Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament
And he began again to teach by the sea side: and there was gathered unto him a great multitude, so that he entered into a ship, and sat in the sea; and the whole multitude was by the sea on the land.Mark 4:1. Ἤρξατο, He began) After the interruption.—παρὰ, near [by the sea side]) The words in antithesis are, near the sea, and in the sea.
And he taught them many things by parables, and said unto them in his doctrine,
Hearken; Behold, there went out a sower to sow:Mark 4:3. Ἀκούετε, Hearken) A word pronounced in a loud voice, in order to still the noise among the people, lest the beginning itself of His discourse should be lost [Mark especially commends the hearing of the word, Mark 4:24-25; Mark 4:33.—V. g.]
And it came to pass, as he sowed, some fell by the way side, and the fowls of the air came and devoured it up.
And some fell on stony ground, where it had not much earth; and immediately it sprang up, because it had no depth of earth:
But when the sun was up, it was scorched; and because it had no root, it withered away.
And some fell among thorns, and the thorns grew up, and choked it, and it yielded no fruit.
And other fell on good ground, and did yield fruit that sprang up and increased; and brought forth, some thirty, and some sixty, and some an hundred.Mark 4:8 Ἐδίδου, yielded: ἔφερεν, brought forth) The subject is ἄλλο, some: comp. Mark 4:4-7.—ἀναβαίνοντα, springing up) above all obstacles.
 So ADab Vulg. and Lachm. But ἄλλα BCL Memph. Tischend.—ED.
And he said unto them, He that hath ears to hear, let him hear.Mark 4:9. Ἔλεγεν, He said) Frequent pauses are interposed in the case of the weightiest discourses like this: Mark 4:13; Mark 4:21; Mark 4:24; Mark 4:26; Mark 4:30.
And when he was alone, they that were about him with the twelve asked of him the parable.Mark 4:10. Οἱ περὶ αὐτὸν, they that were about Him) Who enjoyed the privilege of the first admission to His presence: ch. Mark 3:34.
And he said unto them, Unto you it is given to know the mystery of the kingdom of God: but unto them that are without, all these things are done in parables:Mark 4:11. Ἔλεγεν, He said) With hearty good-will [with real pleasure].—ἔξω, without) outside of the circle of genuine discipleship. [In antithesis to Mark 4:10 (They that were about Him with the twelve).—V. g.]—γίνεται) Fall to [are done as concerns] them as parables.
That seeing they may see, and not perceive; and hearing they may hear, and not understand; lest at any time they should be converted, and their sins should be forgiven them.Mark 4:12. Ἵνα, that) They already before saw not, Matthew 13:13. Now there is added [to their voluntary blindness] divinely—sent judicial blindness.—ἵνα, so that: LXX. Genesis 22:14.—καὶ ἀφεθήσεται αὐτοῖς τὰ ἁμαρτήματα, and their sins should be forgiven them) This is the true healing, spoken of Matthew 13:15; Psalm 103:3.
And he said unto them, Know ye not this parable? and how then will ye know all parables?Mark 4:13. Οὐκ οἴδατε, do ye not know) Jesus marks with reproof the question of the disciples.—καὶ πῶς, and how then) The parable concerning the seed is the primary and foudamental one [the foundation of all the others].—πάσας, all) constituting and comprising the perfect doctrine of Christ.
The sower soweth the word.Mark 4:14. Ὁ σπείρων the sower) Christ is the sower. Peter, Paul, and others, sow the seed of Christ, and are servants of Christ.
And these are they by the way side, where the word is sown; but when they have heard, Satan cometh immediately, and taketh away the word that was sown in their hearts.Mark 4:15. Ὅπου σπείρεται ὁ λόγος, where the word is sown) This clause is rather to be connected with what follows.—εὐθέως, immediately) Satan’s most favourite time for lying in wait.—ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις, in their hearts) This means more than into their hearts.
And these are they likewise which are sown on stony ground; who, when they have heard the word, immediately receive it with gladness;Mark 4:16-17. Εὐθέως, immediately) Great changes can take place in the soul very speedily.
And have no root in themselves, and so endure but for a time: afterward, when affliction or persecution ariseth for the word's sake, immediately they are offended.
And these are they which are sown among thorns; such as hear the word,
And the cares of this world, and the deceitfulness of riches, and the lusts of other things entering in, choke the word, and it becometh unfruitful.Mark 4:19. Αἱ περὶ τὰ λοιπὰ ἐπιθυμίαι, the lusts of other things) the pleasures of life, in Luke 8:14 : in one’s mode of living, loves, tastes for literature, etc.—εἰσπορευόμεναι, entering in) He who hath received the word of God, ought to see, lest the cares of the world wax strong upon him, and take more violent hold, than even before, of his new-born expansion of soul and his mental affections, which have been rendered more enlarged by means of the word of God.—γίνεται, it becometh) viz. the word.
And these are they which are sown on good ground; such as hear the word, and receive it, and bring forth fruit, some thirtyfold, some sixty, and some an hundred.Mark 4:20. Ἓν, the one) Accusative.
 Lachm. reads, with Rec. Text, ἓν, and so Vulg. But Tischend., with all the uncials which have accents, being of later date, ἐν.—ED.
And he said unto them, Is a candle brought to be put under a bushel, or under a bed? and not to be set on a candlestick?Mark 4:21. Καὶ, and) Mark 4:24 is closely connected with Mark 4:20, and those that go before: therefore also this comes in between parenthetically; comp. Luke 8:16. In this sense, the earth covers for a considerably long time the seed committed to it; whereas you, on the contrary, ought to put forth into action the power of the word, which you have heard, immediately upon hearing it.—ὁλύχνος, a candle [torch-light]) So also Christ comes, together with His Gospel, as the true light. And a man himself ought to be, not the bushel, but the candlestick; comp. Luke 8:16-18.—κλίνην, a couch [not as Engl). Vers.,  ) where food is taken.
 Vercellensis of the old ‘Itala,’ or Latin Version before Jerome’s, probably made in Africa, in the second century: the Gospels.
 Veronensis, do.
 Laudianus, do.: Acts.
 Cantabrigiensis, do.: the Gospels, Acts , , 3 d Ep. John.
For there is nothing hid, which shall not be manifested; neither was any thing kept secret, but that it should come abroad.Mark 4:22. Οὐ γὰρ ἐστί τι κρυπτὸν—οὐδὲ ἐγένετο ἀπόκρυφον, for there is nothing hidden—nor has anything become concealed) There is a difference both in the verbs is, implying that it was so naturally, and has become, implying intentional concealment, and also in the nouns [adjectives] used; comp. κρυπτὰ, 1 Corinthians 4:5, and ἀπόκρυφοι, Colossians 2:3; to which corresponds the difference which is made in the corresponding antithesis, between φανερωθῇ, be manifested, and ἔλθῃ εἰς φανερὸν, come to be manifested; the former referring to manifestation by constraint, the latter to manifestation of its own accord, when it is ripe for manifestation. Therefore the former sentence can be understood of what is bad, the second sentence of what is good. This axiom holds good of the things in nature, of the feelings and actions of men, whether good or bad, in a natural condition or in a spiritual condition; as also of the divine mysteries.—ἐγένετο, has become [“was kept,” Engl. Vers.]) The subject is τὶ, anything, to be repeated from the previous sentence: the predicate is, hidden out of sight, ἀπόκρυφον.—ἔλθῃ, come) of its own accord; comp. John 3:21. This is done in successive stages in this present order of things; and it shall be done fully, when the light shall make manifest all secrets on the last day; 1 Corinthians 4:5.
 So Latin conditus, ‘hidden,’ whether undesignedly or otherwise: absconditus, “hidden out of sight,” by design.—ED.
If any man have ears to hear, let him hear.Mark 4:23. Εἴ τις, if any man) Therefore it is not every one that hath them.
And he said unto them, Take heed what ye hear: with what measure ye mete, it shall be measured to you: and unto you that hear shall more be given.Mark 4:24. Βλέπετε τί ἀκούετε, See [take heed], what ye hear) The seeing organ, which is the more noble sense, directs and modifies the impressions of the hearing: it is the eye, not the ear, that can move itself.—τί, what) We are hearing the word, which is the word of God; account that as a high privilege: Or else the what is to be resolved into the how of Luke: see to it, what kind of a hearing you render to the word.—ἐν ᾧ μέτρῳ, with what measure) The measure alluded to is the heart, with its capabilities, desires, anxiety to impart blessings received to others, and obedience.—προστεθήσεται, it shall be added [more shall be given]) That ye may be not only hearers, but partakers.—τοῖς) as concerns the hearers; comp. on Romans 2:8, as respects such datives. [Engl. Vers. makes the dat. follow προστεθ., “more shall be given to you that fear.”]
 The margin of both editions had left the reader to decide as to the omission of this clause, τοῖς ἀκούουσιν. The Gnomon and Vers. Germ. retain it.—E. B.
BCDGLΔc Vulg. omit it. However A, with Rec. Text, supports it.—ED.
For he that hath, to him shall be given: and he that hath not, from him shall be taken even that which he hath.
And he said, So is the kingdom of God, as if a man should cast seed into the ground;Mark 4:26. Ἄνθρωπος, a man) With this man God and Christ are compared, with a view to describe the several ages and grades [stages of progress] of the whole Christian Church; comp. Mark 4:29.
And should sleep, and rise night and day, and the seed should spring and grow up, he knoweth not how.Mark 4:27. Καθεύδῃ καὶ ἐγείρηται, should sleep and rise) With these two verbs are connected by Chiasmus [See Append.] the nouns night and day [sleep referring to night; rise, to day]. Moreover, sometimes night is wont to be put before day, as in Genesis 1 [The evening and the morning were the first day, Mark 4:5].—οὐκ οἶδεν αὐτὸς, he knoweth not himself) After the safeguards of grace have been conferred on men, God leaves them in some measure to themselves. Yet this clause may be made to refer to the believing man himself; and then, of its own accord, in Mark 4:28, is opposed to man’s care, not to the cultivation of the earth.
For the earth bringeth forth fruit of herself; first the blade, then the ear, after that the full corn in the ear.Mark 4:28. Αὐτομάτη, of its own accord) This is not to the exclusion of cultivation of the land, the rain from heaven, and the sun’s beams. [But there is also intimated a freedom of increasing and growing, either in good or evil, granted by the Lord of the land to the man.—V. g.]—χόρτον, the blade) the grass-like young shoot; so in the commencement spiritual virtues [graces] are scarcely to be distinguished from natural ones.—εἶτα, then next) Marvellous is the process of the successive increase: this shall hereafter be made manifest.
But when the fruit is brought forth, immediately he putteth in the sickle, because the harvest is come.Mark 4:29. Παραδῷ, shall have yielded) this also of its own accord [Mark 4:28]. Supply itself.—εὐθέως, immediately) As before he did not put in the sickle too soon, so now he does not put it in too late.—ἀποστέλλει, He sendeth) An abbreviated expression for, He sendeth, viz. men furnished with a sickle: for ἀποστέλλεσθαι is properly applied to a living person [agent].
And he said, Whereunto shall we liken the kingdom of God? or with what comparison shall we compare it?Mark 4:30. Τίνι ὁμοιώσωμεν, whereunto shall we liken) The plural; comp. John 3:11.
It is like a grain of mustard seed, which, when it is sown in the earth, is less than all the seeds that be in the earth:Mark 4:31. Ὡς κόκκον, as a grain) viz. let us compare [Mark 4:30] it.—ΜΙΚΡΌΤΕΡΟς) less.
 BDΔ read κόκκῳ, and so Tischend. But AC Vulg. bc, κόκκον and so Lachm.—ED.
Mark 4:31-32. Ὅταν σπαρῇ, when it has been sown) This clause, being placed twice, exactly defines that time when the grain ceases to be small, and begins to become great in size. In Mark 4:31, the emphasis in pronunciation is to be laid on the when, and in Mark 4:32, on the words, it has been sown.
But when it is sown, it groweth up, and becometh greater than all herbs, and shooteth out great branches; so that the fowls of the air may lodge under the shadow of it.
And with many such parables spake he the word unto them, as they were able to hear it.Mark 4:33. Καθὼς ἠδύναντο ἀκούειν, according as they were able to hear) They did not admit in their then state to have the truth more openly spoken to them.
But without a parable spake he not unto them: and when they were alone, he expounded all things to his disciples.
And the same day, when the even was come, he saith unto them, Let us pass over unto the other side.Mark 4:35. Ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ, on that day) See App. Crit. Ed. ii. on this passage. The pronoun ἐκείνῃ, that, does not denote precisely that day on which the Saviour put forth the parables of the sower and the rest of the parables, as Grotius, besides other commentators, acknowledge; but, with less definiteness, is to be referred to a day marked in the former course of this gospel, namely, ch. Mark 2:1. So Jdg 13:10, ביום, LXX. ἐν ἡμέρᾳ, or, as it is better read in the Cod. Alex. τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ. So Matthew 24:48, ὁ κακὸς δοῦλος ἐκεῖνος. And indeed Mark applies ἐκεῖνος in various senses; see notes ch. Mark 2:20, Mark 13:24. As to the time of this voyage, comp. Harmon. Evang. § 49.
 Where the more immediate antecedent to ἐκεῖνος is the faithful and wise servant, and the antecedent intended must be supplied from the course of the previous discourse, Mark 4:38-39, etc.—ED.
And when they had sent away the multitude, they took him even as he was in the ship. And there were also with him other little ships.Mark 4:36. Παραλαμβάνουσιν, they take Him with them) i.e. they to whom the ship belonged took Him with them to cross the lake.—ὡς ἦν, as He was) Without any sumptuous preparation [or equipment]; Matthew 8:20. So the LXX., ὥς ἐστιν, and ὡς ἦσαν, 2 Kings 7:7.—πλοιάρια, little ships) and in them men.—μετʼ Αὐτοῦ, with Him) with Jesus.
And there arose a great storm of wind, and the waves beat into the ship, so that it was now full.Mark 4:37. Ααῖλαψ) i.e. κίνησις νεφῶν καὶ ταραχὴ μετὰ εὐδίαν, κ.τ.λ., An agitation and commotion of the clouds after a calm [fair weather].—Eustathius.—ἐπέβαλεν, dashed into) viz. dashed themselves into.
And he was in the hinder part of the ship, asleep on a pillow: and they awake him, and say unto him, Master, carest thou not that we perish?Mark 4:38. Πρύμνῃ, the stern) where the helm is.—τὸ προσκεφάλαιον, the pillow) This was a part of the ship, as one may infer from the article; it was of wood, as Theophylactus observes. See Heupel. on this passage.—οὐ μέλει σοι, it is not the case, is it? that thou hast no care) The Lord is not moved to anger at their praying in a rather unseasonable [importunate] manner.
And he arose, and rebuked the wind, and said unto the sea, Peace, be still. And the wind ceased, and there was a great calm.Mark 4:39. Σιώπα, be silent) cease from roaring.—πεφίμωσο, be still) cease from violence [i.e., the σιώπα refers to the noise; πεφίμωσο, to the furious violence of the waves].—γαλήνη, a calm) of the sea; which, under other circumstances, would have continued in a troubled state even after the wind had lulled.
And he said unto them, Why are ye so fearful? how is it that ye have no faith?Mark 4:40. Οὐκ, not) His expression subsequently was, not yet [Do ye not yet understand?] Matthew 16:9. The not simply implies negation; the not yet implies that they already before had had good grounds afforded them for believing.
And they feared exceedingly, and said one to another, What manner of man is this, that even the wind and the sea obey him?