Romans 8:10
And if Christ be in you, the body is dead because of sin; but the Spirit is life because of righteousness.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(10) The results of the presence of Christ in the soul.

The body is dead because of sin.—Here the word is evidently used of physical death. The doom entailed by sin still, indeed, attaches to the body—but only to the body. The body, indeed, must die, but there the hold of sin upon the Christian ends; it cannot touch him farther.

The Spirit is life because of righteousness.—But turn to another side of human nature; take it in its highest part and faculty—the spirit. That is full of vitality because it is full of righteousness, first imputed and then real. Life and righteousness are correlative terms, the one involving the other.

Romans 8:10-11. And if Christ be in you — Namely, by his Spirit dwelling in you: where the Spirit of Christ is, there is Christ: the body is dead Το μεν σωμα νεκρον, the body indeed is dead, devoted to death; for our belonging to Christ, or having Christ in us, does not exempt the body from undergoing the sentence of death passed on all mankind; because of sin — Heretofore committed; especially the sin of Adam, by which death entered into the world, and the sinful nature derived from him; but the Spirit is life — The soul is quickened and made alive to God; and shall, after the death of the body, continue living, active, and happy; because of righteousness — Now attained through the second Adam, the Lord our righteousness. But — Rather, and, for the apostle proceeds to speak of a further blessing; as if he had said, If you have Christ in you, not only shall your souls live after the death of the body in felicity and glory, but your bodies also shall rise to share therein; for we have this further joyful hope, that if the Spirit of him that raised up Jesus — Our great covenant head; from the dead, dwell in you; he — God the Father; that raised up Christ from the dead — The first-fruits of them that sleep; shall also quicken your mortal bodies — Though corrupted and consumed in the grave; by his Spirit — Or on account of his Spirit; which dwelleth in you — And now communicates divine life to your souls, and creates them anew.8:10-17 If the Spirit be in us, Christ is in us. He dwells in the heart by faith. Grace in the soul is its new nature; the soul is alive to God, and has begun its holy happiness which shall endure for ever. The righteousness of Christ imputed, secures the soul, the better part, from death. From hence we see how much it is our duty to walk, not after the flesh, but after the Spirit. If any habitually live according to corrupt lustings, they will certainly perish in their sins, whatever they profess. And what can a worldly life present, worthy for a moment to be put against this noble prize of our high calling? Let us then, by the Spirit, endeavour more and more to mortify the flesh. Regeneration by the Holy Spirit brings a new and Divine life to the soul, though in a feeble state. And the sons of God have the Spirit to work in them the disposition of children; they have not the spirit of bondage, which the Old Testament church was under, through the darkness of that dispensation. The Spirit of adoption was not then plentifully poured out. Also it refers to that spirit of bondage, under which many saints were at their conversion. Many speak peace to themselves, to whom God does not speak peace. But those who are sanctified, have God's Spirit witnessing with their spirits, in and by his speaking peace to the soul. Though we may now seem to be losers for Christ, we shall not, we cannot, be losers by him in the end.And if Christ be in you - This is evidently a figurative expression, where the word "Christ" is used to denote his spirit, his principles; that is, he influences the man. Literally, he cannot be in a Christian; but the close connection between him and Christians, and the fact that they are entirely under his influence, is expressed by this strong figurative language. It is language which is not infrequently used; compare Galatians 2:20; Colossians 1:27.

(The union between Christ and his people is sometimes explained of a merely relative in opposition to a real union. The union which subsists between a substitute, or surety, and the persons in whose room he has placed himself, is frequently offered in explanation of the Scripture language on the subject. In this view, Christ is regarded as legally one with his people, inasmuch, as what he has done or obtained, is held as done and obtained by them. Another relative union, employed to illustrate that which subsists between Christ and believers, is the union of a chief and his followers, which is simply a union of design, interest, sentiment, affection, destiny, etc. Now these representations are true so far as they go; and furnish much interesting and profitable illustration. They fall short, however, of the full sense of Scripture on the point. That there is a real or vital union between Christ and his people, appears from the language of the inspired writers in regard to it.

The special phraseology which they employ, cannot well be explained of any relative union At all events, it is as strong as they could have employed, on the supposition, that they had wished to convey the idea of the most intimate possible connection. Christ is said to be "in them," and they are represented as "in him." He "abides in them, and they in him." They "dwelt" in each other; John 14:20; John 15:4; 1 John 3:24; 1 John 4:12. Moreover, the Scripture illustrations of the subject furnish evidence to the same effect. The mystical union, as it has been called, is compared to the union of stones in a building, branches in a vine, members in a human body, and even to what subsists between the Father and the Son; 1 Peter 2:4; Ephesians 2:20, Ephesians 2:22; John 15:1-8; 1Co. 12:12-31; John 17:20-23. Now if all these are real unions, is not this union real also? If not, where is the propriety or justice of the comparisons? Instead of leading us to form accurate notions on the subject, they would seem calculated to mislead.

This real and vital union is formed by the one Spirit of Christ, the Holy Spirit pervading the Head and the members of the mystical body; 1 Corinthians 6:17; 1 Corinthians 12:13; 1 John 3:24; 1 John 4:13. It is true, indeed, that the essential presence of Christ's Spirit is everywhere, but he is present in Christ's members, in a special way, as the fountain of spiritual influence. This spiritual presence, which is the bond of union, is manifested immediately upon a man's reception of Christ by faith. From that hour he is one with Christ, because the same Spirit lives in both. Indeed this union is the foundation of all the relative unions which have been employed to illustrate the subject; without it, we could have no saving relation to Christ whatever. That it is mysterious cannot be denied. The apostle himself affirms as much, Ephesians 5:32; Colossians 1:27. Although we know the fact, we cannot explain the manner of it, but must not on this account reject it, any more than we would the doctrine of the Spirit's essential presence, because we do not understand it.)

The body is dead - This passage has been interpreted in very different ways. Some understand it to mean that the body is dead in respect to sin; that is, that sin has no more power to excite evil passions and desires; others, that the body must die on account of sin but that the spiritual part shall live, and even the body shall live also in the resurrection. Thus, Calvin, Beza, and Augustine. Doddridge understands it thus: Though the body is to die on account of the first sin that entered into the world, yet the spirit is life, and shall continue to live on forever, through that righteousness which the second Adam has introduced." To each of these interpretations there are serious objections, which it is not necessary to urge. I understand the passage in the following manner: The body refers to that of which the apostle had said so much in the previous chapters - the flesh, the man before conversion. It is subject to corrupt passions and desires, and may be said thus to be dead, as it has none of the elements of spiritual life. It is under the reign of sin and death. The word μέν men, indeed, or truly, has been omitted in our translation, and the omission has obscured the sense. The expression is an admission of the apostle, or a summary statement of what had before been shown. "It is to be admitted, indeed, or it is true, that the unrenewed nature, the man before conversion, under the influence of the flesh, is spiritually dead. Sin has its seat in the fleshly appetites; and the whole body may be admitted thus to be dead or corrupt."

Because of sin - Through sin δἰ ἁμαρτία di' hamartia; by means of sinful passions and appetites.

But the spirit - This stands opposed to the body; and it means that the soul, the immortal part, the renovated man, was alive, or was under the influence of living principles. It was imbued with the life which the gospel imparts and had become active in the service of God. The word "spirit" here does not refer to the Holy Spirit, but to the spirit of man, the immortal part, recovered, renewed, and imbued with life under the gospel.

Because of righteousness - Through righteousness διὰ δικαιοσύνην dia dikaiosunēn. This is commonly interpreted to mean, with reference to righteousness, or that it may become righteous. But I understand the expression to be used in the sense in which the word is so frequently used in this Epistle, as denoting God's plan of justification; see the note at Romans 1:17. "The spirit of man has been recovered and made alive through his plan of justification. It communicates life, and recovers man from his death in sin to life."

The "body" in this passage has generally been understood in the literal sense, which, doubtless, ought not to be rejected without some valid reason. There is nothing in the connection that demands the figurative sense. The apostle admits that, notwithstanding of the indwelling of the Spirit, the body must die. "It indeed (μεν men ) is dead because of sin." The believer is not delivered from temporal death. Yet there are two things which may well reconcile him to the idea of laying aside for a while the clay tabernacle. The "mortal body," though it now die, is not destined to remain forever under the dominion of death, but shall be raised again incorruptible and glorious, by the power of the same Spirit that raised up Jesus from the dead. Meanwhile, "the spirit, or soul, is life, because of righteousness." In consequence of that immaculate righteousness, of which Paul had had said so much in the previous part of this Epistle, the souls of believers, even now, enjoy spiritual life, which shall issue in eternal life and glory.

Those who understand σῶμα sōma figuratively in the 10th verse, insist, indeed, that the resurrection in the 11th, is figurative also. But "the best commentators" says Bloomfield, "both ancient and modern, with reason prefer the literal view, especially on account of the phrase θνητα thnēta σῶματα sōmata which seems to confine it to this sense.")

10, 11. And if Christ be in you—by His indwelling Spirit in virtue of which we have one life with him.

the body—"the body indeed."

is dead because of—"by reason of"

sin; but the spirit is life because—or, "by reason"

of righteousness—The word "indeed," which the original requires, is of the nature of a concession—"I grant you that the body is dead … and so far redemption is incomplete, but," &c.; that is, "If Christ be in you by His indwelling Spirit, though your 'bodies' have to pass through the stage of 'death' in consequence of the first Adam's 'sin,' your spirit is instinct with new and undying 'life,' brought in by the 'righteousness' of the second Adam" [Tholuck, Meyer, and Alford in part, but only Hodge entirely].

If Christ be in you; before he said, the Spirit of God and Christ dwelt in them; here, Christ himself. Christ dwells in believers by his Spirit.

The body is dead because of sin: by body some understand the corrupt and unregenerate part in the godly, as if that were as good as dead in them. But others take the word in its proper signification, and think no more is meant thereby than that the bodies, even of believers, are mortal bodies; so they are called in the next verse: they are subject to death as the bodies of other men.

But the Spirit is life: some by Spirit here do understand the Spirit of God; and he is life, that is, he will quicken and raise up your bodies again to an immortal life.

Others by Spirit do understand the soul, yet not simply and absolutely considered, but as renewed by grace; that is life, or that doth live; it lives a life of grace here, and it shall live a life of glory hereafter.

Because of righteousness; by righteousness here understand, either imputed righteousness, which gives us a right and title to salvation; or inherent righteousness, which is a necessary condition required in every person that shall indeed be saved. The sum is: If you be Christians indeed, though your bodies die, ye; your souls shall live, and that for ever; and your dead bodies shall not finally perish, but shall certainly be raised again; so it follows in the next verse. And if Christ be in you,.... Not as he is in the whole world, and in all his creatures, or circumscriptively, and to the exclusion of himself elsewhere; for his person is above in heaven, his blood is within the vail, his righteousness is upon his people, and his Spirit and grace are in them; and so he comes to be in them, he is formed in their hearts by the Spirit of God in regeneration, when the Father reveals him not only to them, but in them; and he himself enters and takes possession of them as his own, manifests himself to them, communicates his grace, and grants them communion with him. This being their case,

the body is dead because of sin: by which is meant, not the body of sin, though this is called a body, and a body of death, yet is not dead, much less is it so by reason of sin; but this fleshly body, because liable to afflictions, which are called deaths, has the seeds of mortality in it, and shall in a little time die, notwithstanding the gift of it to Christ, though it is redeemed by his blood, and united to him; the reason of it is not merely the decree of God, nor does it arise from the original constitution of the body, but sin is the true reason of it, sin original and actual, indwelling sin, but not by way of punishment for it, for Christ has bore that, death is one of the saints' privileges, it is for their good, and therefore desired by them; but that they might be rid of it, and free from all those troubles which are the consequences of it:

but the spirit is life, because of righteousness; not the Spirit of God, who lives in himself, is the author of life to others, of natural and spiritual life, continues as a principle of life in the saints, is the pledge of everlasting life, and is so to them because of the righteousness of Christ nor grace, or the new creature, which is sometimes called Spirit, and may be said to be life, it lives unto righteousness, and is owing to and supported by the righteousness of the Son of God; but the soul of man is here meant, in opposition to the body, which is of a spiritual nature, immaterial and immortal; and this may be said in believers to be life or live, for it not only lives naturally, but spiritually; it lives a life of holiness from Christ, a life of faith upon him, and a life of justification by him, and will live eternally; first in a separate state from the body after death, till the resurrection morn, it does not die with the body, nor sleep with it in the grave, nor is it in any "limbus" or state of purgatory, but in paradise, in heaven, in the arms and presence of Christ, where it is not inactive, but employed in the best of service: and after the resurrection it will live with the body in glory for evermore; and this is owing to righteousness, not to the righteousness of man, but the imputed righteousness of Christ; for as it was sin, and loss of righteousness thereby which brought death on man, the righteousness of Christ is that on which believers live now, and is their right and title to eternal life hereafter.

{12} And if Christ be in you, the {n} body is dead because of sin; but the Spirit is life because of righteousness.

(12) He confirms the faithful against the relics of flesh and sin, granting that these things are yet (as appears by the corruption which is in them) having effects on one of their parts (which he calls the body, that is to say, a lump) which is not yet purged from this earthly filthiness in death: but in addition not wanting to doubt at all of the happy success of this combat, because even this little spark of the Spirit (that is, of the grace of regeneration), which is evidently in them as appears by the fruits of righteousness, is the seed of life.

(n) The flesh, or all that which as yet remains fast in the grips of sin and death.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
Romans 8:10. The contrast to the foregoing. “Whosoever has not the Spirit of Christ, is not His; if, on the other hand; Christ (i.e. πνεῦμα Χριστοῦ, see on Romans 8:9) is in you,” then ye enjoy the following blissful consequences:—(1) Although the body is the prey of death on account of sin, nevertheless the Spirit is life on account of righteousness, Romans 8:10. (2) And even the mortal body shall be revivified by Him who raised up Christ from the dead, because Christ’s Spirit dwelleth in you, Romans 8:11.

Romans 8:10-11 have been rightly interpreted as referring to life and death in the proper (physical) sense by Augustine (de. pecc. merit. et rem. i. 7), Calvin, Beza, Calovius, Bengel, Michaelis, Tholuck, Klee, Flatt, Rückert, Reiche, Glöckler, Usteri, Fritzsche, Maier, Weiss l.c. p. 372, and others. For, first, on account of the apostle’s doctrine regarding the connection between sin and death (Romans 5:12) with which his readers were acquainted, he could not expect his τ. σῶμα νεκρ. διʼ ἁμ. to be understood in any other sense; secondly, the parallel between the raising up of Christ from death, which was in fact bodily death, and the quickening of the mortal bodies does not permit any other view, since ζωοπ. stands without any definition whatever altering or modifying the proper sense; and lastly, the proper sense is in its bearing quite in harmony with the theme of Romans 8:2 (which is discussed in Romans 8:3-11): for the life of the Spirit unaffected by physical death (Romans 8:10), and the final revivification also of the body (Romans 8:11), just constitute the highest consummation, and as it were the triumph, of the deliverance from the law of sin and death (Romans 8:2). These grounds, collectively, tell at the same time against the divergent explanations: (1) that in Romans 8:10-11 it is spiritual death and life that are spoken of; so Erasmus, Piscator, Locke, Heumann, Ch. Schmidt, Stolz, Böhme, Benecke, Köllner, Schrader, Stengel, Krehl, and van Hengel. (2) That Romans 8:10 is to be taken in the spiritual, but Romans 8:11 in the proper sense; so Origen, Chrysostom, Theodoret, Oecumenius, Grotius, Koppe, Olshausen, Reithmayr, and others; de Wette unites the moral and physical sense in both verses, comp. also Nielsen and Umbreit; see the particulars below.

νεκρόν] With this corresponds the ΘΝΗΤΆ in Romans 8:11. It conveys, however, the idea “conditioni mortis obnoxium” (Augustine) more forcibly, and so as vividly to realize the certain result—he is dead!—a prolepsis of the final fate, which cannot now be altered or avoided. Well is it said by Bengel: “magni vi; morti adjudicatum deditumque.” Our body is a corpse! Analogous is the ἐγὼ δὲ ἀπέθανον in Romans 7:10, though in that passage not used in the sense of physical death; comp. Revelation 3:1; also ἜΜΨΥΧΟΝ ΝΕΚΡΌΝ, Soph. Ant. 1167; Epict. fr. 176: ψυχάριον εἶ βαστάζον νεκρόν. The commentators who do not explain it of physical death are at variance. And how surprising the diversity! Some take ΝΕΚΡ. as a favourable predicate, embracing the new birth = ΘΑΝΑΤΩΘῈΝ Τῇ ἉΜΑΡΤΊᾼ (so with linguistic inaccuracy even on account of ΔΙʼ ἉΜ., Origen, Chrysostom, Theodoret, Oecumenius, Theophylact, and with various modifications, also Erasmus, Raphel, Grotius, Locke, Heumann, Böhme, Baumgarten-Crusius, Reithmayr, and Märcker; comp. van Hengel, “mortui instar ad inertiam redactum”). Others take it as: miserable by reason of sin (Michaelis, Koppe, Köllner), comp. de Wette: “Even in the redeemed there still remains the sinful inclination as source of the death, which expresses its power;” Krehl as: “morally dead;” Olshausen: “not in the glory of its original destiny;” Tholuck: in the sense of Romans 7:10 f., but also “including in itself the elements of moral life-disturbance and of misery.” Since, however, it is the body that is just spoken of, and since διʼ ἁμαρτίαν could only bring up the recollection of the proposition in Romans 5:12, every view, which does not understand it of bodily death, is contrary to the context and far-fetched, especially since θνητά in Romans 8:11 corresponds to it.

ΔΙʼ ἉΜΑΡΤΊΑΝ] The ground: on account of sin, in consequence of sin (Kühner, II. 1, p. 419), which is more precisely known from Romans 5:12. Death, which has arisen and become general through the entrance of sin into the world, can be averted in no case, not even in that of the regenerate man. Hence, even in his case, the body is νεκρόν διʼ ἁμαρτίαν. But how completely different is it in his case with the spirit! Τὸ πνεῦμα, namely, in contrast to the ΣῶΜΑ, is necessarily not the transcendent (Holsten) or the Holy Spirit (Chrysostom, Theophylact, Calvin, Grotius, and others); nor yet, as Hofmann turns the conception, the spirit which we now have when Christ is in us and His righteousness is ours; but simply our human spirit, i.e. the substratum of the personal self-consciousness, and as such the principle of the higher cognitive and moral activity of life as directed towards God, different from the ψυχή, which is to be regarded as the potentiality of the human natural life. The faculty of the ΠΝΕῦΜΑ is the ΝΟῦς (Romans 7:25), and its subject the moral Ego (Romans 7:15 ff.). That the spirit of those who are here spoken of is filled with the Holy Spirit, is in itself a correct inference from the presupposition ΕἸ ΧΡΙΣΤῸς ἘΝ ὙΜῖΝ, but is not implied in the word τὸ πνεῦμα, as if this meant (Theodoret and de Wette) the human spirit pervaded by the Divine Spirit, the pneumatic essence of the regenerate man. That is never the case; comp: on Romans 8:16.

ΖΩΉ] i.e. life is his essential element; stronger than ζῇ, the reading of F. G. Vulg. and MSS. of the It. Comp. Romans 7:7. With respect to the spirit of the true Christian, therefore, there can be no mention of death (which would of necessity be eternal death); comp. John 11:26. He is eternally alive, and that διὰ δικαιοσύνην, on account of righteousness; for the eternal ζωή is based on the justification that has taken place for Christ’s sake and is appropriated by faith. Rückert, Reiche, Fritzsche, Philippi (comp. also Hofmann), following the majority of ancient expositors, have properly taken ΔΙΚΑΙΟΣΎΝΗΝ thus in the Pauline-dogmatic sense, seeing that the moral righteousness of life (Erasmus, Grotius, Tholuck, de Wette, Klee, and Maier), because never perfect (1 Corinthians 4:4; Php 3:9, al.), can never be ground of the ζωή. If, however, ΔΙᾺ ΔΙΚΑΙΟΣΎΝΗΝ be rendered: for the sake of righteousness, “in order that the latter may continue and rule” (Ewald, comp. van Hengel), it would yield no contrast answering to the correct interpretation of νεκρὸν διʼ ἁμ. It is moreover to be noted, that as ΔΙʼ ἉΜΑΡΤ. does not refer to one’s own individual sin (on the contrary, see on ἘΦʼ ᾯ ΠΆΝΤΕς ἭΜΑΡΤΟΝ, Romans 5:12), so neither does ΔΙᾺ ΔΙΚΑΙΟΣΎΝΗΝ refer to one’s own righteousness.

Observe, further, the fact that, and the mode in which, the ΔΙΚΑΙΟΣΎΝΗ may be lost according to our passage, namely, if Christ is not in us,—a condition, by which the moral nature of the ΔΙΚΑΙΟΣΎΝΗ is laid down and security is guarded against.Romans 8:10. Consequences of this indwelling of Christ in the Christian. In one respect, they are not yet so complete as might be expected. τὸ μὲν σῶμα νεκρὸν: the body, it cannot be denied, is dead because of sin: the experience we call death is inevitable for it. τὸ δὲ πνεῦμα ζωή: but the spirit (i.e., the human spirit, as is shown by the contrast with σῶμα) is life, God-begotten, God-sustained life, and therefore beyond the reach of death. As death is due to sin, so is this life to δικαιοσύνη. It is probably not real to distinguish here between “justification” and “moral righteousness of life,” and to say that the word means either to the exclusion of the other. The whole argument of chaps. 6–8. is that neither can exist without the other. No man can begin to be good till he is justified freely by God’s grace in Christ Jesus, and no one has been so justified who has not begun to live the good life in the spirit.10. If Christ be in you] Observe the immediate transition from “the Spirit of Christ” to “Christ.” See again Ephesians 3:16, for a deeply suggestive parallel. See too each of the Seven Epistles (Revelation 2, 3) for the identification (in a certain sense) of the Voice of Christ and the Voice of the Spirit. The supreme work of the Spirit is to acquaint the soul with Christ; hence the indwelling of the Spirit as the Divine Teacher results by holy necessity in the indwelling of Christ as the Divine Guest. Again cp. 2 Corinthians 13:5.

the body, &c.] Lit. the body indeed is dead, &c. The sentence may be paraphrased; “though the body is dead, &c., yet the spirit is life.”—“The body” is here the literal body (see next ver.), doomed to death, and so already “as good as dead;” not yet “redeemed” (Romans 8:23). It cannot here mean “the flesh” (in the sense of that word in this context) because just below it is promised that the body shall be “made alive” hereafter by the Holy Ghost; whereas “crucifixion” is the doom of “the flesh.” In short, the Christian is here reminded that the penal results of sin still affect the body so that it must die; but that the regenerate spirit is rescued from the spirit’s death.—Many bodies, indeed, (those of the living at the Last Day) will not, in the common sense, die; but they will cease to be “flesh and blood.” (1 Corinthians 15:50-52.)

the spirit] Here the context seems to give the sense of the human spirit; that which now “liveth unto God” in the regenerate man; the soul, in the highest sense of that word. See long note on Romans 8:4.

is life] A powerful phrase. Cp. “ye are light,” Ephesians 5:8. The spirit is not only “alive:” life is its inmost characteristic. The “life” here is that of acceptance and peace with God; the antithesis of the doom of death. Of course the idea of the “life” of love and energy is inseparably connected with this; but it is not identical with it.

Observe here that “Christ in us” is presented as the proof that the “spirit is life.” Here again (as on Romans 8:6; see last note there,) we must remember that “Christ for us” is the procuring cause of life; “Christ in us” is the evidence that that cause has, for us, taken effect. See next note.

righteousness] Here, surely, the Righteousness of Christ, the meriting cause of justification, and so of the gift of the Spirit, and so of the indwelling of Christ. See on Romans 1:17; Romans 5:17; Romans 5:21; where it is explained in what way “righteousness” may be taken as a practical synonym (in proper contexts) for Justification.Romans 8:10. Εἰ δὲ Χριστὸς, And truly if Christ) Where the Spirit of Christ is, there Christ is, comp. the preceding verse.—σῶμα) the body, sinful, for here it is opposed to the Spirit, not to the soul.—νεκρὸν) The concrete [not the abstract death; as the antithetic ζωή life in the abstract]: he says dead, instead of, about to die, with great force; [already] adjudged, and delivered over to death. This is the view and feeling of those, who have experienced in themselves [in whom there succeeds] the separation of soul and spirit, or of nature and grace.—δὲ, but) Implying, that the opposition is immediate [and direct between the body and the spirit], which excludes Purgatory, [a notion] suited neither to body nor spirit, and not consonant to the remaining economy of this very full epistle, Romans 8:30; Romans 8:34; Romans 8:38, ch. Romans 6:22-23.—ζωὴ, life) The abstract.—διὰ on account of) Righteousness brings forth life, as sin brings forth death; life does not bring forth righteousness, [justification] contrary to the opinion of the Papists.—δικαιοσύνην, justice [righteousness]) The just—shall live [Romans 1:17].Verses 10, 11. - But (or, and) if Christ be in you, the body is dead because of sin; but the Spirit is life because of righteousness. But if the Spirit of him that raised up Jesus from the dead dwelleth in you, he that raised up Christ (the previous Ἰησοῦν denotes the human person of our Lord; Ξριστὸν his office, fitly used here in connection with the thought of his resurrection ensuring ours. Some readings give τὸν before, and Ἰησοῦν after, Ξριστὸν) from the dead shall quicken also your mortal bodies, through his Spirit that dwelleth in you. These verses have been variously understood. It has been supposed by some that ver. 10 continues the thought of ver. 9; "the body" (τὸ σῶμα) meaning the same as "the flesh (σάρξ),and dead (νεκρὸν) meaning νενεκρωμένον, i.e. mortified, or lifeless with respect to the power of sin that was in it (cf. Romans 6:6, ἵνα καταργηθῇ τὸ σῶμα τῆς ἀμαρτίας). Thus the meaning of the first clause of ver. 10 would be, "If Christ be in you, the body of sin in you is dead; but you are alive in the Spirit." Decisive objections to this view are,

(1) that the word σῶμα by itself is not elsewhere used as an equivalent to σάρξ, but as denoting our mere bodily organization. This statement is consistent with the metaphorical application of the word sometimes in a different verse, as in Romans 6:6, above quoted, and in Romans 7:24. Observe also τὰ θνητὰ σώματα ὑμῶν in ver. 11, which can hardly be taken but as expressing what is intended here;

(2) that διὰ with the accusative (διὰ τὴν ἁμαρτίαν) cannot be forced out of its proper meaning of "because of," which, according to the view we are considering, would be unintelligible;

(3) that ver. 11, which is obviously connected in thought with ver. 10, cannot well be brought into tune with it according to the view proposed. All is made clear, in view both of language and of context, by taking these two verses as introducing a new thought, which is carried out afterwards in ver. 18, viz. that of the drawback to the full enjoyment and development of our spiritual life owing to the mortal bodies which clothe us now and the purpose is to bid us believe in the reality of our redemption, and persevere in correspondent life, notwithstanding such present drawback. Thus the idea is that, though in our present earthly state the mortal body is death-stricken in consequence of sin (δἰ ἁμαρτίαν) - subject to the doom of Adam, that extended to all his race (cf. Romans 5:12, etc.) - yet, Christ being in us now, the same Divine Spirit that raised him from the dead will in us too at last overcome mortality. cf. 1 Corinthians 15:22, "As in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive" (ζωοποιηθήσονται, the same word as in ver. 11 here); and compare also all that follows in that chapter. This view of the meaning of the passage before us is strongly confirmed by our finding, in 2 Corinthians 4:7-5:6, exactly the same idea carried out at length, with a correspondence also of the language used. The frail, mortal, ever-dying earthen vessels, in which we have now the treasure of our life in Christ, are there regarded as crippling the expansion of our spiritual life, and causing us to "groan, being burdened" (cf. in the chapter before us, ver. 23, ἐν ἐαυτοῖς στενάζομεν); but the very consciousness of this higher life within him, yearning so for an adequate and deathless organism, assures the apostle that God has one in store for him, having already given him "the earnest of the Spirit." And this seems to be what is meant hereby "shall also quicken your mortal bodies by his Spirit that dwelleth in you." As to particular expressions in the verses before us, νεκρὸν, applied to "the body," may be taken to mean infected with death, and doomed to it (cf. 1 Corinthians 15:31; 2 Corinthians 1:9; 2 Corinthians 4:10 - Διὰ δικαιοσύνην, in opposition to δἰ ἁμαρτίαν, given as the reason for the Spirit being life, may be explained with reference to the essential conception of righteousness throughout the Epistle, as God's righteousness, revealed in Christ, and made over to man as the remedy of human sin. Before carrying out the thought peculiarly suggested by the last two verses (as is done at ver. 18), the apostle now draws a conclusion (expressed by ἄρα οῦν) from what has been so far said, so as to press the more the obligation of a spiritual life in Christians. The body

The believer's natural body.

The spirit

The believer's human spirit.

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