1 Thessalonians 4:6
That no man go beyond and defraud his brother in any matter: because that the Lord is the avenger of all such, as we also have forewarned you and testified.
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(6) That no man.—The form of the Greek shows that this is not exactly parallel with the preceding clauses, as if it ran, “this is God’s will, your sanctification, for you to abstain, for you to know how to possess, for you not to go beyond,” &c. It is a final clause, expressing the purpose of such continence as has just been described. Men are to be chaste and self-possessed, not only for their own salvation’s sake, but in justice to their brethren. In 1Thessalonians 3:12-13, they were to love for the sake of becoming holy; here they are to be holy for the sake of charity—a blessed action and reaction.

Defraud his brother.—The original word implies a rapacious dishonesty, of which any person is guilty who gives the rein to his lusts, especially the adulterer. The substantive formed from it is usually translated covetousness, and is generally thought to be used in this special sense in Ephesians 5:3; Colossians 3:5. When all men are brethren the sin becomes worse.

In any matter should undoubtedly be in the matter. St. Paul chooses the phrase for delicacy’s sake, both here and in 2Corinthians 7:11.

Because that the Lord.—Again an anticipation of the Advent, for the vengeance meant is that of the Judgment Day, not the natural retribution which carnal sin brings with it. The “Lord,” therefore, in this context probably means more particularly the Incarnate Son, who has a special claim upon men’s bodies (1Corinthians 6:13).

Have forewarned.—Rather, did forewarn. It was part of the Apostles’ original teaching at Thessalonica.

4:1-8 To abide in the faith of the gospel is not enough, we must abound in the work of faith. The rule according to which all ought to walk and act, is the commandments given by the Lord Jesus Christ. Sanctification, in the renewal of their souls under the influences of the Holy Spirit, and attention to appointed duties, constituted the will of God respecting them. In aspiring after this renewal of the soul unto holiness, strict restraint must be put upon the appetites and senses of the body, and on the thoughts and inclinations of the will, which lead to wrong uses of them. The Lord calls none into his family to live unholy lives, but that they may be taught and enabled to walk before him in holiness. Some make light of the precepts of holiness, because they hear them from men; but they are God's commands, and to break them is to despise God.That no man go beyond - ὑπερβαίνειν huperbainein. This word means, "to make to go over," as, e. g., a wall or mountain; then, to overpass, to wit, certain limits, to transgress; and then to go too far, i. e., to go beyond right - hence to cheat or defraud. It is not used elsewhere in the New Testament. The idea of overreaching is that which is implied in its use here.

And defraud - πλεονεκτεῖν pleonektein Margin, "oppress," or "overreach." This word properly means, to have more than another; then to have an advantage; and then to take advantage of any one, to circumvent, defraud, cheat. It is rendered "got an advantage," 2 Corinthians 2:11; "defraud," 2 Corinthians 7:2; 1 Thessalonians 4:6; "make a gain," 2 Corinthians 12:17-18. Compare for the use of the adjective, 1 Corinthians 5:10-11; 1 Corinthians 6:10; Ephesians 5:5; and the noun, Mark 7:22; Luke 12:15; Romans 1:29; 2 Corinthians 9:5; Ephesians 5:3; Colossians 3:5; 1 Thessalonians 2:5; 2 Peter 2:3, 2 Peter 2:14. It is the word commonly used to denote covetousness. Taking advantage of, is the idea which it conveys here.

In any matter - Margin, "or the." According to the reading in the margin, this would refer to the particular matter under discussion 1 Thessalonians 4:3-5, to wit, concupiscence. and the meaning then would be, that no one should be guilty of illicit intercourse with the wife of another. Many expositors - as Hammond Whitby, Macknight, Rosenmuller, and others, suppose that this is a prohibition of adultery, and there can be no doubt that it does include this. But there is no reason why it should be confined to it. The Greek is so general that it may prohibit all kinds of fraud, overreaching, or covetousness, and may refer to any attempt to deprive another of his rights, whether it be the right which he has in his property, or his rights as a husband, or his rights in any other respect. It is a general command not to defraud; in no way to take advantage of another; in no way to deprive him of his rights.

Because that the Lord is the avenger of all such - Of all such as are guilty of fraud; that is, he will punish them; compare Romans 12:19 note; Ephesians 6:9 note.

As we also have forewarned - Doubtless when he was with them.

6. go beyond—transgress the bounds of rectitude in respect to his "brother."

defraud—"overreach" [Alford]; "take advantage of" [Edmunds].

in any matter—rather as Greek, "in the matter"; a decorous expression for the matter now in question; the conjugal honor of his neighbor as a husband, 1Th 4:4; 1Th 4:7 also confirms this view; the word "brother" enhances the enormity of the crime. It is your brother whom you wrong (compare Pr 6:27-33).

the Lord—the coming Judge (2Th 1:7, 8).

avenger—the Righter.

of all such—Greek, "concerning all these things;" in all such cases of wrongs against a neighbor's conjugal honor.

testified—Greek, "constantly testified [Alford].

This some understand to be another part of sanctification, mentioned before, 1 Thessalonians 4:3, taking the word sanctification in a more general sense. And as before he spake of chastity, so here of commutative justice in commerce and traffic; and the rather because Thessalonica was a city of great trade and merchandise, and it is true that sanctification doth comprehend this righteousness in it, and will restrain men from that which is opposite to it, which, as the apostle speaks, is going beyond and defrauding his brother. To

go beyond, is that which we call overreaching; when in buying or selling we keep not a just measure, when we observe not a due proportion between the price and the commodity, considering it either in its natural worth, or in such circumstances as make it more or less valuable: or, to take advantage of another’s ignorance or necessities, to take unreasonable profit: or, to break covenant with another, answering to the Hebrew word Gnabhar, used in this sense, Deu 17:2: the original word signifies to transgress, or go above the due bounds. And to defraud is, when, out of a covetous mind, we exact upon another beyond what is meet. Some refer the former word to injustice by force, and the latter by fraud, 2 Corinthians 7:2. And the evil is the greater because done to a brother. There is a brother by a common relation, and so all men that partake of human nature are brethren; or by special relation, which is either natural, civil, or spiritual. We may understand the word in all these senses, especially the last, that those that are brethren in Christ and in the faith, should not defraud one another. And when the apostle adds, in any matter, the word any not being in the Greek, we may better read it, in dealing, or doing; the word is general, and is to be restrained by the subject matter spoken of. There is another sense of the words, agreeable to the former verses, and the verse that follows, and so some understand the apostle as still speaking of chastity; and so here he forbids the invading another’s bed, transgressing the bounds of marriage, whereby men go beyond or defraud their brother, usurping the use of another man’s wife, whom he hath no right to. And then in any matter we must read, in that matter which he had been speaking of before, or it is a modest expression of the act of adultery. The Hebrew Bo is often used in the Old Testament for carnal copulation, and thence the Greek bainw and uqerbainw, here used; and the other word, qleonektein, denotes excessiveness in it, Ephesians 4:19. And the reason he adds is: because the Lord is the avenger of all such. Vengeance is mine; I will repay, saith the Lord, Deu 32:35 Romans 12:19. Whether we understand it of fraud, or overreaching in dealings, when man cannot right and relieve himself, the righteous God will avenge the unrighteousness of men; or of the fraud of the marriage bed, which is done in secret, and man cannot avenge himself, Hebrews 13:4.

As we also have forewarned you and testified: and this the apostle saith he had forewarned them of, and testified. Though the light of nature told the heathen that God was an avenger of wickedness, Acts 28:4, and the heathen could say, ’ Ecei yeov ekdikon omma. God hath a revengeful eye; yet the apostle had in his preaching assured it. He had told them of Christ’s coming to judge the world, when he would execute vengeance, Judges 1:15; and this they were before ignorant of: and though God sometimes takes vengeance in this world, yet he seems to refer to this last vengeance, because he speaks of it as that which he had forewarned them of, and testified in his ministry, and whereof they had not so clear a testimony in natural conscience.

That no man go beyond, and defraud his brother in any matter,.... Or "in this matter", as the Syriac version. This is commonly understood of transgressing the bounds of justice and equity between men and men; and of cheating and defrauding in trade and business, by increasing or lessening the value and prices of goods by the buyer and seller, by not keeping to the bargain, contract, covenant, or sample, by false weights and measures, and by taking the advantage of the weakness and ignorance of men; all which is aggravated by dealing thus with a brother; see 1 Corinthians 6:8 and this hint is thought the rather necessary, since Thessalonica was a place of great trade and business. But the matter, or business referred to, is not trade, but the subject of chastity or uncleanness the apostle is speaking of, both before and after; and the phrases used either design the act of adultery, coveting a brother's wife, and lying with her, and so a defrauding and wronging of him by defiling his bed; or rather sodomitical practices, an unnatural lust and desire in men after men, and copulation with them; for rendered, "go beyond", answers to , "to go upon", or "lie with", so often used in Jewish writings for lying with women, men, and beasts, in an unlawful way. Thus, for instance (y),

"these are to be burned, , "he that lies with a woman", and her daughter, &c.''

And again (z),

"these are to be beaten, , "he that lies with" his sister, or his father's sister, &c.''

And the word translated "defraud", signifies a greedy, insatiable, and unnatural lust and desire after a man, a brother, or the committing of sodomitical practices with greediness: see Ephesians 4:19 which abominable iniquities are dissuaded from by the following reasons,

because that the Lord is the avenger of all such; or "with respect to all these things", as the Vulgate Latin and Syriac versions render it; or "for all these things", as the Arabic and Ethiopic versions; as fornication, adultery, lasciviousness, and all sorts of abominable uncleanness. The person that commits these things the Lord avenges, either in this life, by the hand of the civil magistrate, who is the minister of God, a revenger to execute wrath on him that does evil; or by a violent death, as in the case of Zimri and Cozbi, and twenty four thousand more at the same time; or by some awful judgment from heaven, as in the case of Sodom and Gomorrah; or in the world to come; for the law of God is made and lies against such persons; these living and dying in such sins God will judge, to whom vengeance belongs; these shall not inherit the kingdom of God, but have their part and portion in the lake which burns with fire and brimstone.

As we have also forewarned you and testified; not by a former epistle, as if this was the second to them, and what follows the first, as Grotius thought; but they did this when they were in person with them, knowing that these abominable vices greatly prevailed in their city; therefore they bore their testimony against them, and exposed the evil of them, and warned them of the danger by them, so that they could not now plead ignorance. The Ethiopic version reads in the first person singular, "as I have before said unto you, and testified to you".

(y) Misna Sanhedrim, c. 9. sect. 1.((z) Misna Maccot, c. 3. sect. 1.

{5} That no man go beyond and defraud his brother in any matter: because that the Lord is the avenger of all such, as we also have forewarned you and testified.

(5) Secondly, he reprehends all violent oppression, and immoderate desire, and shows most severely as the Prophet of God, that God will avenge such wickedness.

1 Thessalonians 4:6. The second chief point which the apostle subordinates to the θέλημα τοῦ Θεοῦ (1 Thessalonians 4:3), adding to the prohibition of unchastity the further prohibition of covetousness and overreaching our neighbour (Nicolas Lyrensis, Faber Stapulus, Zwingli, Calvin, Bullinger, Zanchius, Hunnius, Luc. Osiander, Balduin, Aretius, Vorstius, Gomarus, Grotius, Calovius, Clericus, Wolf, Koppe, Flatt, de Wette, Koch, Bouman, supra, p. 82; Bisping, Ewald, Hofmann, Riggenbach, and others). It is true Chrysostom, Theodoret, John Damascenus, Oecumenius, Theophylact, Jerome on Ephesians 5:5, Erasmus, Clarius, Zeger, Estius, Cornelius a Lapide, Heinsius, Whitby, Benson, Wetstein, Kypke, Bengel, Baumgarten, Zachar., Michaelis, Pelt, Schott, Olshausen, Bloomfield, Alford, and others, refer it still to the prohibition of unchastity given in 1 Thessalonians 4:4-5, whilst they find in 1 Thessalonians 4:6 a particular form of it designated, namely, adultery, and consider the sentence as dependent on εἰδέναι (Pelt), or as in apposition to 1 Thessalonians 4:4-5. But this is without justification. For—(1) the expressions ὑπερβαίνειν and πλεονεκτεῖν most naturally denote a covetous, deceitful conduct in common social intercourse. (2) If the discourse had been only of πορνεία, the words περὶ πάντων τούτων would scarcely have been put. Different kinds of πορνεία must at least have been previously enumerated. But not even this could be the case, as then to the dissuasion from πορνεία in general, the dissuasion from a special kind of πορνεία would be united. (3) Lastly, the article imperatively requires us to consider τὸαὐτοῦ as parallel to ὁ ἁγιασμὸς ὑμῶν, 1 Thessalonians 4:3, and, accordingly, as a second object different from the first. If Pelt objects against our view that a mention of covetousness (1 Thessalonians 4:6) would occur “plane inexspectato,” he does not consider that lust and covetousness were the two cardinal vices of the heathen world, and that Paul was accustomed elsewhere to mention them together; comp. Ephesians 4:19; Ephesians 5:3; Ephesians 5:5; Colossians 3:5. Also, the further objection which is insisted on, that on account of 1 Thessalonians 4:7 an exhortation to chastity must be contained in 1 Thessalonians 4:6, is not convincing, as there is nothing to prevent us taking ἀκαθαρσία and ἁγιασμός, 1 Thessalonians 4:7 (see on passage), in the wider sense.

τό] not equivalent to ὥστε (Baumgarten-Crusius), but a second exponent of the object-matter of θέλημα τοῦ Θεοῦ (1 Thessalonians 4:3).

ὑπερβαίνειν] here only in the N. T., stands absolutely: justos fines migrare, to grasp too far (Luther). Comp. Eurip. Alc. 1077: μὴ νῦν ὑπέρβαινʼ, ἀλλʼ ἐναισίμως φέρε, Il. ix. 501: ὅτε κέν τις ὑπερβήῃ καὶ ἁμάρτῃ. The idea of an “oppressio violenti, qualis tyrannorum et potentium est, qui inferiores injustis exactionibus aut aliis illicitis modis premunt” (Hemming) is inserted, and every supplement, as that of Piscator, “excedere mordum in augendis rerum pretiis,” is to be rejected. What Paul particularly understood by the entirely general μὴ ὑπερβαίνειν he himself indicates by καὶ πλεονεκτεῖναὐτοῦ, which latter words, as μή is not repeated before πλεονεκτεῖν, can contain no independent requirement, but must be an explanatory specification of ὑπερβαίνειν. καί is accordingly to be understood in the sense of “and indeed.” Others, as Beza, Koppe, Pelt, Baumgarten-Crusius, Alford, Hofmann, Riggenbach, have united both verbs with τὸν ἀδελφόν. But the union of ὑπερβαίνειν with a personal object is objectionable, and also in the two passages adduced for it by Kypke (Plutarch, de amore prolis, p. 496, and Demosthenes, adv. Aristocrat. p. 439) the meaning opprimere is at least not demonstrable. Moreover, not ἕκαστον, from 1 Thessalonians 4:4 (Baumgarten-Crusius, Alford), but τινά, is to be considered as the subject to τὸ μὴ ὑπερβαίνειν κ.τ.λ.

πλεονεκτεῖν] expresses the overreaching, the fraudulent pursuit of our own gain springing from covetousness (comp. 2 Corinthians 7:2; 2 Corinthians 12:17-18), not the covetous encroaching upon the possession of a brother, as a figurative expression for adultery.

ἐν τῷ πράγματι] is not verecunde pro concubitu (Estius and those mentioned above), but means in the business (now, or at any time in hand). Too narrow a sense, Piscator: in emendo et vendendo. Rittershus. Polyc. Leyser (in Wolf), and Koppe consider the article as enclitic (ἔν τῳ instead of ἔν τινι); unnecessary, and without any analogy in the New Testament. Comp. Winer, p. 50 [E. T. 61]. But also erroneously, Macknight, Schott, Olshausen, and others, ἐν τῷ πράγματι is equivalent to ἐν τούτῳ τῷ πράγματι.

τὸν ἀδελφὸν αὐτοῦ] is not equivalent to τὸν πλησίον (Schott, Koch, and others), but denotes fellow-Christians; comp. 1 Thessalonians 4:10. This limitation of the prohibition to Christians is not surprising (Schrader), as there is no emphasis on τὸν ἀδελφὸν αὐτοῦ (for otherwise it must have been written τὸ τὸν ἀδελφὸν αὐτοῦ μὴ κ.τ.λ.), and accordingly the misinterpretation that the conduct of Christians to those who are not Christians is to be different, could not possibly arise. Paul simply names the circle which stood nearest to the Christians, but without intending to exclude thereby the wider circles.

ἔκδικος] an avenger; comp. Romans 13:4. The same reason for prohibition in Ephesians 5:5-6; Colossians 3:6; Galatians 5:21. Compare the saying: ἔχει Θεὸς ἔκδικον ὄμμα (Homer, Batrachom.), which has become a proverb.

καθὼς καί] refers back to διότι.

προείπομεν] foretold; the προ refers to the time preceding the future judgment, and the preterite to the time of the apostle’s presence among the Thessalonians.

διεμαρτυράμεθα] an intensifying of προείπομεν.

1 Thessalonians 4:6. Compare the saying of rabbi Simon ben Zoma (on Deuteronomy 23:25): “Look not on thy neighbour’s vineyard. If thou hast looked, enter not; if thou hast entered, regard not the fruits; if thou hast regarded them, touch them not; if thou hast touched them, eat them not. But if thou hast eaten, then thou dost eject thyself from the life of this world and of that which is to come” (quoted in Bacher’s Agada der Tannaiten, 2nd ed., 1903, i. 430). There is no change of subject, from licentiousness to dishonesty. The asyndeton and the euphemistic ἐν τῷ πράγματι (not τῳ = τινί, Win. § 6 4d) show that Paul is still dealing with the immorality of men, but now as a form of social dishonesty and fraud. The metaphors are drawn from trade, perhaps as appropriate to a trading community. While ὑπερβαίνειν may be intransitive (in its classical sense of “transgress”), it probably governs ἀδελφόν in the sense of “get the better of,” or “overreach;” πλεονεκτεῖν similarly = “overreach,” “defraud,” “take advantage of” (2 Corinthians 7:2; 2 Corinthians 12:17-18; Xen., Mem., iii. 5, 2; Herod. viii. 112). Compare ἀκαθαρσίας πάσης ἐν πλεονεξίᾳ (Ephesians 4:19). The passage (with 1 Thessalonians 4:8) sounds almost like a vague reminiscence of Test. Asher, ii. 6: ὁ πλεονεκτῶν τὸν πλησίον παροργίζει τὸν Θεόντὸν ἐντολέα τοῦ νόμου Κύριον ἀθετεῖ. Only τὸν ἀνθ. here is not the wronged party but the apostles who convey God’s orders.—διότι κ.τ.λ. = “since (cf. 1 Thessalonians 2:8) the Lord is the avenger (from Deuteronomy 32:35; cf. Sap. 12:12; Sir 30:6; 1Ma 13:6, ἐκδικήσω περὶ; 4Ma 15:29) in all these matters” (of impurity). How, Paul does not explain (cf. Colossians 3:5-6). By a premature death (1 Corinthians 11:30)? Or, at the last judgment (1 Thessalonians 1:10)? not in the sense of Sap. 3:16, 1 Thessalonians 4:6 (illegitimate children evidence at last day against their parents) at any rate.

6. that no man go beyond and defraud his brother in any matter] More exactly, that none overreach and take advantage of his brother in the matter. “The matter” is obviously that which occupies the last two verses. Acts of Impurity are social wrongs, as well as sins against the offender’s person. The warning may include any injury done to another touching the affections and engagements that belong to marriage,—“the matter” concerned in the present charge—which is expressly violated by “fornication.” The Apostle sets the wrong in the strongest light: it is to “cheat one’s brother,” and that in what touches most nearly the sanctities of life. Hence the stern warning that follows:—

because that the Lord is the avenger of all such] Rather, an avenger; and concerning all these things—in everything that concerns the honour of the human person and the sacredness of wedded life. Comp. Hebrews 13:4, “Let marriage be had in honour … Fornicators and adulterers God will judge.” It is written that “Vengeance belongs to God;” and in this matter He is peculiarly bound to exercise it.

as we also have forewarned you and testified] or, solemnly attested: the latter verb implies reference to God, as it is expressed in 2 Timothy 4:1, “before God and Christ Jesus.” On this subject it appears—as to the moral consequences of faith in Christ and the social purity that belongs to the sanctified life—the apostles at Thessalonica had spoken very plainly and solemnly from the first.

1 Thessalonians 4:6. Τὸ μὴ ὑπερβαίνειν καὶ πλεονεκτεῖν) The article τὸ makes an emphatic addition [Epitasis], which falls upon the verb ὑπερβαίνειν. Eustathius explains ὑπερβῆναι as, τὸ καθʼ ὑπερβολὴν ἀστοχῆσαι τοῦ δέοντος, to miss the mark as to what is in the highest degree necessary. Therefore Paul does not seem to be speaking here of avarice, which however is joined to sins of impurity in Ephesians 5:5 and Colossians 3:5 (whence also the article makes an Epitasis or emphatic addition), and which, as being a capital transgression, is called idolatry; but of the deceptions and arts of adulterers, Hebrews 13:4; for the Asyndeton [no copula between εἰδέναι, 1 Thessalonians 4:4, and τὸ μὴ ὑπερβαίνειν, 1 Thessalonians 4:6] indicates that the same subject is continued; and he is speaking of a ‘matter’ of such a kind, as that the blame attached to it is greater than that attached to theft, Proverbs 6:30 : and in 1 Thessalonians 4:7 he returns to the mention of impurity and holiness alone. It is by a Euphemism that the apostle does not call it adultery.—ἑν τῷ πράγματι, in the matter or business) The article points out the particular business in hand at this or that time, 2 Corinthians 7:11.—ἀδελφὸν, brother) The reason assigned (Ætiology) for avoiding the transgression [τὸ ὑπερβαίνειν, viz. adultery].—ἔκδικος, avenger) Hebrews 13:4, note.—ὁ Κύριος, the Lord) Christ, the Judge.

Verse 6. - That no man go beyond; or, transgress. And defraud; or, as it is in the margin of our Bibles, oppress, or, overreach; wrong (R.V.). His brother. Not an exhortation against dishonesty, or prohibition against all attempts to overreach in usual mutual intercourse, as the words would at first sight seem to imply, and as some consider it (Hofmann, Lunemann, Riggenbach); but, as is evident from the context, a continuation of the former exhortation, a prohibition against impurity. In any matter; or, more properly, in the matter, namely, that about which I have been discoursing. "An example of the modest reserve and refined delicacy which characterize the holy apostle's language in speaking of things which the Gentiles did without shame, and thus, by a chaste bashfulness of words, commending the duty of unblemished purity in deeds" (Wordsworth). Because the Lord is the Avenger of all such; either of all such as are thus defrauded or of all such sinful practices. As we also have forewarned you and testified. 1 Thessalonians 4:6That no man go beyond (τὸ μὴ ὑπερβαίνειν)

Lit. the not going beyond. Dependent on this is the will of God, 1 Thessalonians 4:3. The verb N.T. Often in lxx, mostly in the literal sense of overpassing limits. Also of overtaking, passing by, surpassing, as in wickedness or cruelty. It is an expansion of the preceding thought. Pursue your business as holy men: do not overreach or defraud.

It is the overstepping of the line between mine and thine. It is used absolutely, being defined by the succeeding clause. The A.V. is literal, go beyond. Rev. renders transgress. Weizscker and Bornemann "ubergreife overreach." So. Rev. margin. This last is the best.

Defraud (πλεονεκτεῖν)

Po. See on 2 Corinthians 2:11, and see on covetousness, Romans 1:29. It emphasizes gain as the motive of fraud. Three times in lxx, Judges 4:11; Habakkuk 2:9; Ezekiel 22:27. Often in Class.

In any matter (ἐν τῷ πράγματι)

Rev. correctly, in the matter. Comp. 2 Corinthians 7:11. The sense is the business in hand, whatever it be. The τῷ does not stand for τινι any. For πράγματι, matter, see on Matthew 18:19. Those who connect this clause with the preceding, explain τῷ as the matter just mentioned - adultery.

Avenger (ἔκδικος)

Po. Here and Romans 13:4. In lxx rarely, and in the same sense as here. In this sense it occurs only in late Greek. For the warning comp. Ephesians 5:6; Colossians 3:6; Romans 13:4; Galatians 5:21.

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