Acts 19
Homilies of Chrysostom
And it came to pass, that, while Apollos was at Corinth, Paul having passed through the upper coasts came to Ephesus: and finding certain disciples,
He said unto them, Have ye received the Holy Ghost since ye believed? And they said unto him, We have not so much as heard whether there be any Holy Ghost.
And he said unto them, Unto what then were ye baptized? And they said, Unto John's baptism.
Then said Paul, John verily baptized with the baptism of repentance, saying unto the people, that they should believe on him which should come after him, that is, on Christ Jesus.
When they heard this, they were baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus.
And when Paul had laid his hands upon them, the Holy Ghost came on them; and they spake with tongues, and prophesied.
And all the men were about twelve.
And he went into the synagogue, and spake boldly for the space of three months, disputing and persuading the things concerning the kingdom of God.
"And he went into the synagogue, and spake boldly for the space of three months, disputing and persuading the things concerning the kingdom of God. But when divers were hardened, and believed not, but spake evil of that way before the multitude, he departed from them, and separated the disciples, disputing daily in the school of one Tyrannus."

(a) See him in every place forcing his way into the synagogue, and in this manner departing thence. For in every place, he wished to have the occasion given him by them. [950] (c) He wished to separate the disciples thence, and to have the beginning for ceasing to assemble with them, given by (the Jews) themselves. And it was not for nothing that he did this (b) which I have said. He was henceforth "provoking them to jealousy." For both the Gentiles readily received him, and the Jews, upon the Gentiles receiving him, repented. (a) This is why he continually made a stir among them, [951] "for three months arguing and persuading concerning the kingdom of God:" for you must not suppose because you hear of his "speaking boldly," that there was any harshness: it was of good things that he discoursed, of a kingdom: who would not have heard him? "But when divers were hardened, speaking evil of the way." They might well call it "the way;" this was indeed the way, that led into the kingdom of heaven. "He departed from them, and separated the disciples, disputing daily in the school of one Tyrannus. And this was done for the space of two years, so that all that were in Asia heard the word of the Lord, both Jews and Greeks." (v. 10.) (a) Do you mark how much was effected by his persisting? [952] "Both Jews and Greeks heard: (c) all that dwelt in Asia:" it was for this also that the Lord suffered him not to go into Asia (ch. xvi. 6) (on a former occasion); waiting, as it seems to me, for this same conjuncture. (Hom. xl. p. 245.) (b) "And God wrought special miracles by the hands of Paul: so that from his body were brought unto the sick handkerchiefs or aprons, and the diseases departed from them, and the evil spirits went out of them." (v. 11, 12.) Not touched the wearer only (and so were healed), but also receiving them, they laid them upon the sick (and so healed them). [953] (g) "He that believeth on Me," saith Christ, "doeth greater works than those which I do." (John 14:12.) This, and the miracle of the shadows is what He meant (in those words). (d) "Then certain of the vagabond Jews, exorcists, took upon them to call over them which had evil spirits the name of the Lord Jesus, saying, We adjure you by Jesus whom Paul preacheth." (v. 13.) So entirely did they do all by way of trade! Observe: vagabond, or, itinerant, Jewish exorcists. And to believe indeed, they had no mind; but by that Name they wished to cast out the demons. "By Jesus, whom Paul preacheth." Only see what a name Paul had got! "And there were seven sons of one Sceva, a Jew, and chief of the priests, which did so. And the evil spirit answered and said, Jesus I know, and Paul I know; but who are ye? And the man in whom the evil spirit was leaped on them, and overcame them, and prevailed against them, so that they fled out of that house naked and wounded." (v. 14-16.) They did it in secret: then their impotence is publicly exposed. (f) Then not the Name does anything, unless it be spoken with faith. (h) See how they used their weapons against themselves! (j) So far were they from thinking Jesus to be anything great: no, they must needs add Paul, as thinking him to be something great. Here one may marvel how it was that the demon did not cooperate with the imposture of the exorcists, but on the contrary exposed them, and laid open their stage-play. He seems to me (to have done this) in exceeding wrath: just as it might be, if a person being in uttermost peril, should be exposed by some pitiful creature, and wish to vent all his rage upon him. "Jesus I know, and Paul I know." For, that there may not seem to be any slight put upon the Name of Jesus, (the demon) first confesses (Him), and then has permission given him. For, to show that it was not any weakness of the Name, but all owing to the imposture of those men, why did not the same take place in the case of Paul? "They fled out of that house naked and wounded:" he sorely battered their heads, perhaps rent their garments. (e) "And this became known to all, both Jews and Greeks, that dwelt at Ephesus, and fear fell upon them all, and the name of the Lord Jesus was magnified. And many of them that had believed came confessing and making known their practices." (v. 17, 18.) For since they had got to possess such power as, by means of the demons, to do such things, well might this be the consequence. "And many of them that practised curious arts, brought their books together, and burnt them in the presence of all men;"--having seen that there was no more use of them now that the demons themselves do these things--"and reckoned up the price of them, and found the amount fifty thousand pieces of silver. [954] So mightily grew the word of God and prevailed." (v. 19, 20.) (i) "And" [955] (so) "he disputed," in the school of one Tyrannus for two years:" where were believers, and believers exceedingly (advanced in the faith). Moreover (Paul) writes (to them) as to great men.

(Recapitulation.) (b) "And having entered in to the synagogue," etc. (v. 8.) But [956] why eparresiazeto? It means, he was ready to confront dangers, and disputed more openly, not veiling the doctrines. (a) "But when some were hardened, and spake evil of the way, having departed from them, he separated the disciples." (v. 9.) He put a stop, it means, to their evil-speaking: he did not wish to kindle their envy, nor to bring them into more contention. (c) Hence let us also learn not to put ourselves in the way of evil-speaking men, but to depart from them: he did not speak evil, when himself evil spoken of. "He disputed daily," and by this gained the many, that, being evil intreated and (evil) spoken of, he did not (utterly) break away from them, and keep aloof. (e) The evil-speakers are defeated. They calumniated the doctrine itself; (therefore) so as neither to rouse the disciples to wrath, nor * * them, he withdrew, [957] showing that everywhere alike they repel salvation from them. Here now he does not even apologize, seeing that the Gentiles everywhere have believed. "In the school of one Tyrannus:" it was not that he sought the place, but without more ado where there was a school (there he discoursed). [958] (d) And look, no sooner is the trial from those without over, than this from the demons begins. Mark the infatuated Jewish hardness. Having seen his garments working miracles, they paid no heed to it. What could be greater than this? But, on the contrary, it resulted in just the opposite effect. If any of the heathens believe not, having seen the (very) dust working these effects, let him believe. [959] (f) Wonderful, how great the power of them that have believed! Both Simon for the sake of merchandise sought the grace of the Spirit, and these for this object did this. What hardness (of heart)! Why does not Paul rebuke them? It would have looked like envy, therefore it is so ordered. This same took place in the case of Christ (Mark 9:36): but then the person is not hindered, for it was the beginning of the new state of things: since Judas also is not hindered, whereas Ananias and Sapphira were struck dead: and many Jews even for opposing (Christ) suffered nothing, while Elymas was blinded. "For I am not come," saith Christ, "to judge the world, but that the world might be saved." (John 3:17.) "And seven sons," etc. (v. 14.) See the villany of the men! They still continued to be Jews, while wishing to make a gain of that Name. All that they did was for glory and profit. (g) Look, [960] in every case, how men are converted not so much in consequence of good things as of things fearful. In the case of Sapphira, fear fell upon the Church, and men dared not join themselves to them: here they received handkerchiefs and aprons, and were healed: and after this, then they came confessing their sins. (Hereby) the power of the demons is shown to be a great one, when it is against unbelievers. For why did he not say, "Who is Jesus?" He was afraid, lest he also should suffer punishment; but, that it might be permitted him to take revenge upon those who mocked him, he did this; "Jesus," says he, "I know," etc. He was in dread of Paul. For why did not those wretched men say to him, We believe? How much more splendid an appearance they would have made had they said this, that is, if they had claimed Him as their Master? But instead of that, they spoke even those senseless words, "By Jesus, whom Paul preacheth." Do you mark the forbearance (of the writer), how he writes history and does not call names? This makes the Apostles admirable. "And the evil spirit," etc. (v. 15), for what had happened at Philippi (ch. xvi. 16) had given a lesson to these also. He mentions the name, and the number, thereby giving to the persons then living a credible proof of what he wrote. And why were they itinerant? For the sake of merchandise: not assuredly to bear tidings of the word; how should that be their object? And [961] how ran they anon, preaching by the things they suffered? "Insomuch," it says, "that all that dwelt in Asia heard the word of the Lord." Ought not this to have converted all? And marvel not, for nothing convinces malice. But come now, let us look at the affair of the exorcists, with what an evil disposition (they acted). Why the same was not done in the case of Christ, is an inquiry for another time, and not for the present, save that this also was well and usefully ordered. It seems to me that they did this also in mockery, and that in consequence of this (punishment), none dared even at random to name that Name. Why did this put them upon confession? Because this was a most mighty argument of God's omniscience (therefore), before they should be exposed by the demons, they accused themselves, fearing lest they should suffer the same things. For when the demons their helpers are their accusers, what hope is there thenceforth, save the confession by deeds?

But see, I pray you, after such signs had been wrought, what evils within a short space ensue. Such is human nature: it soon forgets. Or, do ye not remember what has been the case among ourselves? Did not God last year shake our whole city? [962] Did not all run to baptism? Did not whoremongers and effeminate and corrupt persons leave their dwellings, and the places where they spent their time, and change and become religious? But three days passed, and they returned again to their own proper wickedness. And whence is this? From the excessive laziness. And what marvel if, when the things have passed away (this be the case), seeing that, the images lasting perpetually, the result is such? The fate of Sodom--say, does it not still last (in its effects)? [963] Well, did the dwellers beside it become any the better? And what say you to the son of Noah? Was he not such (as he is represented), did he not see with his eyes so vast a desolation, and yet was wicked? Then let us not marvel how, when such things had been done, these Jews (at Ephesus) believe not, when we see that belief itself often comes round for them into its opposite, [964] into malignity; as, for instance, when they say that He hath a devil, He, the Son of God! Do you not see these things even now, and how men are many of them like serpents, both faithless and thankless, men who, viper-like, when they have enjoyed benefits and have been warmed by some, then they sting their benefactors? This we have said, lest any should marvel, how, such signs having been wrought, they were not all converted. For behold, in our own times happened those (miracles) relating to the martyr Babylas, [965] those relating to Jerusalem, those relating to the destruction of the temples, and not all were converted. Why need I speak of ancient things? I have told you what happened last year; and none gave heed to it, but again little by little they fell off and sunk back. The heaven stands perpetually crying aloud that it has a Master, and that it is the work of an Artificer, all this that we see--I mean the world--and yet some say that it is not so. What happened to that Theodorus last year--whom did it not startle? And yet nothing came of it, but having for a season become religious, they returned to the point from which they had started in their attempt to be religious. So it was with the Jews. This is what the Prophet said of them: "When He slew them, then they sought Him, and turned early unto God." (Psalm 78:34.) And what need to speak of those things that are common to all? How many have fallen into diseases, how many have promised, if raised up, to work so great a change, and yet they have again become the same as ever! This, if nothing else, shows that we have natural free-will--our changing all at once. Were evil natural, this would not be: things that are natural and necessary, we cannot change from. "And yet," you will say, "we do change from them. For do we not see some, who have the natural faculty to see, but are blinded by fear?" (True--) because this also is natural: * * if a different (necessity of) nature come not also into operation: [966] (thus) it is natural to us, that being terrified we do not see; it is natural to us that when a greater fear supervenes, the other gives way. "What then," you will say, "if right-mindedness [967] be indeed according to nature, but fear having overpowered it cast it out?" What then if I shall show that some even then are not brought to a right mind, but even in these fears are reckless? Is this natural? Shall I speak of ancient things? Well then, of recent? How many in the midst of those fears continued laughing, mocking, and experienced nothing of the sort? Did not Pharaoh change immediately, and (as quickly) run back to his former wickedness? But here, as if (the demons) knew Him not, they (the exorcists) added, "Whom Paul preacheth," whereas they ought to have said, "the Saviour of the world." "Him that rose again." By this they show that they do know, but they did not choose to confess His glory. Wherefore the demon exposes them, leaping upon them, and saying, "Jesus I know, and Paul I know, but who are ye?" So that not ye are believers, but ye abuse that Name when ye say this. Therefore the Temple is desolate, [968] the implement easy to be overcome. So that ye are not preachers; mine, says he, ye are. Great was the wrath of the demon. The Apostles had power to do this to them, but they did it not as yet. For they that had power over the demons that did these things to them, much more had power over the men themselves. Mark how their forbearance is shown, in that they whom they repulsed do these things, while the demons whom they courted do the contrary. "Jesus," says he, "I know." Be ashamed, ye that are ignorant (of Him). "And Paul I know." Well said, "Think not that it is because I despise them, that I do these things." Great was the fear of the demon. And why without these words did he not rend their garments? For so he would both have sated his wrath, and established the delusion. He feared as I said, the unapproachable force, and would not have had such power had he not said this. But observe how we find the demons everywhere more right minded (than the Jews), not daring to contradict nor accuse the Apostles, or Christ. There they say, "We know Thee who Thou art" (Matthew 8:29); and, "Why art Thou come hither before the time to torment us" (Mark 1:24): and again, "I know Thee who Thou art, the Son of God." And here, "These men are servants of the most high God" (ch. xvi. 17): and again, "Jesus I know, and Paul I know." For they exceedingly feared and trembled before those holy persons. Perhaps some one of you, hearing of these things, wishes he were possessed of this power, so that the demons should not be able to look him in the face, and accounts those saints happy for this, that they had such power. But let him hear Christ saying, "Rejoice not because the demons are subject unto you" (Luke 10:20), because He knew that all men rejoice most in this, through vainglory. For if thou seekest that which pleaseth God, and that which is for the common good, there is another, a greater way. It is not so great to free from a demon as it is to rescue from sin. A demon hinders not to attain unto the kingdom of Heaven, nay, even cooperates, unwillingly indeed, but nevertheless cooperates by making him that has the demon more sober-minded; but sin casts a man out.

But it is likely some man will say, "God forbid it should ever befall me to be sobered in this way!" Nor do I wish it for you, but a very different way, that you should do all from love of Christ: if however, which God forbid, it should so befall you, then even on this behalf I would comfort you. If then the demon does not cast out (from the kingdom of heaven), but sin does cast out, to free a man from sin is greater beneficence.

From this let us study to free our neighbors, and before our neighbors, our own selves. Let us see to it, lest we have a demon: let us examine ourselves strictly. More grievous than a demon is sin, for the demon makes men humble. See ye not those possessed with a demon, when they have recovered from the attack, how downcast they are, of how sad a countenance, how fraught with shame their faces are, how they have not even courage to look one in the face? See the strange inconsistency! While those are ashamed on account of the things they suffer, we are not ashamed on account of the things we do; while they are abashed being wronged, we are not abashed when doing wrong: and yet their condition is not a subject for shame, but for pity and tenderness and indulgence: nay, great is the admiration it calls for, and many the praises, when struggling against such a spirit, they bear all thankfully: whereas our condition in very deed is a subject for ridicule, for shame, for accusation, for correction, for punishment, for the worst of evils, for hell-fire; calling for no compassion whatever. Seest thou, that worse than a demon is sin? And those indeed, from the ills they suffer, reap a double profit: first, their being sobered and brought to more self-control; then, that having suffered here the chastisement of their own sins, they depart hence to their Master, purified. For indeed upon this we have often discoursed to you, that those who are punished here, if they bear it thankfully, may naturally be supposed to put away thereby many of their sins. Whereas from sins the mischief resulting is twofold; first, that we offend; secondly, that we become worse. Attend to what I say. Not this is the only injury we get from sin, that we commit a sin: but another and a worse is this, that our soul receives a habit. Just as it is in the case of the body--for it will be more plain when put in the form of an example--as he who has taken a fever has got harm not only in this respect, that he is sick, but also that after the sickness he is become weaker, even though he may return to health after a long disease: just so in the case of sin, though we may regain health, yet we are far from having the strength we need. For [969] take the case of one who has been insolently abusive: does he not suffer his deserts for his abusive conduct? Aye, but there is another and a worse thing to rue (which is), that his soul is become more insensible to shame. For from each several sin that is committed, even after the sin has been done and has ceased, there remains a kind of venom instilled into our souls. Do you not hear people saying, when they are recovered from sickness, "I dare not drink water now?" And yet the man has regained his health: aye, but the disease has done him this harm also. And whereas those (possessed) persons, albeit suffering ill, are thankful, we, when faring well, blaspheme God, and think ourselves very ill used: for you will find more persons behaving thus in health and wealth than in poverty and sickness. For there stands the demon over (the possessed), like a very hangman, fierce, uttering many (menaces), even as a schoolmaster brandishing the lash, and not suffering them to give way to any laxity. And suppose that some are not at all brought to a sober mind, neither are these liable to punishment; [970] no small thing this: even as fools, even as madmen and children, are not called to account, so neither are these: since for things that are done in a state of unconsciousness, none can be so merciless as to call the doers to account. Why then, in a far worse condition than those who are possessed of evil sprits are we that sin. We do not, indeed, foam at the mouth, nor distort our eyes, or throw about our hands convulsively; but as for this, would that we did it in our body and not in our soul! Will you that I show you a soul, foaming, filthy, and a distortion of the mind's eyes? Think of those who are in a passion and drunken with rage; can any form be filthier than the words they discharge? In very deed it is like a sputtering of noisome slaver. And just as the possessed know none of those who are present, so neither do these. Their understanding darkened, their eyes distorted, they see not who is friend, who foe, who worthy of respect, who contemptible, but they see all alike without a difference. And then, do you not see them, how they tremble, just like those others? But they do not fall to the ground, say you? True, but their soul lies on the ground and falls there in convulsions: since had it stood upright, it would not have come into the condition it is in. Or think you not that it betokens a soul abjectly sprawling and lost to all self-possession, the things men can do and say when drunken with rage? There is also another form of madness worse than this. What may this be? When men cannot so much as suffer themselves to vent their anger, but instead of that nourish within their own bosoms, to their own proper hurt, [971] as it were a very hangman with his lash, the rancorous remembrance of wrongs. For it is a bane to themselves first, the malice that they bear. To say nothing of the things to come, what torture, think you, must that man undergo in the scourging of his soul, as day by day he looks how he may avenge himself on his enemy? He chastises himself first, and suffers punishment, swelling (with suppressed passion), fighting against himself, setting himself on fire. For needs must the fire be always burning within thee: while raising the fever to such a height, and not suffering it to wane, thou thinkest thou art inflicting some evil on the other, whereas thou art wasting thyself, ever bearing about with thee a flame which is always at its height, and not letting thy soul have rest, but evermore being in a state of fury, and having thy thoughts in a turmoil and tempest. What is more grievous than this madness, to be always smarting with pain, and ever swelling and inflamed? For such are the souls of the resentful: when they see him on whom they wish to be revenged, straightway it is as if a blow were struck them: if they hear his voice, they cower and tremble: if they be on their bed, they picture to themselves numberless revenges, hanging, torturing that enemy of theirs: and if, beside all this, they see him also to be in renown, O! the misery they suffer! Forgive him the offence, and free thyself from the torment. Why continue always in a state of punishment, that thou mayest once punish him, and take thy revenge? Why establish for thyself a hectic disease? [972] Why, when thy wrath would fain depart from thee, dost thou keep it back? Let it not remain until the evening, says Paul. (Ephesians 4:26.) For like some eating rot or moth, even so does it gnaw through the very root of our understanding. Why shut up a beast within thy bowels? Better a serpent or an adder to lie within thy heart, than anger and resentment: for those indeed would soon have done with us, but this remains forever fixing in us its fangs, instilling its poison, letting loose upon us an invading host of bitter thoughts. "That he should laugh me to scorn," say you, "that he should despise me!" [973] O wretched, miserable man, wouldest thou not be ridiculed by thy fellow-servant, and wouldest thou be hated by thy Master? Wouldest thou not be despised by thy fellow-servant, and despisest thou thy Master?

To be despised by him, is it more than thou canst bear, but thinkest thou not that God is indignant, because thou ridiculest Him, because thou despisest Him, when thou wilt not do as He bids thee? But that thine enemy will not even ridicule thee, is manifest from hence (that), whereas if thou follow up the revenge, great is the ridicule, great the contempt, for this is a mark of a little mind; on the contrary, if thou forgive him, great is the admiration, for this is a mark of greatness of soul. But you will say, he knows not this. Let God know it, that thou mayest have the greater reward. For He says, "Lend to those of whom ye hope not to receive." (Luke 6:34.) So let us also do good to those who do not even perceive that one is doing them good, that they may not, by returning to us praise or any other thing, lessen our reward. For when we receive nothing from men, then we shall receive greater things from God. But what is more worthy of ridicule, what more paltry, than a soul which is always in anger, and wishing to take revenge? It is womanly, this disposition, it is babyish. For as the babes are angry even with lifeless things, and unless the mother beats the ground, they will not let go their anger: [974] so do these persons wish to revenge themselves on those who have aggrieved them. Why then, it is they who are worthy of ridicule: for to be overcome by passion, is the mark of a childish understanding, but to overcome it, is a sign of manliness. Why then, not we are the objects of ridicule, when we keep our temper, but they. It is not this that makes men contemptible--not to be conquered by passion: what makes them contemptible is this--to be so afraid of ridicule from without, as on this account to choose to subject one's self to one's besetting passion, and to offend God, and take revenge upon one's self. These things are indeed worthy of ridicule. Let us flee them. Let a man say, that having done us numberless ills, he has suffered nothing in return: let him say that he might again frantically assault us, and have nothing to fear. Why, in no other (better) way could he have proclaimed our virtue; no other words would he have sought, if he had wished to praise us, than those which he seems to say in abuse. Would that all men said these things of me: "he is a poor tame creature; all men heap insults on him, but he bears it: all men trample upon him, but he does not avenge himself." Would that they added, "neither, if he should wish to do so, can he:" that so I might have praise from God, and not from men. Let him say, that it is for want of spirit that we do not avenge ourselves. This does us no hurt, when God knows (all): it does but cause our treasure to be in greater safety. If we are to have regard to them, we shall fall away from everything. Let us not look to what they say, but to what becomes us. But, says he, "Let no man ridicule me," and some make a boast of this. O! what folly! "No man," says he, "having injured me, has ridiculed me:" that is, "I had my revenge." And yet for this thou deservest to be ridiculed, that thou didst take revenge. Whence came these words among us--being, as they are, a disgrace to us and a pest, an overthrow of our own proper life and of our discipline? It is in downright opposition to God that thou (so) speakest. The very thing which makes thee equal to God--the not avenging thyself--this thou thinkest a subject for ridicule! Are not we for these things worthy to be laughed at, both by ourselves, and by the heathen, when we thus speak against God? I wish to tell you a story of a thing that happened in the old times (which they tell) not on the subject of anger, but of money. A man had an estate in which there was a hidden treasure, unknown to the owner: this piece of ground he sold. The buyer, when digging it for the purpose of planting and cultivation, found the treasure therein deposited, and came [975] and wanted to oblige the seller to receive the treasure, urging that he had bought a piece of ground, not a treasure. The seller on his part repudiated the gift, saying, "The piece of ground (is not mine), I have sold it, and I have no concern whatever with this (treasure)." So they fell to altercation about it, the one wishing to give it, the other standing out against receiving it. So chancing upon some third person, they argued the matter before him, and said to him, "To whom ought the treasure to be assigned?" The man could not settle that question; he said, however, that he would put an end to their dispute--he would (if they pleased) be master of it himself. So he received the treasure, which they willingly gave up to him; and in the sequel got into troubles without end, and learnt by actual experience that they had done well to have nothing to do with it. So ought it be done likewise with regard to anger; both ourselves ought to be emulous [976] not to take revenge, and those who have aggrieved us, emulous to give satisfaction. But perhaps these things also seem to be matter of ridicule: for when that madness is widely prevalent among men, those who keep their temper are laughed at, and among many madmen he who is not a madman seems to be mad. Wherefore I beseech you that we may recover (from this malady), and come to our senses, that becoming pure from this pernicious passion, we may be enabled to attain unto the kingdom of heaven, through the grace and mercy of His only-begotten Son, with Whom to the Father, together with the Holy Spirit, be glory, might, honor, now and ever, world without end. Amen.


[950] mss. and Edd. Pantachou gar par auton ebouleto labein aphormen, hoper ephen. Ta te gar ethne parezelou loipon kai rhadios k. t. l. In parezelou there is an allusion to Romans 11:14, "if by any means I may provoke them to jealousy:" its subject therefore should be "the Apostle" (nam et gentes exstimulabat jam, Erasm.) "he was henceforth provoking to jealousy, being what he said to the Romans, "If by any means I may provoke," etc., not "the Gentiles," as Ben. makes it, nam gentes jam zelo fervebant. Besides transposing the parts b, c, we read, Parezelou loipon. Ta te gar ethue rhadios....But perhaps it should be Parezelou loipon, hoper ephe "Ei pos parazeloso k. t. l."

[951] Dia touto enochlei (enochlei Sav.) autois sunechos metapeithon, old text, retained by Saville. He is explaining why St. Paul still resorted to the synagogues, though an unwelcome visitant. He wished to separate the Church from the Synagogue: but he would not himself take the first step towards this. It must be the act of the Jews. Therefore until they by their outrageous conduct obliged him to depart, he kept on troubling them with his presence (eisothounta, enochlei). Not that his discourse was harsh: that word, eparres., does not mean this, but that he spoke freely and without reserve. (Recapitulation)--The unusual word metapeithon is probably a corruption of the abbreviation of the text-words, epi menas treis dialeg. kai peithon, which the reporter may have written thus, m. t. peithon.--Mod. text substitutes Dia touto dielegeto autois sunechos hoti epeithe.

[952] poson enusen he epistasia. Cat., apostasia, with reference to apostas in v. 9.--The letters marking the order in which the parts are given in the mss. will show the extreme confusion into which the notes of this Homily have fallen.

[953] Ouchi phorountes heptonto monon. Edd. i. e., "The process was not only this, that persons bearing these things, by touching the sick healed them, but the things themselves simply laid upon the sick were effectual for their healing." But A. C. Cat. phorountos, which is much better: "It was not only that they touched him (the Apostle) wearing these things"--viz. as the woman was healed by touching the hem of Christ's garment--"but receiving them, they laid them upon the sick," etc.--In the next sentence (g), for touto kai to ton skion estin hoper elegen, (which Sav. gives in marg.), Edd. have touto to ton skion ainittomenos, which Ben. renders has umbras insinuans. St. Chrys. elsewhere alleges the miraculous efficacy of St. Paul's garments and of St. Peter's shadow, in illustration of our Lord's saying, t. i. 537. A. t. ii. 53. C.

[954] Ephesus was famous for its sorcerers and magicians. Plutarch and Eustathius speak of Ephesian letters ('Ephesia grammata) which, written on slips, were carried about as charms and had power to assure success and avert disaster. The perierga were arts connected with this sorcery and the books burned contained, no doubt, mysterious sentences and symbols which gave to them an extravagant worth in the eyes of the superstitious. In this way the large price set upon them may be accounted for.--G.B.S.

[955] The meaning seems to be, Such was the effect of his two years' preaching at Ephesus: and his Epistle shows what high attainments in the faith were made by the Ephesians.

[956] The partial restoration which is here attempted implies this scheme of the derangement: 2, 1.: 1, 3, 2, 4: see note 3, p. 252.

[957] hos mete tous mathetas eis thumon egeirai, mete ekeinous anachoresai. Mod. text. transposes eis th. egeirai and anachor. We read anechorese. The verb either to ekeinous or to tous mathetas is probably lost.

[958] Some have supposed Tyrannus to have been a Jewish teacher, who conducted a school in a private synagogue--a Beth Midrash (so Meyer). In this view, Paul and his companions, on account of the opposition which they encountered, separated themselves from the public synagogue, and betook them to this private Jewish school. But Tyrannus is a Greek name and the more common and preferable opinion is that he was a teacher of philosophy or rhetoric who had become a Christian and in whose apartments both Jews and Gentiles could meet without molestation.--G.B.S.

[959] ten konin tauta ergazomenen, pisteueto, B. C. Cat. But A. substitutes koren, Mod. text skian. He seems to allude here to the miracles effected by the very ashes of the martyrs: see e.g. t. ii. 494, A.: and perhaps with reference to these he says, Babai, pose ton pisteusanton he dunamis: unless this be meant as an exclamation of the persons who "took upon them," etc. i. e. Like Simon, they saw the wonders wrought in the name of Jesus; "Wonderful (said they)! Why, what power is exercised by these men who have believed!" namely, by those who by laying the handkerchiefs, etc., upon the sick restored them to health.--Mod. text adds, "that to others also there comes (the power) of doing the same things: and how great the hardness of those who even after the demonstrations of power yet continue in unbelief."

[960] From this point to the end of the Exposition, having in vain attempted to restore the true order, we take it as it lies in the mss. and Edd.--Below, "and after this;" i. e. "yet after this," then these itinerant Jewish exorcists took upon them, etc. and not until after their punishment, when "fear fell upon them all," did those of the professed believers (pon pepisteukoton) who still practiced magic come forward confessing their sins.

[961] Pos de etrechos loipon keruttontes di hon epaschon. The subject to epaschon seems to be "these exorcists" the sons of Sceva: but to etrechonit seems to be "the Apostles." "This made the Apostles wonderful in men's eyes:" they had wrought miracles, and preached two years, "so that all in Asia heard the word of the Lord," yet still these practices continued: but (see) how they ran (what success they had) now, preaching by the things these men were suffering: "and this became known to all the Jews and Greeks also dwelling in Asia, and the name of the Lord Jesus was magnified."--Mod. text, seemingly referring etrechonto the exorcists, reads kalos de etr. And in place of v. 10, gives, "Whence, showing this, it saith, And this became known to all,'" etc. v. 17.

[962] Ben. assigns this to the year 399, and cites the first of the "Eleven Homilies" t. xii. as having been delivered according to St. Chrys. thirty days after that great earthquake, viz., in the year of the fall of Eutropius, therefore a.d. 399. But Ed. Par. justly corrects this mistake: in fact, the seismos of which St. Chrys. there speaks (t. xii. p. 324. A.) is only a metaphor, meaning the catastrophe of Eutropius.

[963] Perhaps with an allusion to Jude ver. 7, "Sodom and Gomorrah--set forth for an example, suffering the vengeance of eternal fire."

[964] Meaning, perhaps, Even when they believe the miracles to be real, that which should have brought them to faith becomes to them an occasion of greater wickedness.

[965] The miracles at Antioch, when at the instigation of the demon (Apollo) the remains of the martyr Babylas were removed by order of Julian. See the Hom. de S. Babyla, t. ii. p. 567.--The Theodorus mentioned below cannot be the lapsed person of that name to whom St. Chrys. addressed the first of the two Par?neses, t. i. init. But probably perusi is corrupt, and the allusion may be to the troubles at Antioch in connection with Theodorus the Sicilian; see p. 238, note 4.

[966] an me phusis hetera proselthe. To complete the sense we must supply, "because this also (the being blinded by fear) is a natural affection: but what I have said is true, viz. that ton kata phusin kai ananken ou dunametha methistasthai, an me k. t. l.

[967] ti oun an kai he sophrosune. This is corrupt or mutilated. The sense requires, "What if in some cases an evil mind' be a natural necessity--as much as seeing or any other natural property or affection, but when there seems to be a change, it is only that fear casts out the evil mind for a while?"

[968] Meaning perhaps, That which should be the Temple of Christ, the body of the believer.

[969] Mod. text, "For look now at some one who has been abusive and has not been punished: not for this only is it a subject for weeping, that he does not suffer the punishment for his abusiveness, but also for another reason it is a subject for mourning. What may this be? That his soul is now become more shameless." But Chrys. is speaking of the immediate evil--here the act of hubris for which the man suffers, or will have to give account hereafter--and the permanent effect, the hexis which every evil act fixes on the soul.--Eteronhere and above we render in its pregnant sense, "other and worse," or, "what is quite another and a more serious thing."

[970] Old text. Ei de tines med' holos nephoien, oude ekeinoi didoasi diken. Sav. and Ben. houto and dosousi. But Par. has resumed the unintelligible reading of mod. text, ei de tines med' houto n., all' oun ekeinoi didoasi diken.

[971] alla triphosi par heautois oikeion kakon, kathaper tina demion ten mnesikakian. Mod. text oikeiakon kath. t. d.

[972] For ti kataskeuazeis hektikon sauto nosema; B. has, ti k. ektekon sauton ;to nosemati, qu? lectio non spernanda, te morbo tabefaciens, Ben. The reading ektekon is explained by the etacism; the ti in nosemati is derived from the following ti boulomenon; hence it was necessary to alter sauto into sauton to. In the following sentence, B. has ti boulomenos, "Why when thou wouldest be quit of it, dost thou keep thine anger?"

[973] Mod. text weakly, "But this I do that he may not laugh me to scorn, that he may not despise me."

[974] Kathaper gar ekeina (meaning ta brephe) kai pros (om. B. C.) ta apsucha orgizetai, kan me plexe to edaphos he meter, ouk aphiesi ten orgen.--Mod. text and Edd. except Sav. omit he meter.

[975] Mod. text followed by Edd. perverts the whole story, making the parties contend, not for the relinquishing of the treasure, but for the possession of it, so making the conclusion (the willing cession of it by both to the third party) unintelligible, and the application irrelevant. The innovator was perhaps induced to make this alteration, by an unseasonable recollection of the Parable of the Treasure hid in a field.--"The seller having learnt this, came and wanted to compel the purchaser apolabein ton thesauron," (retaining apol., in the unsuitable sense "that he, the seller, should receive back the treasure.") "On the other hand, the other (the purchaser) repulsed him, saying, that he had bought the piece of ground along with the treasure, and that he made no account of this (kai oudena logon poiein huper toutou.) So they fell to contention, both of them, the one wishing to receive, the other not to give," etc.

[976] kai hemas philoneikein me amunasthai, kai tous lelupekotas philoneikein dounai diken: as in the story, the parties ephiloneikoun, the one me labein ton th., the other dounai.

But when divers were hardened, and believed not, but spake evil of that way before the multitude, he departed from them, and separated the disciples, disputing daily in the school of one Tyrannus.
And this continued by the space of two years; so that all they which dwelt in Asia heard the word of the Lord Jesus, both Jews and Greeks.
And God wrought special miracles by the hands of Paul:
So that from his body were brought unto the sick handkerchiefs or aprons, and the diseases departed from them, and the evil spirits went out of them.
Then certain of the vagabond Jews, exorcists, took upon them to call over them which had evil spirits the name of the Lord Jesus, saying, We adjure you by Jesus whom Paul preacheth.
And there were seven sons of one Sceva, a Jew, and chief of the priests, which did so.
And the evil spirit answered and said, Jesus I know, and Paul I know; but who are ye?
And the man in whom the evil spirit was leaped on them, and overcame them, and prevailed against them, so that they fled out of that house naked and wounded.
And this was known to all the Jews and Greeks also dwelling at Ephesus; and fear fell on them all, and the name of the Lord Jesus was magnified.
And many that believed came, and confessed, and shewed their deeds.
Many of them also which used curious arts brought their books together, and burned them before all men: and they counted the price of them, and found it fifty thousand pieces of silver.
So mightily grew the word of God and prevailed.
After these things were ended, Paul purposed in the spirit, when he had passed through Macedonia and Achaia, to go to Jerusalem, saying, After I have been there, I must also see Rome.
"After these things were ended, Paul purposed in the Spirit, when he had passed through Macedonia and Achaia, to go to Jerusalem, saying, After I have been there, I must also see Rome. So he sent into Macedonia two of them that ministered unto him, Timotheus and Erastus; but he himself stayed in Asia for a season. And the same time there arose no small stir about the Way."

He sends Timothy and Erastus into Macedonia, but himself remains at Ephesus. Having made a long enough stay in that city, he wishes to remove elsewhere again. But how is it, that having from the first chosen to depart into Syria, he turns back to Macedonia? "He purposed," it says, "in the Spirit," showing that all (that he did) was done not of his own power. Now he prophesies, saying, "I must also see Rome:" perhaps to comfort them with the consideration of his not remaining at a distance, but coming nearer to them again, and to arouse the minds of the disciples by the prophecy. At this point, [977] I suppose, it was that he wrote his Epistle to the Corinthians from Ephesus, saying, "I would not have you ignorant of the trouble which came to us in Asia." (2 Corinthians 1:8.) For since he had promised to go to Corinth, he excuses himself on the score of having loitered, and mentions the trial relating the affair of Demetrius. "There arose no small stir about the Way." [978] Do you see the renown [979] (acquired)? They contradicted, it says: (then) came miracles, twofold: (then) again, danger: such is the way the threads alternate throughout the whole texture (of the history). "For a certain man named Demetrius, a silversmith, which made silver temples of Diana, brought no small gain unto the craftsmen." (v. 24.). "Which made," it says, "silver temples of Diana." And how is it possible that temples could be made of silver? Perhaps as small boxes (kiboria.) [980] Great was the honor paid to this (Diana) in Ephesus; since, when (Hom. in Eph. Prol.) their temple was burnt it so grieved them, that they forbade even the name of the incendiary ever to be mentioned. See how, wherever there is idolatry, in every case we find money at the bottom of it. Both in the former instance it was for money, and in the case of this man, for money. (ch. xix. 13.) It was not for their religion, because they thought that in danger; no, it was for their lucrative craft, that it would have nothing to work upon. Observe the maliciousness of the man. He was wealthy himself, and to him indeed it was no such great loss; but to them the loss was great, since they were poor, and subsisted on their daily earnings. Nevertheless, these men say nothing, but only he. And observe: [981] "Whom having collected, and the workmen of like occupation," having themselves common cause with him, "he said, Sirs, ye know that by this craft we have our wealth" (v. 25); then he brought the danger home to them, that we are in danger of falling from this our craft into starvation. "Moreover ye see and hear, that not alone at Ephesus, but almost throughout all Asia, this Paul hath persuaded and turned away much people, saying that they be no gods, which are made with hands: so that not only this our craft is in danger to be set at naught; but also, that the temple of the great goddess Diana should be despised, and her magnificence should be destroyed, whom all Asia and the world worshippeth. And when they heard these sayings, they were full of wrath, and cried out, saying, Great is Diana of the Ephesians." (v. 26-28.) And yet the very things he spoke were enough to bring them to true religion: but being poor senseless creatures, this is the part they act. For if this (Paul being) man is strong enough to turn away all, and the worship of the gods is in jeopardy, one ought to reflect, how great must this man's God be, and that he will much more give you those things, for which ye are afraid. Already (at the outset) he has secured a hold upon their minds by saying, "This Paul hath turned away much people, saying, that they be no gods, which are made with men's hands." See what it is that the heathen are so indignant at; because he said that "they which be made of men are no gods." Throughout, he drives his speech at their craft. Then that which most grieved them he brings in afterwards. But, with the other gods, he would say, we have no concern, but that "the temple also of the great goddess Diana is in danger to be destroyed." Then, lest he should seem to say this for the sake of lucre, see what he adds: "Whom the whole world worshippeth." Observe how he showed Paul's power to be the greater, proving all (their gods) to be wretched and miserable creatures, since a mere man, who was driven about, a mere tentmaker, had so much power. Observe the testimonies borne to the Apostles by their enemies, that they overthrew their worship. [982] There (at Lystra) they brought "garlands and oxen." (ch. xiv. 13.) Here he says, "This our craft is in danger to be set at naught.--Ye have filled (all) everywhere with your doctrine." (ch. v. 28.) So said the Jews also with regard to Christ: "Ye see how the world is going after Him" (John 12:19); and, "The Romans shall come and take away our city." (ch. xi. 48). And again on another occasion, "These that have turned the world upside down are come hither also." (ch. xvii. 6).--"And when they heard these sayings, they were full of wrath." Upon what was that wrath called forth? On hearing about Diana, and about their source of gain. "And cried out, saying, Great is Diana of the Ephesians. And the whole city was filled with confusion: and rushed with one accord into the theatre." (v. 29). Such is the way with vulgar minds, any trivial occasion shall hurry them away and inflame their passions. Therefore [983] it behooves to do (things) with (strict) examination. But see how contemptible they were, to be so exposed to all (excitements)! "Having caught Gaius and Aristarchus, men of Macedonia, Paul's companions in travel, they dragged them:" (here) again recklessly, just as did the Jews in the case of Jason; and everywhere they set upon them. [984] "And when Paul would have entered in unto the people, the disciples suffered him not," (v. 30) so far were they from all display and love of glory. "And certain of the Asiarchs, which were his friends, sent unto him, desiring him that he would not adventure himself into the theatre" (v. 31) to a disorderly populace and tumult. And Paul complies, for he was not vainglorious, nor ambitious. "Some therefore cried one thing, and some another: for the assembly was confused." Such is the nature of the multitude: it recklessly follows, like fire when it has fallen upon fuel; and the more part knew not wherefore they were come together." (v. 32.) "And they drew Alexander out of the multitude, the Jews putting him forward." It was the Jews that thrust him forward; [985] but as providence ordered it, this man did not speak. "And Alexander beckoned with the hand, and would have made his defence unto the people." (v. 33.) "But when they knew that he was a Jew, all with one voice about the space of two hours cried out, Great is Diana of the Ephesians." (v. 34.) A childish understanding indeed! as if they were afraid, lest their worship should be extinguished, they shouted without intermission. For two years had Paul abode there, and see how many heathen there were still! "And when the town clerk had appeased the people, he said, Ye men of Ephesus, what man is there that knoweth not how that the city of the Ephesians is temple-keeper of the great goddess Diana, and of the image which fell down from Jupiter?" (v. 35.) As if the thing were not palpable. With this saying first he extinguished their wrath. "And of the Diopetes." There was another sacred object (hieron) that was so called. Either he means the piece of burnt earth or her image. [986] [987] This (is) a lie. "Seeing then that these things cannot be spoken against, ye ought to be quiet, and to do nothing rashly. For ye have brought hither these men, which are neither robbers of churches, nor yet blasphemers of your goddess." (v. 36, 37.) All this however he says to the people; but in order that those (workmen) also might become more reasonable, he says: "Wherefore if Demetrius, and the craftsman which are with him, have a matter against any man, the law is open, and there are deputies: let them implead one another. But if ye enquire anything concerning other matters, it shall be determined in a lawful assembly. For we are in danger to be called in question for this day's uproar, there being no cause, for which (matter) we shall not be able to give an account for this concourse." (v. 38-40.) "A lawful assembly," he says, for there were three assemblies according to law in each month; but this one was contrary to law. Then he terrified them also by saying, "We are in danger to be called to account" for sedition. But let us look again at the things said.

(Recapitulation.) "After these things were ended," it says, "Paul purposed in the Spirit, when he had passed through Macedonia and Achaia, to go to Jerusalem," saying, "After I have been there, I must also see Rome." (v. 21.) He no longer speaks here after the manner of a man, [988] or, He purposed to pass through those regions, without tarrying longer. Wherefore does he send away Timothy and Erastus? Of this I suppose he says, "Wherefore when we could no longer forbear, we thought it good to be left at Athens alone. He sent away," it says, "two of those who ministered to him" (1 Thess. iii. 1), both to announce his coming, and to make them more eager. "But he himself tarried awhile in Asia." (v. 22.) Most of all does he pass his time in Asia; and with reason: there, namely, was the tyranny, of the philosophers. [989] (Afterwards) also he came and discoursed to them again. "And the same time" etc. (v. 23), for indeed the superstition was excessive. (a) "Ye both see and hear," so palpable was the result that was taking place--"that not alone at Ephesus, but almost throughout all Asia, this Paul by persuading hath turned away," not by violence: this is the way to persuade a city. Then, what touched them closely, "that they be no gods which are made with hands." (v. 26.) He overturns, says he, our craft: (e) "From this work we have our wealth. Hath persuaded." How [990] did he persuade--he, a man of mean consideration? How prevail over so great a force of habit? by doing what--by saying what? It is not for a Paul (to effect this), it is not for a man. Even this is enough, that he said, "They are no gods." Now if the impiety (of the heathen religions) was so easy to detect, it ought to have been condemned long ago: if it was strong, it ought not to have been overthrown so quickly. (b) For, lest they should consider within themselves (how strange), that a human being should have such power as this, and if a human being has power to effect such things, why then one ought to be persuaded by that man, he adds: (f) "not only is this our craft in danger to be set at naught, but also," as if forsooth alleging a greater consideration, "the temple of the great goddess Diana," etc. (c) "whom all Asia and the world worshippeth." (v. 27.) (g) "And when they heard, they were filled with wrath, and shouted, Great is Diana of the Ephesians!" (v. 28.) For each city had its proper gods. (d) They thought to make their voice a barrier against the Divine Spirit. Children indeed, these Greeks! (h) And their feeling was as if by their voice they could reinstate the worship of her, and undo what had taken place! "And the whole city," etc. (v. 29.) See a disorderly multitude! "And when Paul," etc. (v. 30.) Paul then wished to enter in that he might harangue them: for he took his persecutions as occasions for teaching: "but the disciples suffered him not." Mark, how great forethought we always find them taking for him. At the very first they brought him out that they might not (in his person) receive a mortal blow; and yet they had heard him say, "I must also see Rome." But it was providential that he so predicts beforehand, that they might not be confounded at the event. But they would not that he should even suffer any evil. "And certain of the Asiarchs besought him that he would not enter into the theatre." Knowing his eagerness, they "besought him:" so much did all the believers love him.--"And they drew Alexander," etc. (v. 33.) This Alexander, why did he wish to plead? Was he accused? No, but it was to find an opportunity, and overturn the whole matter, and inflame [991] the anger of the people. "But when they knew that he was a Jew, all with one voice about the space of two hours cried out, Great is Diana of the Ephesians." (v. 34.) Do you mark the inordinate rage? Well, and with rebuke does the town clerk say, "What man is there that knoweth not how that the city of the Ephesians--" (v. 35) (coming to the point) which they were frightened about. Is it this, [992] says he, that ye do not worship her? And he does not say, "That knoweth not" Diana, but, "our city," that it always worshipped her. [993] "Seeing then that these things cannot be spoken against." (v. 36.) Why then do ye make a question about them, as if these things were not plain? (b) Then he quietly chides them, showing that they had come together without reason. "And to do nothing rashly," he says. Showing that they had acted rashly. (a) "For ye have brought hither," etc. (v. 37.) They wanted to make religion the pretext for what concerned their own money-making: (c) and it was not right on account of private charges to hold a public assembly. For he put them to a nonplus, and left them not a word to say for themselves. [994] "There being no cause," he says, "for this concourse, for which" (matter) "we shall not [995] be able to give the account." (v. 40.) See how prudently, how cleverly, the unbelievers (act). Thus he extinguished their wrath. For as it is easily kindled, so also is it easily extinguished. "And when he had thus spoken," it says, "he dismissed the assembly." (v. 41.)

Seest thou how God permits trials, and by them stirs up and awakens the disciples, and makes them more energetic? Then let us not sink down under trials: for He Himself will "also make the way of escape, that we may be able to bear them." (1 Corinthians 10:13.) Nothing so makes friends, and rivets them so firmly, as affliction: nothing so fastens and compacts the souls of believers: nothing is so seasonable for us teachers in order that the things said by us may be heard. For the hearer when he is in ease is listless and indolent, and seems to suffer annoyance from the speaker: but when he is in affliction and distress, he falls into a great longing for the hearing. For when distressed in his soul, he seeks on all sides to find comfort for his affliction: and the preaching brings no small comfort. "What then," you will say, "of the Jews? How was it that in consequence of their weakheartedness, they did not hear?" Why, they were Jews, those ever weak and miserable creatures: and besides, the affliction in their case was great, but we speak of affliction in moderation. For observe: they expected to be freed from the evils that encompassed them, and they fell into numberless greater evils: now this is no common distress to the soul. Afflictions cut us off from the sympathy we have for the present world, as appears in this, that we wish for death immediately, and cease to be loving of the body: which very thing is the greatest part of wisdom, to have no hankering, no ties to the present life. The soul which is afflicted does not wish to be concerned about many things: repose and stillness are all it desired, content for its part to have done with the things present, even though there be nothing else to follow. As the body when wearied and distressed does not wish to indulge in amours, or gormandizing, but only to repose and lie down in quiet; so the soul, harassed [996] by numberless evils, is urgent to be at rest and quiet. The soul which is at ease is (apt to be) fluttered, alarmed, unsettled: whereas in this there is no vacuity, no running to waste: and the one is more manly, the other more childish; the one has more gravity, in the other more levity. And as some light substance, when it falls upon deep water, is tossed to and fro, just so is the soul when it falls into great rejoicing. Moreover, that our greatest faults arise out of overmuch pleasure, any one may see. Come, if you will, let us represent to ourselves two houses, the one where people are marrying, the other where they are mourning: let us enter in imagination into each: let us see which is better than the other. Why, that of the mourner will be found full of seriousness (philosophias); that of the marrying person, full of indecency. For look, (here are) shameful words, unrestrained laughter, more unrestrained motions, both dress and gait full of indecency, words fraught with mere nonsense and foolery: in short, all is ridicule there, all ridiculous. [997] I do not say the marriage is this; God forbid; but the accompaniments of the marriage. Then nature is beside itself in excess of riot. Instead of human beings, those present become brute creatures, some neighing like horses, others kicking like asses: such utter license, such dissolute unrestraint: nothing serious, nothing noble: (it is) the devil's pomp, cymbals, and pipes, and songs teeming with fornication and adultery. But not so in that house where there is mourning; all is well-ordered there: such silence, such repose, such composure; nothing disorderly, nothing extravagant: and if any one does speak, every word he utters is fraught with true philosophy: and then the wonderful circumstance is, that at such times not men only, but even servants and women speak like philosophers--for such is the nature of sorrow--and while they seem to be consoling the mourner, they in fact utter numberless truths full of sound philosophy. Prayers are there to begin with, that the affliction may stop there, and go no further: many a one comforting the sufferer, and recitals without number of the many who have the like cause for mourning. "For what is man?" (they ask) (and thereupon) a serious examination of our nature--"aye, then, what is man!" (and upon this) an impeachment of the life (present) and its worthlessness, a reminding (one another) of things to come, of the Judgment. (So from both these scenes) each returns home: from the wedding, grieved, because he himself is not in the enjoyment of the like good fortune; from the mourning, light-hearted, because he has not himself undergone the like affliction, and having all his inward fever quenched. But what will you? Shall we take for another contrast the prisons and the theatres? For the one is a place of suffering, the other of pleasure. Let us again examine. In the former there is seriousness of mind; for where there is sadness, there must needs be seriousness. He who aforetime was rich, and inflated with his own importance, now will even suffer any common person to converse with him, fear and sorrow, like some mightier fire, having fallen on his soul, and softening down his harshness: then he becomes humble, then of a sad countenance, then he feels the changes of life, then he bears up manfully against everything. But in a theatre all is the reverse of this--laughter, ribaldry, devil's pomp, dissoluteness, waste of time, useless spending of days, planning for extravagant lust, adultery made a study of, practical training to fornication, schooling in intemperance, encouragement to filthiness, matter for laughter, patterns for the practice of indecency. Not so the prison: there you will find humbleness of mind, exhoration, incentive to seriousness, contempt of worldly things; (these) are all trodden under foot and spurned and, fear stands over (the man there), as a schoolmaster over a child, controlling him to all his duties. But if you will, let us examine in a different way. [998] I should like you to meet a man on his return from a theatre, and another coming out of prison; and while you would see the soul of the one fluttered, perturbed, actually tied and bound, that of the other you would see enlarged, set free, buoyant as on wings. For the one returns from the theatre, enfettered by the sight of the women there, bearing about chains harder than any iron, the scenes, the words, the gestures, that he saw there. But the other on his return from the prison, released from all (bounds), will no longer think that he suffers any evil as comparing his own case with that of (those) others. (To think) that he is not in bonds will make him thankful ever after; he will despise human affairs, as seeing so many rich men there in calamity, men (once) having power to do many and great things, and now lying bound there: and if he should suffer anything unjustly, he will bear up against this also; for of this too there were many examples there: he will be led to reflect upon the Judgment to come and will shudder, seeing here [999] (in the earthly prison) how it will be there. For as it is with one here shut up in prison, so in that world also before the Judgment, before the Day that is to come. Towards wife, children, and servants, he will be more gentle.

Not so he that comes from the theatre: he will look upon his wife with more dislike, he will be peevish with his servants, bitter towards his children, and savage towards all. Great are the evils theatres cause to cities, great indeed, and we do not even know that they are great. Shall we examine other scenes of laughter also, I mean the feasts, with their parasites, their flatterers, and abundance of luxury, and (compare with them) places where are the halt and blind? As before, in the former is drunkenness, luxury, and dissoluteness, in the latter the reverse.--See also with regard to the body, when it is hot-blooded, when it is in good case, it undergoes the quickest change to sickness: not so, when it has been kept low. Then let me make my meaning clearer to you:--let there be a body having plenty of blood, plenty of flesh, plump with good living: this body will be apt even from any chance food to engender a fever, if it be simply idle. But let there be another, struggling rather with hunger and hardship: this is not easily overcome, not easily wrestled down by disease. Blood, though it may be healthy in us, does often by its very quantity engender disease: but if it be small in quantity, even though it be not healthy, it can be easily worked off. So too in the case of the soul, that which leads an easy, luxurious life, has its impulses quickly swayed to sin: for such a soul is next neighbor to folly, to pleasure, to vainglory also, and envy, and plottings, and slanderings. Behold this great city of ours, what a size it is! Whence arise the evils? is it not from those who are rich? is it not from those who are in enjoyment? Who are they that "drag" men "before the tribunals?" Who, that dissipate properties? Those who are wretched and outcasts, or those who are inflated with consequence, and in enjoyment? It is not possible that any evil can happen from a soul that is afflicted. (James 2:6.) Paul knew the gain of this: therefore he says, "Tribulation worketh patience, and patience experience, and experience hope, and hope maketh not ashamed." (Romans 5:3.) Then let us not sink in our afflictions, but in all things give thanks, that so we may get great gain, that we may be well-pleasing to God, who permits afflictions. A great good is affliction: and we learn this from our own children: for without affliction (a boy) would learn nothing useful. But we, more than they, need affliction. For if there, when the passions (as yet) are quiet, (chastisement) benefits them, how much more us, especially possessed as we are by so many! Nay, we behoove rather to have schoolmasters than they: since the faults of children cannot be great, but ours are exceeding great. Our schoolmaster is affliction. Let us then not draw it down willingly upon ourselves, but when it is come let us bear it bravely, being, as it is, always the cause of numberless good things; that so we may both obtain grace from God, and the good things which are laid up for them that love Him, in Christ Jesus our Lord, with Whom to the Father, together with the Holy Spirit, be glory, might, honor, now and evermore, world without end. Amen.


[977] 'Enteuthen. If St. Chrys. is rightly reported, he means the second Epistle, which he proceeds to quote from. But that Epistle was plainly not written apo 'Ephesou. Perhaps what he said was to this effect: "At this point I suppose it was--viz. after the mission of Timothy and Erastus--that he wrote (his first Epistle) to the Corinthians from Ephesus: and in the second Epistle he alludes to the great trial which ensued in the matter of Demetrius. He had promised to come to Corinth sooner, and excuses himself on the score of the delay." But ta kata Demetrion diegoumenos can hardly be meant of St. Paul: it should be ainittomenos.

[978] The use of he hodos without further definition, to represent the Christian religion, is peculiar to the Acts (ix. 2; Acts 19:9, 23, Acts 24:22). Kuriou or soterias would express the omitted defining idea.--G.B.S.

[979] Oras ten eudokimesin; This seems to refer to v. 17-20. "But see how successes and trials here, as all along, alternate. Then the Jews contradicted: (v. 9) then miracles, twofold, (11-12 and 13-19): now again (after that eudokimesis), danger."--Here the mss. and Edd. give v. 24-27, which we have distributed to their proper places.

[980] These silver "temple" (naous) were shrines, small models of the temple containing images of the goddess, which pilgrims to the temple purchased and carried away and probably used in their homes as objects of domestic worship.--G.B.S.

[981] Kai hora koinonous ontas autous; eita ton kindunon epestesen (so Cat. C. -san, A. B. epetesen). Mod. text, "But being themselves partners of the craft, he takes them as partners also of the riot. Then also he exaggerated (euxesen) the danger, adding. This our craft is in danger of coming into contempt. For this is pretty nearly what he declares by this, that from this art," etc.

[982] hoti kathairon (Cat. hote ekatheroun) auton ta sebasmata, ekei stemmata kai taurous prosepheron; entautha phesin hoti kinduneuei k. t. l. These seem to be only rough notes or hints of what Chrys. said. The first words kath. auton ta seb. look like a reference to Acts 17:23, anatheoron ta sebasmata humon: "thus at Athens, surveying the objects of their worship, and finding an Altar, etc. he thence takes occasion to preach the Unknown God. At Lystra, they brought garlands and oxen, and the Apostles thereupon, etc. Therefore these men here might well say, Our craft is in danger. For it was true, as was said on another occasion (at Jerusalem), Ye have filled, etc.: and, They that have turned the world, etc. Nay, of Christ also the Jews said the same, The world is going after Him."

[983] Dia tauta met' exetaseos dei poiein, Mod. text adds panta. This sentence, om. by A., seems to be out of place, and to belong rather to v. 36. We have transposed the text v. 28, 29, which in mss. and Edd. is given after hos pasi prokeisthai.

[984] kai pantachou autois prokeintai. To make some sense of the passage, we adopt proskeintai from B. We also transpose v. 30 which is given with 31 after the following sentence.

[985] Proebalonto 'Ioudaioi oikonomikos de (supplied by Cat.) houtos ouk ephthenxato. Mod. text "The Jews thrust him forward, as Providence ordered it, that they might not have (it in their power) to gainsay afterwards. This man is thrust forward, and speaks: and hear what (he says)."

[986] Old text: Ieron heteron houtos ekaleito--meaning, as we take it, the Palladium of Troy, which was also called "the Diopetes," to Palladion to Diopetes kaloumenon, Clem. Alex. Protrept. iv. 47.--etoi to ostrakon autes phesin. Something more is needed, therefore we supply e to agalma autes phesin. But hieron in this sense is not usual. Ostrakon, whatever it mean, cannot be the image of Diana, which was known to be of wood. The passage seems to be corrupt, and one might conjecture that hieron heteron relates to "another Temple" of Diana built after the first which was burned by Herostratos, and that the name of this man is latent in the unintelligible etoitoostrakon, and that Chrysostom's remark is this, that together with that former Temple perished the original Diopetes: so that to speak of that image as still in being was a lie (touto pseudos)--Mod. text "But a different hieron was thus called diopetes: either then the idol of Diana they called Diopetes, hos ek tou Dios to ostrakon ekei nopeptokos, and not made by man: or a different agalmawas thus called among them."--Isidore of Pelus. in the Catena: "Some say that it is spoken of the image of Diana, i. e. (a worshipper) of the great Diana and of her diopetes agalma:' some that the Palladium also (is here named as diop.), i. e. the image of Minerva, which they worshipped along with Diana." Ammonius ibid., "the naos tou Dios: or the stronguloeides"--meaning the ostrakon?--"or rather, which is the true explanation, this image of Diana: or the Palladium, which they thought came from Jupiter, and was not the work of men." OEcum. gives the same variety of explanations, from the Catena. The words touto pseudos, which in the mss. follow the text v. 36, 37, are better referred to the Diopetes, as in our translation.--Mod. text ara to pan pseudos: and then, "these things however he says to the people, in order that those also," etc. omitting de preserved by the old text.

[987] This Diopetes, the image which was supposed to have fallen down from Jupiter or heaven (Dios--pipto), was the image of Diana which was in the great temple at Ephesus. This was the superstitious belief of the people as is clear from the many instances in classic mythology in which statues are famed to have fallen from heaven. This image was of wood and was probably found there by the Greeks when they colonized Ionia.--G.B.S.

[988] i. e. In this, he prophesies (see above on this verse): but in his purpose of going to Jerusalem from Achaia, he was disappointed, for he had to return through Macedonia: e proeileto, i. e. this is the meaning of etheto en pneumati. Mod. text om. ouketi enchronisas, and adds: "for this is the meaning of etheto, and such is the force of the expression." Then: "But why he sends away T. and E., the writer does not say: but it seems to me that of this also he says, 'En pneumati. Wherefore when," etc.--The meaning is: "He sends them away on this occasion, as he did at Athens: viz. because he could no longer forbear, therefore he thought it good to be left alone."

[989] ekei gar en he turannis (mod. text he polle phatria) ton philosophon. But this seems to belong rather to Athens.

[990] Mod. text inserts for connection: "And if from this work wealth accrues to you, how hath he persuaded," etc.

[991] ekkausai. Erasm. ut et confutaret totum et furorem populi extingueret. Ben. subverteret....extingueret. But ekkausai will not bear this sense, nor does the context suggest it. Alexander's object, it is represented, was to overthrow the preaching, and kindle the rage of the people yet more.--Cat. and Sav. marg. helkusai.

[992] Mod. text "As if he had said, Do ye not worship her?"

[993] Mod. text "But, Our city, paying court to them: therapeuon autous:" for which the old text has, But, Your city. 'Etherapeusen auten. Which may mean, Thus he, the town clerk, paid homage to the city, by speaking of its honors. But therapeuete auten in the preceding sentence requires the sense given in the translation.

[994] Sphodra gar autous elogesen kai dieporesen. Mod. text Touto sph. autous diep., omitting, elogesen, which, if not corrupt is here put in an unusual sense.

[995] ou dunesometha old text, here and above, as in the Alexandrine ms. of the N. T. (received by Griesbach) but here with tes sustr. t. transposed. (If the negative be retained, it is better to read peri tes s. t. as in the leading authorities of the text: so that this clause is epexegetical to peri hou; for which, namely, for this concourse.)

[996] tarachtheisa B. The other mss. taricheutheisa, which is unsuitable here.

[997] holos ouden heteron he panta gelos kai katagelos ta ekei.

[998] C., 'All' ei boulei palin pollous exetasomen topous; B., 'Alla palin ei boulei heterous exet. topous. Mod. text 'All' ei b., palin heteros exet. tous autous topous. In the Translation we adopt heteros and omit topous.

[999] The text is corrupt: kai phrixei tous topous--perhaps it should be tous ekei topous--entautha horon; kathaper, gar entautha en desmoteri& 251; tunchanon houto kakei pro tes kriseos pro tes mellouses hemeras, sc. phrixei. i. e. "just as here, being shut up in prison he looks forward with dread to the coming trial, so will he in that world," etc. Mod. text quite misrepresenting the sense: "For, as he that is here shut up in prison is gentle towards all, so those also before the Judgment, before the coming Day, will be more gentle," etc.

So he sent into Macedonia two of them that ministered unto him, Timotheus and Erastus; but he himself stayed in Asia for a season.
And the same time there arose no small stir about that way.
For a certain man named Demetrius, a silversmith, which made silver shrines for Diana, brought no small gain unto the craftsmen;
Whom he called together with the workmen of like occupation, and said, Sirs, ye know that by this craft we have our wealth.
Moreover ye see and hear, that not alone at Ephesus, but almost throughout all Asia, this Paul hath persuaded and turned away much people, saying that they be no gods, which are made with hands:
So that not only this our craft is in danger to be set at nought; but also that the temple of the great goddess Diana should be despised, and her magnificence should be destroyed, whom all Asia and the world worshippeth.
And when they heard these sayings, they were full of wrath, and cried out, saying, Great is Diana of the Ephesians.
And the whole city was filled with confusion: and having caught Gaius and Aristarchus, men of Macedonia, Paul's companions in travel, they rushed with one accord into the theatre.
And when Paul would have entered in unto the people, the disciples suffered him not.
And certain of the chief of Asia, which were his friends, sent unto him, desiring him that he would not adventure himself into the theatre.
Some therefore cried one thing, and some another: for the assembly was confused; and the more part knew not wherefore they were come together.
And they drew Alexander out of the multitude, the Jews putting him forward. And Alexander beckoned with the hand, and would have made his defence unto the people.
But when they knew that he was a Jew, all with one voice about the space of two hours cried out, Great is Diana of the Ephesians.
And when the townclerk had appeased the people, he said, Ye men of Ephesus, what man is there that knoweth not how that the city of the Ephesians is a worshipper of the great goddess Diana, and of the image which fell down from Jupiter?
Seeing then that these things cannot be spoken against, ye ought to be quiet, and to do nothing rashly.
For ye have brought hither these men, which are neither robbers of churches, nor yet blasphemers of your goddess.
Wherefore if Demetrius, and the craftsmen which are with him, have a matter against any man, the law is open, and there are deputies: let them implead one another.
But if ye inquire any thing concerning other matters, it shall be determined in a lawful assembly.
For we are in danger to be called in question for this day's uproar, there being no cause whereby we may give an account of this concourse.
And when he had thus spoken, he dismissed the assembly.
The Homilies of St. John Chrysostom
Text Courtesy of Christian Classics Etherial Library.

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