Sing and rejoice, O daughter of Zion: for, see, I come, and I will dwell in the middle of you, said the LORD.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)Zechariah 2:10-12. Sing and rejoice, &c. — Here the prophet calls the daughter of Zion, or the whole Jewish nation, being redeemed and restored, to rejoice in the goodness showed them, and to proclaim the praises of Him who showed it. For lo, I come, &c. — To execute judgments on thine adversaries, and to complete thy deliverance and salvation. And I will dwell in the midst of thee — To defend and bless thee. This was fulfilled in part to the Jews, but more fully to the gospel church. And many nations shall be joined to the Lord — The church shall be greatly enlarged by the accession of the Gentiles to it; and shall receive a still further increase when, upon the conversion of the Jews, the fulness of the Gentiles shall be brought in. And shall be my people — My true worshippers, subjects, and servants. This promise relates chiefly to the latter times. Compare Zechariah 8:21-23. And thou shalt know that the Lord of hosts hath sent me — The fulfilling of these my words shall be an undeniable evidence that my mission is divine. And the Lord shall inherit Judah his portion — Shall claim, recover, possess, and delight in Judah, as a man doth in his paternal inheritance. God will give visible tokens that the land of Judea is, in a peculiar sense, his land; and its inhabitants his peculiar people, according to the tenor of the covenant he made with their fathers. And shall choose Jerusalem again — Will have a regard to Jerusalem, as he formerly had. This prophecy will be more fully accomplished at the general restoration of the Jewish nation.Isaiah 54:1, as here, on the coming in of the Gentiles, "Cry aloud for joy, O daughter of Zion; jubilate, O Israel; rejoice and exult with all the heart, O daughter of Jerusalem; the Lord, the King of Israel, is in the midst of thee" Zephaniah 3:14-15. "Shout and cry aloud for joy, O inhabitant of Zion; for great in the midst of thee is the Holy One of Israel" Isaiah 12:6. The source of joy is a fresh coming of God, a coming, whereby He should dwell abidingly among them: truly what is this, but the Incarnation? As John saith, "The Word was made Flesh and dwelt among us" John 1:14; and, "Behold the tabernacle of God is with men, and He will dwell with them, and they shall be His people, and God Himself shall be with them and shall be their God" Revelation 21:3.
Cyril: "Hence too you may learn how great a subject of contentment above is the Presence of the Saviour upon earth. He could not then but bid the spiritual Zion, "which is the Church of the Living God" 1 Timothy 3:15, the most sacred multitude of those saved by faith, to cry aloud for joy and rejoice. But it was announced that He should come and be in the midst of her. For John saith to us, The Word "was in the world" John 1:10, and, being God, was not severed from His creatures, but He was Himself the Source of life to all living, and holding all things together to well-being and life; but "the world knew Him not" John 1:10 : for it worshiped the creature. But He came among us, when, taking our likeness, He was conceived by the holy Virgin, and "was seen upon earth and conversed with men" , and the divine David witnesseth saying, "Our God shall come manifestly, and shall not keep silence" Psalm 50:3. Then also was there a haven for the Gentiles. For now no longer was the race of Israel alone taught, but the whole earth was engoldened with the evangelical preachings, and in every nation and country "great is His Name."
Jerome: "This too is to be understood of the Person of the Lord, that He exhorts His people, being restored from the captivity to their former abode, to be glad and rejoice, because the Lord Himself cometh and dwelleth in the midst of her, and many nations shall believe in Him, of whom it is said, "Ask of Me and I will give Thee nations for Thine inheritance, and the ends of the earth for Thy possession" Psalm 2:8, and He shall dwell in the midst of them, as He saith to His disciples, "Lo, I am with you always, even unto the end of the world" Matthew 28:20.Sing and rejoice: now Christ calls them to rejoice in the goodness showed to them, and to sing forth the praises of him who showed it.
O daughter of Zion; the whole nation of the Jews, the peculiar, redeemed, and restored people of God; they that had been in great and long captivity.
I come, to execute judgments on thine adversaries, to complete thy deliverance and salvation; I come as foretold and promised, in the dispensations of Providence among the nations, in the performance of promises to you my people.
I will dwell in the midst of thee; pitch my tabernacle, nay, build my habitation and house, and reside in it, give you my ordinances, my blessing, and my presence. This was fulfilled in part presently, and so through near five hundred years till Christ came, and ever since to his gospel church. Revelation 18:20 and because of the presence of God in the midst of them, as follows:
for, lo, I come; not in the flesh: this is not to be understood of the incarnation of Christ; or of his coming in human nature to dwell in the land of Judea; but of his spiritual coming in the latter day, to set up his kingdom in the world, in a more visible and glorious manner:
and I will dwell in the midst of thee, saith the Lord; the presence of Christ in his churches, and with his people, in attendance on his word and ordinances, will be very manifest and constant in the latter day.Sing and rejoice, O daughter of Zion: for, lo, I come, and I will dwell in the midst of thee, saith the LORD.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)10. I will dwell in the midst of thee] This prophecy had a fulfilment, when the Temple was rebuilt and the worship of God was resumed on Mount Zion. But it had a higher fulfilment when “the Word was made flesh and dwelt among us” (John 1:14, Malachi 3:1), and the promise of the Gentiles being joined to the Lord, Zechariah 2:11, was also accomplished. It awaits its highest fulfilment in both particulars in the times that are yet future. Revelation 7:15; Revelation 21:3; Revelation 21:22-26.Verse 10. - Sing and rejoice. The Jews released from Babylon, and the whole Jewish nation, are bidden to exult in the promised protection and presence of the Lord. Lo, I come; Septuagint, ἰδοὺ ἐγὼ ἔρχομαι, So Christ is called, ὁ ἐρχόμενος, "he that cometh" (Matthew 11:3). I will dwell in the midst of thee (Zechariah 8:3; Zechariah 9:9). Not merely the rebuilding of the temple is siginified, and the re-establisihment of the ordained worship (though without the Shechinah), but rather the incarnation of Christ and his perpetual presence in the Church. Κατασκηνώσω ἐν μέσῳ σου (Septuagint), which recalls John 1:14, "The Word was made flesh, and dwelt (ἐσκήνωσεν) among us" (comp. Isaiah 12:6; Ezekiel 43:9; Ezekiel 48:35; Malachi 3:1). Habakkuk 2:12. "Woe to him who buildeth cities with blood, and foundeth castles with injustice. Habakkuk 2:14. For the earth will be filled with knowledge of the glory of Jehovah, as the waters cover the sea." The earnest endeavour of the Chaldaean to found his dynasty in permanency through evil gain, manifested itself also in the building of cities with the blood and sweat of the subjugated nations. עיר and קריה are synonymous, and are used in the singular with indefinite generality, like קריה in Habakkuk 2:8. The preposition ב, attached to דּמים and עולה, denotes the means employed to attain the end, as in Micah 3:10 and Jeremiah 22:13. This was murder, bloodshed, transportation, and tyranny of every kind. Kōnēn is not a participle with the Mem dropped, but a perfect; the address, which was opened with a participle, being continued in the finite tense (cf. Ewald, 350, a). With Habakkuk 2:13 the address takes a different turn from that which it has in the preceding woes. Whereas there the woe is always more fully expanded in the central verse by an exposition of the wrong, we have here a statement that it is of Jehovah, i.e., is ordered or inflicted by Him, that the nations weary themselves for the fire. The ו before יינעוּ introduces the declaration of what it is that comes from Jehovah. הלוא הנּה (is it not? behold!) are connected together, as in 2 Chronicles 25:26, to point to what follows as something great that was floating before the mind of the prophet. בּדי אשׁ, literally, for the need of the fire (compare Nahum 2:13 and Isaiah 40:16). They labour for the fire, i.e., that the fire may devour the cities that have been built with severe exertion, which exhausts the strength of the nations. So far they weary themselves for vanity, since the buildings are one day to fall into ruins, or be destroyed. Jeremiah (Jeremiah 51:58) has very suitably applied these words to the destruction of Babylon. This wearying of themselves for vanity is determined by Jehovah, for (Habakkuk 2:14) the earth shall be filled with the knowledge of the glory of Jehovah. That this may be the case, the kingdom of the world, which is hostile to the Lord and His glory, must be destroyed. This promise therefore involves a threat directed against the Chaldaean. His usurped glory shall be destroyed, that the glory of Jehovah of Sabaoth, i.e., of the God of the universe, may fill the whole earth. The thought in Habakkuk 2:14 is formed after Isaiah 11:9, with trifling alterations, partly substantial, partly only formal. The choice of the niphal תּפּלא instead of the מלאה of Isaiah refers to the actual fact, and is induced in both passages by the different turn given to the thought. In Isaiah, for example, this thought closes the description of the glory and blessedness of the Messianic kingdom in its perfected state. The earth is then full of the knowledge of the Lord, and the peace throughout all nature which has already been promised is one fruit of that knowledge. In Habakkuk, on the other hand, this knowledge is only secured through the overthrow of the kingdom of the world, and consequently only thereby will the earth be filled with it, and that not with the knowledge of Jehovah (as in Isaiah), but with the knowledge of His glory (כּבוד יי), which is manifested in the judgment and overthrow of all ungodly powers (Isaiah 2:12-21; Isaiah 6:3, compared with the primary passage, Numbers 14:21). כּבוד יי is "the δόξα of Jehovah, which includes His right of majesty over the whole earth" (Delitzsch). יכסּוּ על־ים is altered in form, but not in sense, from the ליּם מכסּים of Isaiah; and יכסּוּ is to be taken relatively, since כ is only used as a preposition before a noun or participle, and not like a conjunction before a whole sentence (comp. Ewald, 360, a, with 337, c). לדער is an infinitive, not a noun, with the preposition ל; for מלא, ימּלא is construed with the accus. rei, lit., the earth will be filled with the acknowledging. The water of the sea is a figure denoting overflowing abundance.
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