1 Corinthians 12:2
Ye know that ye were Gentiles, carried away unto these dumb idols, even as ye were led.
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(2) Ye know that ye were Gentiles.—Better (according to the weight of MSS. evidence), Ye know that when ye were Gentiles ye were, &c. In this and the following verse the Apostle reminds his readers that so far from regarding the marvellous manifestations of the Spirit, such as speaking with tongues and prophesying, as the most wonderful miracles, the greatest miracle of all was their conversion. That blind followers of dumb idols should be transformed into intelligent believers in the living Word was the most striking work of the Spirit. They were now no longer led hither and thither by diverse teachings and diverse gods; they had an unchanging principle of life, and an unerring guide of conduct. The contrast of the present state of Christians with their former state as heathens is a topic of frequent occurrence in St. Paul’s writings (Romans 11:30; Colossians 1:21; Colossians 3:7, &c.).

12:1-11 Spiritual gifts were extraordinary powers bestowed in the first ages, to convince unbelievers, and to spread the gospel. Gifts and graces greatly differ. Both were freely given of God. But where grace is given, it is for the salvation of those who have it. Gifts are for the advantage and salvation of others; and there may be great gifts where there is no grace. The extraordinary gifts of the Holy Spirit were chiefly exercised in the public assemblies, where the Corinthians seem to have made displays of them, wanting in the spirit of piety, and of Christian love. While heathens, they had not been influenced by the Spirit of Christ. No man can call Christ Lord, with believing dependence upon him, unless that faith is wrought by the Holy Ghost. No man could believe with his heart, or prove by a miracle, that Jesus was Christ, unless by the Holy Ghost. There are various gifts, and various offices to perform, but all proceed from one God, one Lord, one Spirit; that is, from the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, the origin of all spiritual blessings. No man has them merely for himself. The more he profits others, the more will they turn to his own account. The gifts mentioned appear to mean exact understanding, and uttering the doctrines of the Christian religion; the knowledge of mysteries, and skill to give advice and counsel. Also the gift of healing the sick, the working of miracles, and to explain Scripture by a peculiar gift of the Spirit, and ability to speak and interpret languages. If we have any knowledge of the truth, or any power to make it known, we must give all the glory of God. The greater the gifts are, the more the possessor is exposed to temptations, and the larger is the measure of grace needed to keep him humble and spiritual; and he will meet with more painful experiences and humbling dispensations. We have little cause to glory in any gifts bestowed on us, or to despise those who have them not.Ye know ... - This verse is regarded by many as a parenthesis. But it is not necessary to suppose that it is so, or that it does not cohere with that which follows. The design seems to be to remind them of their former miserable condition as idolaters, in order to make them more sensible of their advantages as Christians, and that they might be led more highly to appreciate their present condition. Paul often refers Christians to their former condition, to excite in them gratitude for the mercies that God has conferred on them in the gospel; see the note at 1 Corinthians 6:11, compare Romans 6:17; Ephesians 2:11-12; Titus 3:3.

That ye were Gentiles - Heathen; worshippers of idols. The idea is, that they were pagans; that they had no knowledge of the true God, but were sunk in miserable superstition and idolatry.

Carried away - Led along; that is, deluded by your passions, deluded by your priests, deluded by your vain and splendid rites of worship. The whole system made an appeal to the senses, and "bore along" its votaries as if by a foreign and irresistible impulse. The word which is used ἀπαγόμενοι apagomenoi conveys properly the idea of being carried into bondage, or being led to punishment, and refers here doubtless to the strong means which had been used by crafty politicians and priests in their former state to delude and deceive them.

Unto these dumb idols - These idols which could not speak - an attribute which is often given to them, to show the folly of worshipping them; Psalm 115:5; Psalm 135:15; Habakkuk 2:18-19. The ancient priests and politicians deluded the people with the notion that oracles were uttered by the idols whom they worshipped, and thus they maintained the belief in their divinity. The idea of Patti here seems to be:

(1) That their idols never could have uttered the oracles which were ascribed to them, and consequently that they had been deluded.

(2) that these idols could never have endowed them with such spiritual privileges as they now had, and consequently that their present state was far preferable to their former condition.

Even as ye were led - Were led by the priests in the temples of the idols. They were under strong delusions and the arts of cunning and unprincipled people. The idea is, that they had been under a strong infatuation, and were entirely at the control of their spiritual leaders - a description remarkably applicable now to all forms of imposture in the world, No system of paganism consults the freedom and independence of the mind of man; but it is everywhere characterized as a system of "power," and not of "thought;" and all its arrangements are made to secure that power without an intelligent assent of the understanding and the heart.

2. (Eph 2:11).

that ye were—The best manuscripts read, "That WHEN ye were"; thus "ye were" must be supplied before "carried away"—Ye were blindly transported hither and thither at the will of your false guides.

these dumb idols—Greek, "the idols which are dumb"; contrasted with the living God who "speaks" in the believer by His Spirit (1Co 12:3, &c.). This gives the reason why the Corinthians needed instruction as to spiritual gifts, namely, their past heathen state, wherein they had no experience of intelligent spiritual powers. When blind, ye went to the dumb.

as ye were led—The Greek is, rather, "as ye might (happen to) be led," namely, on different occasions. The heathen oracles led their votaries at random, without any definite principle.

Ye know that ye were Gentiles; so they were still in respect of their birth and country; but he speaketh with reference to their religion and way of worship.

Carried away unto these dumb idols; carried away by your idol priests, and by the examples of your friends and neighbours, to idols, which, though they seem to you to speak, and to tell you of things to come, yet indeed have mouths and speak not, only the devil spake from them.

Even as ye were led; wherein you acted not under the conduct of reason, nor as became reasonable creatures, but you were blindly led by the dictates of priests, or by the examples of others. This the apostle puts them in mind of, to let them know, that all those excellent gifts with which they were now endued, as he had told them, 1 Corinthians 1:5,6, they had received from God since their conversion to Christianity, and from the Spirit of Christ; for before their conversion they were like brute beasts, knowing nothing, but led by others.

Ye know that ye were Gentiles,.... That is, by religion; hence the Syriac version renders it "profane" persons, given up to wickedness, bigotry, and superstition; for by nation they were Gentiles still; and which must be understood of one part of this church only; for some of them were Jews, as is clear from many passages in the epistle to this church, and practices referred to. This the apostle observes to humble them, by putting them in mind of what they had been formerly; they were born and brought up in the Heathen religion, when they knew not the true God, much less had any knowledge of Christ, and still less of the Spirit of God; and therefore if they were favoured with any of his gifts, these must be owing to his grace, and not to their deserts, and therefore they ought not to glory: he adds, with the same view,

carried away unto these dumb idols; to idols that were nothing in the world, had no divinity in them, as he had before asserted; to dumb ones, that had mouths, but could not speak, the oracles that were delivered from them, being spoken not by them, but were either satanical delusions, or the jugglings of a priest; to these they were carried by the power of Satan, the influence of their priests, and the orders of their magistrates, to consult them as oracles, to pay their devotions to them, and do them service:

even as ye were led; that is, to these dumb idols; the Syriac adds, , "without any difference", not being able to distinguish between these and the true God; and to whom they were led as brute beasts were, that were sacrificed unto them, or as blind men are led by the blind, as they were by their blind and ignorant priests; and therefore, if they had now received the Spirit, and his gifts, they ought to ascribe the whole to the free grace of God, and be humble under a sense of their unworthiness.

{2} Ye know that ye were {b} Gentiles, carried away unto these dumb idols, even as ye were led.

(2) He reproves the same by comparing their former state with that in which they were at this time, being endued with those excellent gifts.

(b) As touching God's service and the covenant, mere strangers.

1 Corinthians 12:2. Reason (comp on ΔΙΌ, 1 Corinthians 12:3) why he wishes to instruct them concerning the ΠΝΕΥΜΑΤΙΚΆ. The pneumatic condition into which they had entered as Christians was, of course, an entirely new one to men who had been heathen, entirely without precedent or analogy in the experiences of their former sad estate,—all the more, therefore, requiring to be subjected to a trustworthy and correct judgment.

The construction, when we adopt the reading ὍΤΙ, ὍΤΕ, is simply this: the object-sentence begins indeed with ὍΤΙ, but instead of ending with ἈΠΉΓΕΣΘΕ, or repeating ἮΤΕ before ἈΠΑΓΌΜ., runs off into the participle,—an anakoluthic use of the ὍΤΙ not uncommon also in classic writers, after parenthetic clauses, even when but short, have intervened. See Krüger on Thuc. iv. 37; Stallbaum, a[1915] Plat. Apol. 37 B; Heind. a[1916] Plat. Gorg. p. 481 D. Translate: Ye know that, at the time when ye were heathen, ye were led away to the dumb idols, in whatever way people led you. Buttmann (neut. Gr. p. 329 [E. T. 383]) holds that the sentence after ὅτε ἔθνη ἦτε passes with Ὡς into an indirect question. But Ὡς ἊΝ ἬΓΕΣΘΕ, from its position between ΠΡῸς Τ. ΕἼΔ. Τ. ἌΦ. and ἈΠΑΓΌΜ., can only be a parenthetic clause. In that case, too, ἈΠΑΓ. would be cumbrous and dragging at the end of the verse; it must convey a weighty closing thought, to which Ὡς ἊΝ ἬΓΕΣΘΕ serves as modal definition. Hofmann, although not reading ὍΤΙ, ὍΤΕ, but simply ὍΤΙ with Elz. (which in fact does away of itself with all real difficulty), has twisted and obscured the whole passage in a very unhappy way.[1917]

ὍΤΕ ἜΘΝΗ ἮΤΕ] A reminder to his readers of their sad ΠΟΤΈ, to which Paul often turns back their eyes from their happy ΝῦΝ (Ephesians 2:2 f., 11, 13, 1 Corinthians 5:8; Colossians 1:21; Colossians 3:7; Romans 11:30).

ΠΡῸς ΤᾺ ΕἼΔΩΛΑ] namely, in order to worship them, sacrifice to them, invoke them, inquire of them, and the like.

ΤᾺ ἌΦΩΝΑ] (Plat. Pol. I. p. 336 D, and often elsewhere; Dem. 292. 6. 294. 19; 2Ma 3:24) impresses on the readers that idols, which were themselves dumb (comp Habakkuk 2:18; 3Ma 4:16), could produce no pneumatic speaking. Notice the emphatic repetition of the article.

Ὡς ἊΝ ἬΓΕΣΘΕ] as ye were at any time led. Regarding this ἄν of repetition, see Fritzsche, Conject. I. p. 35; Buttmann, neut. Gr. p. 186 f. [E. T. 216]; comp on Acts 2:45.

ἈΠΑΓΌΜΕΝΟΙ] becoming led away. The force of the ἀπό is not that of removal from the normal condition of the natural knowledge of God (Romans 1:19 ff.), an interpretation which would need to be suggested by the context; but it serves vividly to set forth the result. The consequence of the ἄγεσθαι, namely, was the ἈΠΆΓΕΣΘΑΙ, the being involuntarily drawn away from the surroundings in which they were actually placed to the temples, statues, altars, etc. of the idols. We may take it for certain, from Paul’s views of heathenism (1 Corinthians 10:20; Ephesians 2:2), that he thought of Satan as the leading power. Hilgenfeld aptly compares the passage in Athenagoras, Legat. pro Christ. p. 29, ed. Col: οἱ μὲν περὶ τὰ εἴδωλα αὐτοὺς ἕλκοντες οἱ δαίμονές εἰσιν Κ.Τ.Λ[1920] The opposite is πνεύματι ἄγεσθαι, Romans 8:14; Galatians 5:18; Matthew 4:1. Others make it: a sacerdotibus (Valckenaer, al[1921]), and the like.

We may note further both that homoioteleuta, such as οἴδατε, ὅτι ὅτεἦτε, occur even in the best writers, showing that the resemblances of sound were not offensive to them (Lobeck, a[1922] Aj. 61, Paral. p. 53 ff.), and also that the subject in hand is brought all the more vividly and impressively home by the adnominatio, ἤγεσθε, ἀπαγόμενοι (Bremi, a[1923] Lys. I. Exc. vi. p. 209).

[1915] d refers to the note of the commentator or editor named on the particular passage.

[1916] d refers to the note of the commentator or editor named on the particular passage.

[1917] Hofmann insists, namely (1st), on reading οἶδα τε instead of οἴδατε, and (2d) ὡς ἀνήγεσθε instead of us ὡς αν ἤγεσθε, and (3d) on taking ὅτι ἔθνη ητε as: because ye were heathen, and that as specifying the reason for what follows, in which, for the sake of emphasis, πρὸςἄφωνα is put before the ὡς. But how involved the whole general structure of the sentence becomes in that way! How wholly uncalled for, nevertheless, and inappropriate would be the investing of the quite superfluous (quite superfluous, to wit, as specifying a reason) “because ye were heathen,” with all the emphasis of being put first in a hyperbaton which is, moreover, doubled! And how strange the choice of the compound ἀνήγεσθε, since it does not (as Hofmann supposes) convey the notion of whither (which is expressed by πρός), but that of upward, as ἀνάγειν always means to lead up! The τέ, too, after οἶδα, would not be suitable even in a logical point of view (see note on ver. 3).—Laurent, in his neut. Stud. p. 132, agrees with Hofmann in so far that he also reads ὡς ἀνήγεσθε instead of ὡς ἂν ἤγεσθε. For the rest, he retains οἴδατε, and neither reads ὅτι nor ὅτι, ὅτε, but simply ὅτε, which is supported by very slender evidence.

[1920] .τ.λ. καὶ τὰ λοιπά.

[1921] l. and others; and other passages; and other editions.

[1922] d refers to the note of the commentator or editor named on the particular passage.

[1923] d refers to the note of the commentator or editor named on the particular passage.

1 Corinthians 12:2. On the critical reading, οἴδατε ὅτι ὅτε ἔθνη ἦτεὡς ἂν ἤγεσθε ἀπαγόμενοι, there are two plausible constructions: (a) that of Bg[1815], Bm[1816] (pp. 383 f.), Ed[1817], who regard ὡς as a resumption of the ὅτι, after the parenthetical ὅτε clause, and thus translate: “You know that, when you were Gentiles,—how you were always led to those voiceless idols, being carried away”. There are two reasons against this construction—(1) the improbability of ὅτι being forgotten after so short an interruption; (2) the inversion of the proper relation between ὡς ἂν ἤγεσθε and ἀπαγόμενοι, the former of which is naturally construed as subordinate and adverbial to the latter, the “leading to idols”supplying the condition under which the “carrying off” took place. (b) We are driven back upon the alternative construction, adopted by Est., Mr[1818], Hn[1819], Ev[1820], Bt[1821], Gd[1822], El[1823] (see his note, and Krüger’s Sprachl., § 354 b, Anm. 1 f., for similar instances), who regard ἀπαγόμεμοι as chief predicate after ὅτι, and complete the ptp[1824] by ἦτε, which is mentally taken up from the interposed temporal clause: “You know that, when you were Gentiles, to those voiceless idols, however you might be led, (you were) carried away”. Since οἶδα with ptpl. complement occurs but once besides in N.T. (2 Corinthians 12:2, and there with acc. ptp[1825], not nom[1826] as here), the confusion between the ptpl[1827] construction and the ὅτι construction after οἶδα, by which Mr[1828] accounts for the grammatical irregularity, is not very probable. The emendation of W.H[1829] (see txtl. note) is most tempting, in view of Ephesians 2:11; it wholly obviates the difficulty of grammar: “You know that once (ὅτι ποτέ) you were Gentiles, carried off to those dumb idols, howsoever you might be led”.—The Cor[1830], now belonging to the λαὸς Θεοῦ, distinguish themselves from the ἔθνη (see 1 Corinthians 5:1, 1 Corinthians 10:20); to be “led away to the (worship of the) idols” is the characteristic of Gentiles (1 Corinthians 8:7). ἀπάγω implies force rather than charm in the ἀπάγων; P. is not thinking of any earlier truth from which the heathen were enticed, but of the overwhelming current by which they were “carried off” (abreptos, Bz[1831]), cf. 2 Corinthians 4:4, 2 Timothy 2:26, Matthew 12:29. With this agrees the qualifying ὡς ἂν ἤγεσθε (not ἀνήγεσθε, as Hf[1832] and Hn[1833] read; this gives an irrelevant sense—“led up,” “led in sacrifice”), indicating the uncertainty and caprice of the directing powers—“pro nutu ducentium” (Est.). For the right sort of ἄγεσθαι, see Romans 8:14, Galatians 5:18.—On the εἴδωλα, cf. 1 Corinthians 8:4; the voicelessness of the idol is part of its nothingness (cf. Psalm 115:4-7, etc.); the Pagans were led by no intelligent, conscious guidance, but by an occult power behind the idol (1 Corinthians 10:19 ff.).

[1815] Bengel’s Gnomon Novi Testamenti.

A. Buttmann’s Grammar of the N.T. Greek (Eng. Trans., 1873).

[1817] T. C. Edwards’ Commentary on the First Ep. to the Corinthians.2

[1818] Meyer’s Critical and Exegetical Commentary (Eng. Trans.).

[1819] C. F. G. Heinrici’s Erklärung der Korintherbriefe (1880), or 1 Korinther in Meyer’s krit.-exegetisches Kommentar (1896).

[1820] T. S. Evans in Speaker’s Commentary.

[1821] J. A. Beet’s St. Paul’s Epp. to the Corinthians (1882).

[1822] F. Godet’s Commentaire sur la prem. Ép. aux Corinthiens (Eng. Trans.).

[1823] C. J. Ellicott’s St. Paul’s First Epistle to the Corinthians.

[1824] participle

[1825] participle

[1826] nominative case.

[1827] participial.

[1828] Meyer’s Critical and Exegetical Commentary (Eng. Trans.).

[1829] Westcott and Hort’s The New Testament in Greek: Critical Text and Notes.

[1830] Corinth, Corinthian or Corinthians.

[1831] Beza’s Nov. Testamentum: Interpretatio et Annotationes (Cantab., 1642).

[1832] J. C. K. von Hofmann’s Die heilige Schrift N.T. untersucht, ii. 2 (2te Auflage, 1874).

[1833] C. F. G. Heinrici’s Erklärung der Korintherbriefe (1880), or 1 Korinther in Meyer’s krit.-exegetisches Kommentar (1896).

2. that ye were Gentiles] Most modern editors read ‘that when ye were Gentiles’ here. The similarity of ὅτε and ὅτι, and the fact that the introduction of the former produces an unfinished construction, may have led to its omission. But if omitted we should be driven to the conclusion that the Corinthian Church was an exclusively Gentile community, which would contradict Acts 18:8; Acts 18:13, and possibly ch. 8 and 1 Corinthians 10:1-11 (where see notes).

unto these dumb idols] Literally, ‘unto the dumb idols.’ The word dumb (see note on next verse) draws attention to the contrast between the voiceless idol and the delusive utterances of its pretended priests or priestesses, as at Delphi, Dodona and elsewhere. Cf. for the expression Habakkuk 2:18; Habakkuk 2:10. Also Psalm 115:5; Wis 13:17-19; Bar 6:8.

1 Corinthians 12:2. Οἴδατε, ye know) nearly related to the verb you remember, which is found in Ephesians 2:11.—Οἴδατε, ὄτι, ὄτε ἔθνη ἦτε, πρὸς τὰ εἴδωλα τὰ ἄφωνα ὡς ἂν ἤγεσθε ἀπαγόμενοι) The analysis of these words will be easy, if we only keep hold of this thread of connection, ὅτι ἤγεσθε, that you were led; so that ἤγεσθε is not to he regarded as a mere accessory proposition [Syncategorema; end.], but the predicate itself; comp. Ephesians 2:12; where Gentiles and Gentilism are likewise distinguished in the enunciation. For, instead of ὅτι or ὡς, there is said conjointly ὡς ὁτι, Germ. wie dass (as or how that), and ὅτι ὡς, that as: and that too with another word interposed, as in Xiphilimus, in his Epitome of Dion, λεχθὲν αὐτῷ, ὅτι ἄρα ὡς Ἀλέξανδρος ἐλθὼν αὐτὸν διαδέξεται, it being told to him, that (ὅτι) when (ὡς) Alexander comes, he will succeed him: or even with a longer parenthesis, as in Xenophon, ἐνταῦθα γνόντες οἱ μαντινεῖς ὡς, εἰ μὴ ἀποκρούσονται αὐτοὺς, ὅτι., κ.τ.λ., here the soothsayers knowing, unless they shall repel them, how that, etc.: therefore that is doubled in Greek as אם ה in Hebrew, Genesis 17:17, supplying I say. Furthermore ἄν is joined with the verb ἤγεσθε, as we have also in Xenophon καιρὸς δὲ γράψαι ὡς ἄν ὀρθότατα ἐκατέρῳ χρῷτο, I take the opportunity of stating how he should most suitably treat either of these (the spirited or dull horse); where Devarius (who has suggested to us both of these quotations from Xenophon) shows that ἄν in the distribution of the construction is joined potentially to the verb χρῷτο. Therefore the principal meaning will remain, if ὠς ἄν be entirely put aside by itself (parenthetically) in the construction, as in 2 Corinthians 10:9 [ἵνα μὴ δόξω ὡς ἄν ἐκφοβεῖν ὑμᾶς], where it signifies as if; and so it might be taken in this passage: nor even is ἄν easily construed with an indicative, such as ἤγεσθε is. Moreover in ἤγεσθε ἀπαγόμενοι, the passive is construed with the middle, the simple with the compound; you were led and led away, you gave yourselves up to any guidance whatever. The Scholium of Chrysostom amounts almost to this [is much the same as this]: though that Scholium has been censured by later writers without a cause; οἴδατε, ὅτε Ἕλληνες ἦτε, πῶς ἀπήγεσθε, ἑλκόμενοι τότε, ye know, when ye were Greeks, how you were led, being at that time drawn away. Add Castellio. ἄφωνα dumb, a proper epithet; comp. 1 Corinthians 12:3, you when blind went to the dumb; you dumb [unable to speak as you ought, by the Spirit of God, 1 Corinthians 12:3], to the blind.

Verse 2. - That ye were Gentiles. The undoubted reading is, that when ye were Gentiles. The sentence is then in form an anacoluthon; in other words, it is not grammatically finished. The ancients were much less particular about these small matters of precision and symmetry than the moderns; and writers who are deeply moved by their subject, and hurried along by the strength of their feelings, often fall into these unfinished constructions (see Romans 2:17-21; Romans 15:25-27; Galatians 2:6; 2 Thessalonians 2:3, etc., in the Greek). Dumb idols. This characteristic of idols (Habakkuk 2:18; Psalm 115:5; Psalm 135:16) is fixed upon to show that their "oracles" were mere falsity and pretence. We find an illustration of the epithet in the statue of Isis at Pompeii, where the ruined temple shows the secret stair by which the priest mounted to the back of the statue; and the head of the statue (preserved in the Museo Borbonico) shows the tube which went from the back of the head to the parted lips. Through this tube the priest concealed behind the statue spoke the answers of Isis. Even as ye were led; rather, howsoever ye might be led, as in the Revised Version. The Greek phrase shows that, under the oracular guidance of dumb idols, the Gentiles had been, as it were, drifted hither and thither "as the winds listed." 1 Corinthians 12:2Ye were carried away (ἀπαγόμενοι)

Blindly hurried. Rev., led.

Dumb idols

Compare Psalm 115:5, Psalm 115:7. And Milton:

"The oracles are dumb,

No voice or hideous hum

Runs through the arched roof in words deceiving."

"Hymn on the Nativity"

The contrast is implied with the living vocal spirit, which dwells and works in Christ's people, and responds to their prayers.

Even as ye were led (ὡς ἂν ἢγεσθε)

Rev., howsoever ye might be led. Better, Ellicott: "As from time to time ye might be led. The imperfect tense with the indefinite particle signifies habitually, whenever the occasion might arise. Compare Greek of Mark 6:56. "Now the fatal storm carried the blinded gentile, with a whole procession, to the temple of Jupiter; again it was to the altars of Mars or Venus, always to give them over to one or other of their deified passions" (Godet).

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