Vincent's Word Studies
And when the day of Pentecost was fully come, they were all with one accord in one place.
Was fully come (συμπληροῦσθαι)
Used by Luke only. See on Luke 9:51. Lit., as Rev., margin, was being fulfilled. The day, according to the Hebrew mode, is conceived as a measure to be filled up. So long as the day had not yet arrived, the measure was not full. The words denote in process of fulfilment.
Meaning fiftieth; because occurring on the fiftieth day, calculated from the second day of unleavened bread. In the Old Testament it is called the feast of weeks, and the feast of harvest. Its primary object was to thank God for the blessings of harvest. See Deuteronomy 16:10, Deuteronomy 16:11.
With one accord (ὁμοθυμαδὸν)
The best texts substitute ὁμοῦ, together. So Rev.
And suddenly there came a sound from heaven as of a rushing mighty wind, and it filled all the house where they were sitting.
A sound (ἦχος)
See on Luke 4:37.
Of a rushing mighty wind (φερομένης πνοῆς βιαίας)
Lit., of a mighty wind borne along. Πνοή is a blowing, a blast. Only here and Acts 17:25. Rev., as of the rushing of a mighty wind.
Not merely the room. Compare Acts 1:13.
Awaiting the hour of prayer. See Acts 2:15.
And there appeared unto them cloven tongues like as of fire, and it sat upon each of them.
See on Luke 22:43.
Cloven tongues (διαμεριζόμεναι γλῶσσαι)
Many prefer to render tongues distributing themselves, or being distributed among the disciples, instead of referring it to the cloven appearance of each tongue. Rev., tongues parting asunder.
Like as of fire
Not consisting off fire, but resembliny (ὡσεὶ).
Note the singular. One of these luminous appearances sat upon each.
And they were all filled with the Holy Ghost, and began to speak with other tongues, as the Spirit gave them utterance.
Bringing into prominence the first impulse of the act. See on began, Acts 1:1.
With other tongues (ἑτέραις γλώσσαις)
Strictly different, from their native tongues, and also different tongues spoken by the different apostles. See on Matthew 6:24.
A graphic imperfect; kept giving them the language and the appropriate words as the case required from time to time. It would seem that each apostle was speaking to a group, or to individuals. The general address to the multitude followed from the lips of Peter.
Used only by Luke and in the Acts. Lit., to utter. A peculiar word, and purposely chosen to denote the clear, loud utterance under the miraculous impulse. It is used by later Greek writers of the utterances of oracles or seers. So in the Septuagint, of prophesying. See 1 Chronicles 25:1; Deuteronomy 32:2; Zechariah 10:2; Ezekiel 13:19.
And there were dwelling at Jerusalem Jews, devout men, out of every nation under heaven.
Denoting an abiding; but here it must be taken in a wide sense, since among these are mentioned those whose permanent residence was in Mesopotamia, etc. See Acts 2:9.
See on Luke 2:25.
Now when this was noised abroad, the multitude came together, and were confounded, because that every man heard them speak in his own language.
When this was noised abroad (γενομένης δὲ τῆς φωνῆς ταύτης)
Wrong. Lit., And this sound having taken place. Rev., correctly, when this sound was heard. The sound of the rushing wind.
Were confounded (συνεχύθη)
Imperfect, were hearing.
Rather, dialect; since the foreigners present spoke, not only different languages, but different dialects of the same language. The Phrygians and Pamphylians, for instance, both spoke Greek, but in different idioms; the Parthians, Medes, and Elamites all spoke Persian, but in different provincial forms.
And they were all amazed and marvelled, saying one to another, Behold, are not all these which speak Galilaeans?
Amazed and marvelled (ἐξίσταντο καὶ ἐθαύμαζον)
The former word denotes the first overwhelming surprise. The verb is literally to put out of place; hence, out of one's senses. Compare Mark 3:21 : "He is beside himself." The latter word, marvelled, denotes the continuing wonder; meaning to regard with amazement, and with a suggestion of beginning to speculate on the matter.
Not regarded as a sect, for the name was not given to Christians until afterward; but with reference to their nationality. They used a peculiar dialect, which distinguished them from the inhabitants of Judaea. Compare Mark 14:70. They were blamed for neglecting the study of their language, and charged with errors in grammar and ridiculous mispronunciations.
And how hear we every man in our own tongue, wherein we were born?
Parthians, and Medes, and Elamites, and the dwellers in Mesopotamia, and in Judaea, and Cappadocia, in Pontus, and Asia,
Parthians, Medes, and Elamites
Representing portions of the Persian empire.
The dialect of Galilee being different from that of Judaea.
Not the Asiatic continent nor Asia Minor. In the time of the apostles the term was commonly understood of the proconsular province of Asia, principally of the kingdom of Pergamus left by Attalus III. to the Romans, and including Lydia, Mysia, Caria, and at times parts of Phrygia. The name Asia Minor did not come into use until the fourth century of our era.
Phrygia, and Pamphylia, in Egypt, and in the parts of Libya about Cyrene, and strangers of Rome, Jews and proselytes,
Where the Jews were numerous. Two-fifths of the population of Alexandria were said to have been Jews.
In Libya, west of Egypt.
See on 1 Peter 1:1. Rev., rightly, sojourners.
Cretes and Arabians, we do hear them speak in our tongues the wonderful works of God.
Whose country bordered on Judaea, and must have contained many Jews.
Rev., rightly, gives the force of the participle, speaking.
Wonderful works (μεγαλεῖα)
See on majesty, 2 Peter 1:16. From μέγας great. Rev., mighty works. Used by Luke only.
And they were all amazed, and were in doubt, saying one to another, What meaneth this?
Were in doubt (διηπόρουν)
Used by Luke only. See on Luke 9:7. Better, as Rev., perplexed.
Others mocking said, These men are full of new wine.
Of a different class. The first who commented on the wonder did so curiously, but with no prejudice. Those who now spoke did so in a hostile spirit. See on Acts 2:4.
Mocking (διαχλευάζοντες; so the best texts)
From χλεύη, a joke. Only here in New Testament.
New wine (γλεύκους)
Lit., "sweet wine." Of course intoxicating.
But Peter, standing up with the eleven, lifted up his voice, and said unto them, Ye men of Judaea, and all ye that dwell at Jerusalem, be this known unto you, and hearken to my words:
Standing up (σταθεὶς)
See on Acts 2:4. Better, Rev., spake forth. "This most solemn, earnest, yet sober speech" (Bengel).
Only here in New Testament. From ἐν, in; and οὖς the ear. Rev., give ear.
See on Luke 1:37.
For these are not drunken, as ye suppose, seeing it is but the third hour of the day.
Nine in the morning: the hour of morning prayer. Compare 1 Thessalonians 5:7.
But this is that which was spoken by the prophet Joel;
And it shall come to pass in the last days, saith God, I will pour out of my Spirit upon all flesh: and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, and your young men shall see visions, and your old men shall dream dreams:
Without distinction of age, sex, or condition.
Dream dreams (ἐνύπνια ἐνυπνιασθήσονται)
The best texts read ἐνυπνίοις, with dreams. The verb occurs only here and Jde 1:8. The reference is to visions in sleep.
And on my servants and on my handmaidens I will pour out in those days of my Spirit; and they shall prophesy:
And I will shew wonders in heaven above, and signs in the earth beneath; blood, and fire, and vapour of smoke:
I will shew (δώσω)
Lit., I will give.
Or portents. See on Matthew 11:20.
See on Matthew 11:20.
The sun shall be turned into darkness, and the moon into blood, before that great and notable day of the Lord come:
That great and notable day of the Lord come
The Rev. heightens the emphasis by following the Greek order, the day of the Lord, that great and notable day. Notable (ἐπιφανῆ) only here in New Testament. The kindred noun ἐπιφάνεια, appearing (compare our word Epiphany), is often used of the second coming of the Lord. See 1 Timothy 6:14; 2 Timothy 4:1; Titus 2:13.
And it shall come to pass, that whosoever shall call on the name of the Lord shall be saved.
Ye men of Israel, hear these words; Jesus of Nazareth, a man approved of God among you by miracles and wonders and signs, which God did by him in the midst of you, as ye yourselves also know:
The verb means to point out or shew forth. Shewn to be that which he claimed to be.
Better, Rev., mighty works. Lit., powers. See on Matthew 11:20.
Him, being delivered by the determinate counsel and foreknowledge of God, ye have taken, and by wicked hands have crucified and slain:
Being delivered (ἔκδοτον)
An adjective: given forth, betrayed.
Ye have taken
The best texts omit.
The best texts read by the hand of lawless
Only here in New Testament. The verb simply means to affix to or on anything. The idea of the cross is left to be supplied.
Have slain (ἀνείλετε)
See on Luke 23:32. Rev., rendering the aorist more closely, did slay.
Whom God hath raised up, having loosed the pains of death: because it was not possible that he should be holden of it.
The meaning is disputed. Some claim that Peter followed the Septuagint mistranslation of Psalm 18:5, where the Hebrew word for snares is rendered by the word used here, pains; and that, therefore, it should be rendered snares of death; the figure being that of escape from the snare of a huntsman. Others suppose that death is represented in travail, the birth-pangs ceasing with the delivery; i.e., the resurrection. This seems to be far-fetched, though it is true that in classical Greek the word is used commonly of birth-throes. It is better, perhaps, on the whole, to take the expression in the sense of the A. V., and to make the pains of death stand for death generally.
For David speaketh concerning him, I foresaw the Lord always before my face, for he is on my right hand, that I should not be moved:
I foresaw (προωρώμην)
Not to see beforehand, but to see before one's self, as in Psalm 16:8.
I should not be moved (μὴ σαλευθῶ)
Therefore did my heart rejoice, and my tongue was glad; moreover also my flesh shall rest in hope:
Rev., was glad. See on 1 Peter 1:6.
Shall rest (κατασκηνώσει)
See on nests, Matthew 8:20. Better, as Rev., dwell. Lit., dwell in a tent or tabernacle. Rendered lodge, Matthew 13:32; Mark 4:32; Luke 13:19. It is a beautiful metaphor. My flesh shall encamp on hope; pitch its tent there to rest through the night of death, until the morning of resurrection.
In hope ( ἐπ' ἐλπίδι)
Lit., on hope: resting on the hope of resurrection; his body being poetically conceived as hoping.
Because thou wilt not leave my soul in hell, neither wilt thou suffer thine Holy One to see corruption.
Lit., leave behind.
Thou hast made known to me the ways of life; thou shalt make me full of joy with thy countenance.
Men and brethren, let me freely speak unto you of the patriarch David, that he is both dead and buried, and his sepulchre is with us unto this day.
Let me speak (ἐξὸν εἰπεῖν)
Lit., it is permitted me. Rev., I may. It is allowable for him to speak, because the facts are notorious.
Freely (μετὰ παῤῥησίας)
Lit., with freedom. The latter word from πᾶν, all, and ῥῆσις, speech; speaking everything, and therefore without reserve.
The patriarch (πατριάρχου)
From ἄρχω, to begin, and πατριά, a pedigree. Applied to David as the father of the royal family from which the Messiah sprang. It is used in the New Testament of Abraham (Hebrews 7:4), and of the sons of Jacob (Acts 7:8).
He is dead and buried (ἐτελεύτησε καὶ ἐτάφη)
Aorists, denoting what occurred at a definite past time. Rev., rightly, he both died and was buried.
His sepulchre is with us
Or among us (ἐν ἡμῖν). On Mount Zion, where most of the Jewish kings were interred in the same tomb.
Therefore being a prophet, and knowing that God had sworn with an oath to him, that of the fruit of his loins, according to the flesh, he would raise up Christ to sit on his throne;
According to the flesh, he would raise up Christ
The best texts omit. Render as Rev., he would set one upon his throne.
He seeing this before spake of the resurrection of Christ, that his soul was not left in hell, neither his flesh did see corruption.
This Jesus hath God raised up, whereof we all are witnesses.
Therefore being by the right hand of God exalted, and having received of the Father the promise of the Holy Ghost, he hath shed forth this, which ye now see and hear.
For David is not ascended into the heavens: but he saith himself, The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand,
Is not ascended (οὐ ἀνέβη)
Aorist, did not ascend.
Until I make thy foes thy footstool.
A.V. omits of thy feet.
Therefore let all the house of Israel know assuredly, that God hath made that same Jesus, whom ye have crucified, both Lord and Christ.
From ἀ, not, and σφάλλω, to cause to fall. Hence, firmly, steadfastly.
Now when they heard this, they were pricked in their heart, and said unto Peter and to the rest of the apostles, Men and brethren, what shall we do?
They were pricked (κατενύγησαν)
Only here in New Testament. The word does not occur in profane Greek. It is found in the Septuagint, as Genesis 34:7, of the grief of the sons of Jacob at the dishonor of Dinah. See, also, Psalm 109:16(Sept. 108) Psalm 109:16 : "broken in heart." The kindred noun κατάνυξις occurs Romans 11:8, in the sense of slumber (Rev., stupor). Compare Isaiah 29:10. See, also, Psalm 60:3. (Sept. 59) Psalm 60:3 : οἶνον κατανύξεως, the wine of astonishment (Rev., wine of staggering). The radical idea of the word is given in the simple verb νύσσω, to prick with a sharp point. So Homer, of the puncture of a spear; of horses dinting the earth with their hoofs, etc. Here, therefore, of the sharp, painful emotion, the sting produced by Peter's words. Cicero, speaking of the oratory of Pericles, says that his speech left stings in the minds of his hearers ("De Oratore," iii., 34.)
Then Peter said unto them, Repent, and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of sins, and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost.
See on Matthew 3:2.
In the name (ἐπὶ τῷ ὀνόματι)
Lit., upon the name. See on Matthew 28:19.
For the promise is unto you, and to your children, and to all that are afar off, even as many as the Lord our God shall call.
Afar off (εἰς μακρὰν)
Lit., unto a long way. Referring probably to the Gentiles, who are described by this phrase both in the Old and New Testaments. See Zechariah 6:15; Ephesians 2:11-13. Peter knew the fact that the Gentiles were to be received into the Church, but not the mode. He expected they would become Christians through the medium of the Jewish religion. It was already revealed in the Old Testament that they should be received, and Christ himself had commanded the apostles to preach to all nations.
Shall call (προσκαλέσηται)
Rev. gives the force of πρός, to: "shall call unto him."
And with many other words did he testify and exhort, saying, Save yourselves from this untoward generation.
Did he testify (διεμαρτύρετο)
The preposition διά gives the force of solemnly, earnestly.
Save yourselves (σώθητε)
More strictly, be ye saved.
Lit., crooked. Toward in earlier English meant docile, apt. The opposite is froward (froward). So Shakespeare:
"'Tis a good hearing when children are toward,
But a harsh hearing when women are froward."
Taming of the Shrew, v., 2.
"Spoken like a toward prince."
3 Henry VI., ii., 2.
Untoward, therefore, meant intractable, perverse. So Shakespeare:
"What means this scorn, thou most untoward knave ?"
K. John, i, 1.
"And if she be froward,
Then hast thou taught Hortensio to be untoward."
Taming of the Shrew, iv., 5.
Compare Deuteronomy 32:5.
Then they that gladly received his word were baptized: and the same day there were added unto them about three thousand souls.
And they continued stedfastly in the apostles' doctrine and fellowship, and in breaking of bread, and in prayers.
See on Acts 1:14.
From κοινός, common. A relation between individuals which involves a common interest and a mutual, active participation in that interest and in each other. The word answers to the Latin communio, from communis, common. Hence, sometimes rendered communion, as 1 Corinthians 10:16; 2 Corinthians 13:14. Fellowship is the most common rendering. Thus Philippians 1:5 : "your fellowship in the gospel," signifying co-operation in the widest sense; participation in sympathy, suffering, and labor. Compare 1 John 1:3, 1 John 1:6, 1 John 1:7. Occasionally it is used to express the particular form which the spirit of fellowship assumes; as in Romans 15:26; Hebrews 13:16, where it signifies the giving of alms, but always with an emphasis upon the principle of Christian fellowship which underlies the gift.
Used by Luke only, and only in the phrase breaking of bread. The kindred verb κλάζω or κλάω, to break, occurs often, but, like the noun, only of breaking bread. Hence used to designate the celebration of the Lord's Supper.
And fear came upon every soul: and many wonders and signs were done by the apostles.
And all that believed were together, and had all things common;
Compare fellowship, Acts 2:42.
And sold their possessions and goods, and parted them to all men, as every man had need.
Possessions in general; movables.
And they, continuing daily with one accord in the temple, and breaking bread from house to house, did eat their meat with gladness and singleness of heart,
With one accord (ὁμοθυμαδὸν)
See on Matthew 18:19.
From house to house (κατ' οἶκον)
Did eat their meat (μετελάμβανον τροφῆς)
Rev., take their food. Partake would be better, giving the force of μετά, with. Note the imperfect: "continued to partake."
Only here in New Testament. Derived from ἀ, not, and φελλεύς, stony ground. Hence of something simple or plain.
Praising God, and having favour with all the people. And the Lord added to the church daily such as should be saved.
Imperfect: kept adding.
Such as should be saved (τοὺς σωζομένους)
Lit., as Rev., those that were being saved. The rendering of the A. V. would require the verb to be in the future, whereas it is the present participle. Compare 1 Corinthians 1:18. Salvation is a thing of the present, as well as of the past and future. The verb is used in all these senses in the New Testament. Thus, we were saved (not are, as A. V.), Romans 8:24; shall or shalt be saved, Romans 10:9, Romans 10:13; ye are being saved, 1 Corinthians 15:2. "Godliness, righteousness, is life, is salvation. And it is hardly necessary to say that the divorce of morality and religion must be fostered and encouraged by failing to note this, and so laying the whole stress either on the past or on the future - on the first call, or on the final change. It is, therefore, important that the idea of salvation as a rescue from sin, through the knowledge of God in Christ, and therefore a progressive condition, a present state, should not be obscured, and we can but regret such a translation as Acts 2:47, 'The Lord added to the church daily such as should be saved,' where the Greek implies a different idea" (Lightfoot, "On a Fresh Revision of the New Testament").
To the church
See on Matthew 16:18.