Luke 20
Vincent's Word Studies
And it came to pass, that on one of those days, as he taught the people in the temple, and preached the gospel, the chief priests and the scribes came upon him with the elders,
And spake unto him, saying, Tell us, by what authority doest thou these things? or who is he that gave thee this authority?
And he answered and said unto them, I will also ask you one thing; and answer me:
The baptism of John, was it from heaven, or of men?
And they reasoned with themselves, saying, If we shall say, From heaven; he will say, Why then believed ye him not?
They reasoned (συνελογίσαντο)

Only here in New Testament. The preposition, σύν, together, and the additional with themselves, denote a very close conference.

But and if we say, Of men; all the people will stone us: for they be persuaded that John was a prophet.
Will stone (καταλιθάσει)

Only here in New Testament. "Stone us down" (κατά); i.e., stone us to death.

They be persuaded (πεπεισμένος ἐστιν)

Lit., It (the people collectively) is hawing been persuaded. Denoting a long-standing and settled persuasion.

And they answered, that they could not tell whence it was.
And Jesus said unto them, Neither tell I you by what authority I do these things.
Then began he to speak to the people this parable; A certain man planted a vineyard, and let it forth to husbandmen, and went into a far country for a long time.
Let it out

See on Matthew 21:33.

Went into a far country

Not necessarily far, but as Rev., another country. See on Mark 13:34.

A long time (ἱκανούς)

See on ch. Luke 7:6.

And at the season he sent a servant to the husbandmen, that they should give him of the fruit of the vineyard: but the husbandmen beat him, and sent him away empty.
Of the fruit

See on Mark 12:2.

And again he sent another servant: and they beat him also, and entreated him shamefully, and sent him away empty.
He sent yet (προσέθετο πέμψαι)

Lit., he added to send. A Hebrew form of expression.

And again he sent a third: and they wounded him also, and cast him out.
Wounded (τραυματίσαντες)

Only here and Acts 19:16.

Then said the lord of the vineyard, What shall I do? I will send my beloved son: it may be they will reverence him when they see him.
It may be (ἴσως)

Only here in New Testament. The adverb of ἴσος, equal. It expresses more than perhaps, implying rather a strong probability. Compare the phrase, it is an even chance that.


See on Matthew 21:37.

But when the husbandmen saw him, they reasoned among themselves, saying, This is the heir: come, let us kill him, that the inheritance may be ours.
So they cast him out of the vineyard, and killed him. What therefore shall the lord of the vineyard do unto them?
He shall come and destroy these husbandmen, and shall give the vineyard to others. And when they heard it, they said, God forbid.

See on Matthew 21:41.

God forbid (μὴ γένοιτο)

Lit., may it not be.

And he beheld them, and said, What is this then that is written, The stone which the builders rejected, the same is become the head of the corner?
The stone, etc

See on 1 Peter 2:4-7.

Whosoever shall fall upon that stone shall be broken; but on whomsoever it shall fall, it will grind him to powder.
Shall be broken (συνθλασθήσεται)

Rev., rightly, broken to pieces. See on Matthew 21:44.

Grind him to powder (λικμήσει)

See on Matthew 21:44

And the chief priests and the scribes the same hour sought to lay hands on him; and they feared the people: for they perceived that he had spoken this parable against them.
And they watched him, and sent forth spies, which should feign themselves just men, that they might take hold of his words, that so they might deliver him unto the power and authority of the governor.

See on Mark 3:2.

Spies (ἐγκαθέτους)

Only here in New Testament. From ἐγκαθίμηι, to send in, as a garrison into a city. Hence of persons sent in for the purpose of espionage.

Which should feign (ὑποκρινομένους)

Lit., feigning. Rev., which feigned. Only here in New Testament. See on hypocrites, Matthew 23:13.

The power and authority (τῇ ἀρχῇ καὶ τῇ ἐξουσίᾳ)

The former, the Roman power in general; the latter, the specific authority of the official.

And they asked him, saying, Master, we know that thou sayest and teachest rightly, neither acceptest thou the person of any, but teachest the way of God truly:
Acceptest not the person

See on James 2:1.

Is it lawful for us to give tribute unto Caesar, or no?
Tribute (φόρον)

From φέρω, to bring. Something, therefore, which is brought in by way of payment. Luke uses the Greek word instead of the Latin κῆνσον, census, in Matthew and Mark.

But he perceived their craftiness, and said unto them, Why tempt ye me?

See on considerest, Matthew 7:3.

Craftiness (πανουργίαν)

From πᾶν, every, and ἔργον, deed. Readiness for every and any deed. Hence unscrupulousness, and so, generally, knavery.

Shew me a penny. Whose image and superscription hath it? They answered and said, Caesar's.

See on Matthew 20:2.

Image and superscription

See on Matthew 22:20.

And he said unto them, Render therefore unto Caesar the things which be Caesar's, and unto God the things which be God's.
And they could not take hold of his words before the people: and they marvelled at his answer, and held their peace.
His words (ῥήματος)

Singular number. Rev., properly, saying. See on Luke 1:37.

Then came to him certain of the Sadducees, which deny that there is any resurrection; and they asked him,

See on Mark 12:18.

Saying, Master, Moses wrote unto us, If any man's brother die, having a wife, and he die without children, that his brother should take his wife, and raise up seed unto his brother.
There were therefore seven brethren: and the first took a wife, and died without children.
And the second took her to wife, and he died childless.
And the third took her; and in like manner the seven also: and they left no children, and died.
Last of all the woman died also.
Therefore in the resurrection whose wife of them is she? for seven had her to wife.
And Jesus answering said unto them, The children of this world marry, and are given in marriage:
But they which shall be accounted worthy to obtain that world, and the resurrection from the dead, neither marry, nor are given in marriage:
Neither can they die any more: for they are equal unto the angels; and are the children of God, being the children of the resurrection.
Equal unto the angels (ἰσάγγελοι)

Only here in New Testament.

Now that the dead are raised, even Moses shewed at the bush, when he calleth the Lord the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.
Shewed (ἐμήνυσεν)

Originally to disclose something secret. Hence, generally, to make known.

At the bush (ἐπὶ τῆς βάτου)

Wrong. Render as Rev., in the place concerning the bush. See on Mark 12:26.

For he is not a God of the dead, but of the living: for all live unto him.
Then certain of the scribes answering said, Master, thou hast well said.
And after that they durst not ask him any question at all.
And he said unto them, How say they that Christ is David's son?
And David himself saith in the book of Psalms, The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand,
Till I make thine enemies thy footstool.
Of thy feet (τῶν ποδῶν σου)

A. V. omits.

David therefore calleth him Lord, how is he then his son?
Then in the audience of all the people he said unto his disciples,
Beware of the scribes, which desire to walk in long robes, and love greetings in the markets, and the highest seats in the synagogues, and the chief rooms at feasts;
Chief rooms

Rev., correctly, chief places. See on Mark 12:39.

Which devour widows' houses, and for a shew make long prayers: the same shall receive greater damnation.
Widows' houses

See on Mark 12:40.

Vincent's Word Studies, by Marvin R. Vincent [1886].
Text Courtesy of Internet Sacred Texts Archive.

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