merely says “respicit comma 17”), in which case καθώς ἐστιν ἀλήθ. ἐν τῷ Ἰησοῦ is likewise differently understood.[238] But after the new commencement of the discourse ὙΜΕῖς ΔῈ ΟὐΧ ΟὝΤΩς, Ephesians 4:21, this is simply arbitrary and forced. Credner takes a peculiar view (Einl. II. p. 398 f.): “Ye have not thus learned to know the Messiah, provided that ye (as I am warranted in presupposing, for it is only to such that I write) have heard Him and have been instructed in Him, as He as truth (truly, really) is in Jesus.” Thus Paul is held to distinguish his readers from such Gentiles as, won over to faith in the near advent of the world’s Redeemer, had reckoned themselves as Christians, but without believing in Jesus as that Redeemer. But of such Gentiles there is not found any trace in the N.T. (the disciples of John, Acts 19:1 ff., are as such to be reckoned among the Jews); besides, there would lack any attachment for the following ἀποθέσθαι ὑμᾶς, and in using ἈΛΉΘΕΙΑ (instead of ἘΝ ἈΛΗΘ. or ἈΛΗΘῶς) Paul would have expressed himself as enigmatically as possible. Lastly, Hofmann (Schriftbew. II. 2, p. 291), without reason, wishes to attach ἐν τῷ Ἰησοῦ not to ΚΑΘΏς ἘΣΤΙΝ ἈΛΉΘ., but to what follows; the in itself quite general ΚΑΘΏς ἘΣΤΙΝ ἈΛΉΘΕΙΑ stood in need of being characterized definitely as Christian, not the ἈΠΟΘΈΣΘΑΙ Κ.Τ.Λ., as to which it was already implied in the nature of the case and was self-evident.

[236] Camerarius, Raphel, Wolf: “edocti estis … quae sit vera disciplina Christi, nimirum ut deponatis.” Comp. Piscator: “quaenam sit vera ratio vivendi in Jesu tanquam in capite … nempe deponere.” Grotius: “si ita edocti estis evangelium, quomodo illud revera se habet;” so also Calixtus, Koppe, Rosenmüller, Morus, and others.

[237] Jerome led the way with this explanation: “quomodo est veritas in Jesu, sic erit et in vobis qui didicistis Christum.” Subsequently it was followed by Erasmus, Estius (“sicut in Christo Jesu nulla est ignorantia, nullus error, nihil injustum, sed pura veritas et justitia, sic et vos,” etc.), and others, including Storr, Flatt (“as He Himself is holy”), Holzhausen, Meier (ἀλήθεια is Christian virtue, “that ye, as truth in Jesus is, should lay aside”).

[238] Bengel: “ita uti veritas (vera agnitio Dei veri) reapse est in Jesu; qui credunt in Jesum, verant.” Zachariae: “For in what Jesus teaches to us is alone to be found the truth by the heathen … despised.” Both thus explain it, as if ἀλήθ. had the article.Ephesians 4:21. εἴγε αὐτὸν ἠκούσατε: if indeed ye heard Him. On εἴγε, = “if so be that,” “if as I assume it to be the case,” see in Ephesians 3:2 above. In the form of a delicate supposition it takes it as certain that they did hear. The αὐτὸν ἠκούσατε is to be understood as the ἐμάθετε τὸν Χριστόν. The pronoun is placed for emphasis before its verb. The point, therefore, is this—“if, as I take it to be the fact, it was He, the Christ, that was the subject and the sum of the preaching which you heard then”.—καὶ ἐν αὐτῷ ἐδιδάχθητε: and in Him were instructed. ἐν αὐτῷ is not to be reduced to “by Him” (Arm.; also AV “taught by Him”), or “about Him,” or “in His name” (Beng.), but has its proper sense of “in Him”. The underlying idea is that of union with Christ. The ἐδιδάχθητε, therefore, refers probably to instructions subsequent to those which were given them at their first hearing (ἠκούσατε). It was in fellowship with Christ that they received these instructions.—καθώς ἐστιν ἀλήθεια ἐν τῷ Ἰησοῦ: even as truth is in Jesus. WH give καθώς ἐστιν ἀληθείᾳ, ἐν τῷ Ἰησοῦ as a marginal reading. The meaning of the clause is much disputed. That it expresses in some way the manner or standard of the instructions (ἐδιδάχθητε) is clear from the καθώς. But what the point and connection of the clause are it is by no means easy to determine. Wicl. gives “as is truth in Jesus”; AV and other old English Versions, “as the truth is in Jesus,” as if it were ἡ ἀλήθεια. Some dispose of it as a parenthesis (Bez., Rück., etc.), as if = “if ye were so instructed about Christ, that would be false” (as in Him there is only truth, moral and religious truth). Others (Grot., etc.) make it = “as it really is,” i.e., “if ye were instructed in the Gospel as it really is in Jesus”; or (Jer., Erasm., Est., etc.) they supply a οὕτως to the ἀποθέσθαι and understand the καθὼς clause to refer to Jesus as the Pattern of moral truth or holiness. Jerome’s explanation, e.g., is this—quomodo est veritas in Jesu sic erit et in vobis qui didicistis Christum. Somewhat similarly others, connecting it with ἀποθέσθαι, take it to mean that as moral truth is in Jesus, so they on their part are to lay aside the old man (Harl., Olsh., etc.). Or, connecting it with ἐδιδάχθητε, they understand the point to be that they were instructed in a way implying a moral change, as in Jesus there is truth and, therefore, holiness (so de Wette substantially). Meyer makes the ἀποθέσθαι dependent on the καθὼς clause, so that the sense becomes this—“truth it is in Jesus that ye put off the old man”; and Abbott appealing to the use of ἀλήθεια in Ephesians 4:24 and in John 3:21, makes it = “as it is true teaching in Jesus that ye should put off,” etc. All these interpretations involve dubious constructions or impose unjustifiable senses on the ἀλήθεια. Feeling this others have adopted the bolder expedient of making Χριστός the subject of ἐστιν, the sense then becoming “as He (Christ) is truth in Jesus” (Cred., Von Soden). A better turn is given to this by WH, who would read ἀληθείᾳ and so get the sense “as He (Christ) is in Jesus in truth”. In support of this it is urged that the αὐτόν, ἐν αὐτῷ show that Christ, the Messiah, is the leading subject. But this construction means that it was not enough to be instructed in a Messiah; that they had also to recognise that Messiah in the historical Jesus, and that in Him they would see the life which signified for them a putting off of the old man. There is no indication, however, in the context or in any word of Paul’s belonging to this period of a form of false Christian teaching which distinguished between Christ and Jesus, or of Gentiles professing to believe in a Messiah but not in Jesus as that Messiah. It only remains, therefore, to fall back on the interpretation “if ye were instructed according to that which is truth in Jesus”. The clause will then describe the nature or manner of the instruction, as the following clause expresses its substance. In form or character the instruction was in accordance with what was true, with what was true in Jesus, that is to say, with truth as seen embodied in Him (cf. Alf., Ell.). And instruction of that kind meant that they should put off the old man.21. if so be] The Gr. interrogative (used also above, Ephesians 3:2) does not imply any doubt, necessarily, but calls the reader to verify the statement.

have heard him, &c.] Better, as “Him” is emphatic by position, If it was He whom ye heard. The Gr. construction leads us to explain this not of listening to the Lord so much as of hearing about Him, or rather, of hearing “Him” as Truth rather than Teacher. “Christ” had been the Message they had received.—He does indeed, by His Word and Spirit, personally continue the “teaching” which in His earthly ministry He began (Acts 1:1); but that is not the point of the present words.

have been taught by him] Better, if it was in Him that ye were taught. The instruction was “in Christ,” if the teacher’s limit and rule was the truth of His Person and Work, and if those who received it were, by living spiritual union, “in Him,” and so capable of “spiritual discernment” (1 Corinthians 2:14). This clause defines and explains the previous clause.

as the truth is in Jesus] Better, even as in Jesus truth is. See last note, on the relation of spiritual “in-ness” to the standard and reception of spiritual truth. The emphasis here is as if to say, “If you were taught, as I say, in Him; in the lines of eternal fact and spiritual reality which do so truly meet in Him.”—The question arises, why does the Lord’s designation change from “Christ,” Ephesians 4:20, to “Jesus” here? Probably to mark the fact that the prophesied Christ is the historical Jesus.Ephesians 4:21. Εἶγε, if so be that [or rather as the Indic, follows, Since, seeing that ye have heard]) The particle does not diminish, but increases the strength of the admonition.—αὐτὸν, Him) This word, and in [Engl. Vers. by] Him, which presently occurs, are brought in here from the following clause: as you, Galatians 4:11. To hear Christ has a fuller meaning than to hear of Christ.—ἠκούσατε, ye have heard) Even the first hearing about Christ takes away sins.—ἐν αὐτῷ, in Him) i.e. in His name, as to what concerns Him.—ἐδιδάχθητε, ye have been taught) you have received the doctrine. The consequent of hearing and of being taught is to learn [ἐμάθετε, Ephesians 4:20].—καθὼς, even as) i.e. so as: comp. καθὼς, in such a way as, 1 Corinthians 8:2, so, as the truth is really in Jesus. The antithesis is according to, Ephesians 4:22 [your former conversation—according to the deceitful lusts].—ἀλήθεια, the truth) This is opposed to heathen vanity in general, Ephesians 4:17; and is resumed Ephesians 4:24, that it may receive a fuller discussion. Truth, viz. the true knowledge of the true God.—ἐν τῷ Ἰησοῦ, in Jesus) Those who believe in Jesus, speak the truth, 1 John 2:8.Verse 21. - If so be that ye heard him. A word of caution. We are not to assume too readily that we are in a right relation to Christ. We must look within and make sure of that. To hear him, here, is to hear him as his sheep hear his voice and follow him, recognizing the voice of the Shepherd, a voice to be implicitly obeyed. And were taught in him, as truth is in Jesus. The peculiar force of this clause is the double ἐν, not given in the first clause in A.V., thereby obscuring the sense, which is, that all teaching and all truth acquires a different hue and a different character when there is a personal relation to Jesus. Truth apart from the person of Christ has little power; abstract doctrines have little influence; the very atonement may be a barren dogma. But the atonement taught "in Jesus," in connection with the living, loving, dying, risen Savior tells; the blood of redemption in connection with the Son of God incarnate thus loving us, and meekly, patiently suffering the agonies of the cross in our room, is not only a power, but the greatest moral power that can move the heart. If so be that ye heard Him (εἴ γε αὐτὸν ἠκούσατε)

The indicative mood implies the truth of the supposition: if ye heard as ye did. Him is emphatic. If it was Him that ye heard. Compare John 10:27.

By Him (ἐν αὐτῷ)

Rev., correctly, in Him. In fellowship with.

As the truth is in Jesus (καθώς ἐστιν ἀλήθεια ἐν τῷ Ἱησοῦ)

As corresponds with not so. Ye did not in such a manner learn Christ if ye were taught in such a manner as is truth, etc. Render, as Rev., as truth is in Jesus. Schaff paraphrases: "If you were taught so that what you received is true as embodied in the personal Savior." "Taught in the lines of eternal fact and spiritual reality which meet in him" (Moule). Jesus is used rather than Christ: the historical rather than the official name. The life of Christianity consists in believing fellowship with the historic Jesus, who is the Christ of prophecy.

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