Revelation 5:9
And they sung a new song, saying, Thou art worthy to take the book, and to open the seals thereof: for thou wast slain, and hast redeemed us to God by thy blood out of every kindred, and tongue, and people, and nation;
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(9, 10) And they sung a new song, saying . . .—Better, And they sing a new song, saying. The use of the present (“sing”) is another example of that intensity of interest of which the change of tense in the last verse afforded an instance. As he records his vision, he sees it anew; he describes the action as though it were even now taking place, and he still hears the notes of praise. He who knows what it is to have the strains of some rich melody haunt him for days will understand how the prophet would hear the glad chorus burst forth afresh in his ears when he recalled the vision. The new song; the chorus of the redeemed—

“Worthy art Thou to take the roll,

And to open the seals thereof;

For Thou wast slain,

And didst buy to God in Thy blood

Out of every tribe, and tongue, and people, and nation,

And didst make them a kingdom and priests,

And they reign upon the earth.”

The English version, “hast redeemed,” and “hast made,” weakens the reference to the completed character of Christ’s redeeming work. It is the great victory in suffering and death which inspires the song, and makes them sing, “Thou art worthy;” and so they speak of that work of Christ as a work truly done: “Thou didst buy (omit “us”) out of every tribe, &c., and didst make them,” &c. The suffering Saviour has died, has broken the bond of the oppressor, has claimed, by right of purchase, mankind as His own; and the price was His blood. It is well to notice the harmony between this passage and the statements of other Apostles: “Ye are not your own;” “bought with a price.” (See 1Corinthians 6:20; 1Corinthians 7:23; 1Peter 1:18-19; 2Peter 2:1.) Observe, also, the four terms (tribe, tongue, people, nation), employed as if to give emphasis to the universality of redemption, for four is the number of extension in all directions. With this compare Romans 5:15-19; Colossians 3:11; Hebrews 2:9. We have a right to teach all to say, “He redeemed me and all mankind.” It is instructive to dwell on the climax “they reign,” in contrast with “Thou wast slain.” It is like an anticipation of the now familiar words—

“Thine the sharp thorns, and mine the golden crown;

Mine the life won, and Thine the life laid down.”

“Didst make them a kingdom and priests.” (See Revelation 1:6.) This kingdom and reign is the outcome of Christ’s work. “Every precept of Christianity is quickened by the power of the death and resurrection of Christ. It is by the presence of this power that they are Christians, and it is as Christians that they conquer the world” (Westcott). “They reign on the earth.” Such is the best reading; the tense is present It is not, I think, to be explained away as a vivid realisation of the future; it is a simple statement, which is as true as that the followers of Christ are “a kingdom and priests.” They reign with and in Christ, but they also reign on the earth. Christ gives them a kingship, even sovereignty over themselves—the first, best, and most philanthropic of all kingships. He gives them, too, a kingship on the earth among men, for they are exerting those influences, promoting those principles, and dispensing those laws of righteousness, holiness, and peace which in reality rule all the best developments of life and history. All who traverse these laws are intruders, transitory tyrants, exerting only a phantom power. They are not kings: they may govern, they do not reign. (Comp. 1Corinthians 3:21-23; Ephesians 2:6.)

5:8-14 It is matter of joy to all the world, to see that God deals with men in grace and mercy through the Redeemer. He governs the world, not merely as a Creator, but as our Saviour. The harps were instruments of praise; the vials were full of odours, or incense, which signify the prayers of the saints: prayer and praise should always go together. Christ has redeemed his people from the bondage of sin, guilt, and Satan. He has not only purchased liberty for them, but the highest honour and preferment; he made them kings and priests; kings, to rule over their own spirits, and to overcome the world, and the evil one; and he makes them priests; giving them access to himself, and liberty to offer up spiritual sacrifices. What words can more fully declare that Christ is, and ought to be worshipped, equally with the Father, by all creatures, to all eternity! Happy those who shall adore and praise in heaven, and who shall for ever bless the Lamb, who delivered and set them apart for himself by his blood. How worthy art thou, O God, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, of our highest praises! All creatures should proclaim thy greatness, and adore thy majesty.And they sung a new song - Compare Revelation 14:3. New in the sense that it is a song consequent on redemption, and distinguished therefore from the songs sung in heaven before the work of redemption was consummated. We may suppose that songs of adoration have always been sung m heaven; we know that the praises of God were celebrated by the angelic choirs when the foundations of the earth were laid Job 38:7; but the song of redemption was a different song, and is one that would never have been sung there if man had not fallen, and if the Redeemer had not died. This song strikes notes which the ether songs do not strike, and refers to glories of the divine character which, but for the work of redemption, would not have been brought into view. In this sense the song was new; it will continue to be new in the sense that it will be sung afresh as redeemed million continue to ascend to heaven. Compare Psalm 40:3; Psalm 96:1; Psalm 144:9; Isaiah 42:10.

Thou art worthy to take the book, ... - This was the occasion or ground of the "new song," that by his coming and death he had acquired a right to approach where no other one could approach, and to do what no other one could do.

For thou wast slain - The language here is such as would be appropriate to a lamb slain as a sacrifice. The idea is, that the fact that he was thus slain constituted the ground of his worthiness to open the book. It could not be meant that there was in him no other ground of worthiness, but that this was what was most conspicuous. It is just the outburst of the grateful feeling resulting from redemption, that he who has died to save the soul is worthy of all honor, and is suited to accomplish what no other being in the universe can do. However this may appear to the inhabitants of other worlds, or however it may appear to the dwellers on the earth who have no interest in the work of redemption, yet all who are redeemed will agree in the sentiment that He who has ransomed them with his blood has performed a work to do which every other being was incompetent, and that now all honor in heaven and on earth may appropriately be conferred on him.

And hast redeemed us - The word used here - ἀγοράζω agorazō - means properly to purchase, to buy; and is thus employed to denote redemption, because redemption was accomplished by the payment of a price. On the meaning of the word, see the notes on 2 Peter 2:1.

To God - That is, so that we become his, and are to be henceforward regarded as such; or so that he might possess us as his own. See the notes on 2 Corinthians 5:15. This is the true nature of redemption, that by the price paid we are rescued from the servitude of Satan, and are henceforth to regard ourselves as belonging unto God.

By thy blood - See the notes on Acts 20:28. This is such language as they use who believe in the doctrine of the atonement, and is such as would be used by them alone. It would not be employed by those who believe that Christ was a mere martyr, or that he lived and died merely as a teacher of morality. If he was truly an atoning sacrifice, the language is full of meaning; if not, it has no significance and could not be understood.

Out of every kindred - Literally, "of every tribe" - φυλῆς phulēs. The word "tribe" means properly a comparatively small division or class of people associated together (Prof. Stuart). It refers to a family, or race, having a common ancestor, and usually associated or banded together - as one of the tribes of Israel; a tribe of Indians; a tribe of plants; a tribe of animals, etc. This is such language as a Jew would use, denoting one of the smaller divisions that made up a nation of people; and the meaning would seem to be, that it will be found ultimately to be true that the redeemed will have been taken from all such minor divisions of the human family - not only from the different nations but from the smaller divisions of those nations. This can only be true from the fact that the knowledge of the true religion will yet be diffused among all those smaller portions of the human race; that is, that its diffusion will be universal.

And tongue - People speaking all languages. The word used here would seem to denote a division of the human family larger than a tribe, but smaller than a nation. It was formerly a fact that a nation might be made up of those who spoke many different languages - as, for example, the Assyrian, the Babylonian, or the Roman nations. Compare Daniel 3:29; Daniel 4:1. The meaning here is, that no matter what language the component parts of the nations speak, the gospel will be conveyed to them, and in their own tongue they will learn the wonderful works of God. Compare Acts 2:8-11.

And people - The word used here - λαός laos - properly denotes a people considered as a mass, made up of smaller divisions - as an association of smaller bodies - or as a multitude of such bodies united together. It is distinguished from another word commonly applied to a people - δῆμος dēmos - for that is applied to a community of free citizens, considered as on a level, or without reference to any minor divisions or distinctions. The words used here would apply to an army, considered as made up of regiments, battalions, or tribes; to a mass-meeting, made up of societies of different trades or professions; to a nation, made up of different associated communities, etc. It denotes a larger body of people than the previous words; and the idea is, that no matter of what people or nation, considered as made up of such separate portions, one may be, he will not be excluded from the blessings of redemption. The sense would be well expressed, by saying, for instance, that there will be found there those of the Gaelic race, the Celtic, the Anglo-Saxon, the Mongolian, the African, etc.

And nation - Εθνους Ethnous. A word of still larger signification; the people in a still wider sense; a people or nation considered as distinct from all others. The word would embrace all who come under one sovereignty or rule; as, for example, the British nation, however many rumor tribes there may be; however many different languages may be spoken; and however many separate people there may be - as the Anglo-Saxon, the Scottish, the Irish, the people of Hindustan, of Labrador, of New South Wales, etc. The words used here by John would together denote nations of every kind, great and small; and the sense is, that the blessings of redemption will be extended to all parts of the earth.

9. sung—Greek, "sing": it is their blessed occupation continually. The theme of redemption is ever new, ever suggesting fresh thoughts of praise, embodied in the "new song."

us to God—So manuscript B, Coptic, Vulgate, and Cyprian. But A omits "us": and Aleph reads instead, "to our God."

out of—the present election-church gathered out of the world, as distinguished from the peoples gathered to Christ as the subjects, not of an election, but of a general and world-wide conversion of all nations.

kindred … tongue … people … nation—The number four marks world-wide extension: the four quarters of the world. For "kindred," translate as Greek, "tribe." This term and "people" are usually restricted to Israel: "tongue and nation" to the Gentiles (Re 7:9; 11:9; 13:7, the oldest reading; Re 14:6). Thus there is here marked the election-Church gathered from Jews and Gentiles. In Re 10:11, for "tribes," we find among the four terms "kings"; in Re 17:15, "multitudes."

And they sung a new song: by a new song is either to be understood an excellent song, (for new songs are usually most valued), or (which pleaseth me best) new as to the matter of it; for the servants of God under the Old Testament could not bless God for the actual redemption of man by the blood of Christ, but only rejoice in hope, embracing the promises seen afar off by the eye of faith.

Saying, Thou art worthy to take the book, and to open the seals thereof; they acknowledge Christ worthy to be intrusted with his church, and the revelations of the counsels of God, with relation to it, to open them.

For thou wast slain, and hast redeemed us, &c.; because he had redeemed his church, scattered over all the world, from sin, death, and hell, unto God, to serve him, and to live for ever with him, and that with no less price than his own blood; Wherefore (as the apostle tells us, Philippians 2:9) God hath exalted him.

And they sung a new song,.... Upon a new occasion and subject, redemption by the blood of the Lamb, and his worthiness to open the sealed book; and in distinction from the old song of Moses and the children of Israel at the Red sea; and this was a most famous and excellent song, an unheard of one, and which none could learn, or sing, but the redeemed of the Lamb:

saying, thou art worthy to take the book, and open the seals thereof. The Arabic version reads, "thou, O Lamb"; the reasons why they ascribe such fitness, ability, and dignity to him, are as follow:

for thou wast slain: by men, and for the sins of men; whereby, as he became worthy in his priestly office to take away the sins of his people, and to have all the glory of their salvation, and, in his kingly office, to have all power and authority, and to be exalted above every name, so, in his prophetic office, to have perfect knowledge, as man and Mediator, of all the future events that were to befall his church and people, and to make them known, and fulfil them:

and hast redeemed us to God by thy blood, out of every kindred, and tongue, and people, and nation; this shows, that as the four living creatures, and four and twenty elders, were not angels, so they were not representatives of the Jewish church; or the patriarchs and prophets of the Old Testament; not even the apostles of the New; for they were all Jews, and could not be said to be redeemed out of every tongue, nation, and people; and also that not the Jews only were redeemed by Christ, but the Gentiles also, and not all mankind, or every individual of human nature, but some out of all the nations of the earth; for God hath chosen some, both of Jews and Gentiles, and these Christ has redeemed and therefore the Gospel is sent unto all nations, that these among them may be called and saved. The redemption of them supposes them to have been in a state of slavery and bondage, as they are by nature, to sin, Satan, and the law; and signifies a deliverance from such a state, which Christ has obtained, not barely by power, but by price, as the word here used signifies, and may be rendered, "and hast bought us" and the price with which he has bought them in his own "blood", and which is of full and sufficient value, it being not only the blood of a man, of an innocent man, but of one that is God as well as man: and this price was paid "to God", and to his justice, against whom men have sinned, whose law they have broken, and whose justice they have injured and affronted, that he might reconcile them to God, bring them near to him, and that they might serve him in righteousness and true holiness.

And they sung a {b} new {11} song, saying, {12} Thou art worthy to take the book, and to open the seals thereof: for thou wast slain, and hast redeemed us to God by thy blood out of every kindred, and tongue, and people, and nation;

(b) No common song.

(11) That is, composed according to the present matter, the Lamb having received the book as it were with his feet and opened it with his horns, as it is said in the Song of Solomon

(12) The song of the nobles or princes standing by the throne, consisting of a publication of the praise of Christ and a confirmation of the same from his blessings, both which we have received from him (as are the suffering of his death, our redemption upon the cross by his blood, in this verse: and our communion with him in kingdom and priesthood which long ago he has granted to us with himself and which we hereafter hope to obtain, as our kingdom to come, in Christ, Re 5:10.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
Revelation 5:9. καὶ ᾷδουσιν, viz., they who have fallen down; i.e., the four beings and the twenty-four elders.[1937] Hengstenb. arbitrarily understands this: “That the elders come forward as the speakers of the chorus formed of them and the four beasts.”

ᾨΔΗΝ ΚΑΙΝῊΝ. Cf. Revelation 14:3. Too indefinitely, N. de Lyra: “pertaining to the N. T.;” yet he has also the correct feeling that the new song refers to a new subject. Here this is not completed redemption,[1938] but as the succeeding song itself shows, and the express connection determines, the worthiness[1939] of the Lamb to open the book,[1940] acquired through the painful work[1941] of redemption. [See Note XLVII., p. 217.] ΛΈΓΟΝΤΕς introduces the song announced (ᾌΔΟΥΣ. ᾨΔ. ΚΑΙΝ.). Cf. Revelation 4:1; Revelation 4:8.

ὉΤΙ ἘΣΦΆΓΗς. The Lamb himself is represented Ὡς ἘΣΦΑΓΜΈΝΟΝ.[1942] In the entire statement presenting the ground (ὍΤΙ ἘΣΦ.) for the ἍΞΙΟς ΕἸ, Κ.Τ.Λ., the aorists ἘΣΦΆΓΗς, ἨΓΌΡΑΣΑς, ἘΠΟΊΗΣΑς, are to be strictly observed: they refer to the definite fact that has once occurred, of the crucifying of the Lord (ἘΣΦΆΓΗς), and this one fact[1943] is described according to its effect: ἨΓΌΡΑΣΑς, Κ.Τ.Λ., and ἘΠΟΊΗΣΑς. Incorrectly, Beng.: “And hast purchased us to be thy possession. This refers not to the redemption itself, which occurred when the Lamb was slaughtered and his blood was sprinkled, but to its fruit, and refers, therefore, to those saints who have finished their course, and who have been bought from the earth, Revelation 14:3.” Bengel’s error is occasioned by the false reading ἡμᾶς.[1944]

Incorrectly, Ewald: “By his bloody death he redeemed them to God, delivering to them the doctrine, following which they could emerge from the servitude of vices.” How completely the ἠγόρασας concurs with the ἘΣΦΆΓΗς, is evident especially from the fact that the blood of the slain Lamb is designated as the price of the purchase.[1945] On the subject itself, cf. 1 Corinthians 6:20; 1 Peter 1:18 sqq.; Acts 20:28.

ἐκ πάσης φυλῆς καὶ γλώσσης καὶ λαοῦ καὶ ἔθνους. Object with the partitive ἐκ. Cf. 1 John 4:13; Matthew 25:8 (Acts 2:17). In the connection of the four expressions, the progress from less to greater[1946] is of no significance, because unintentional; but what is of importance, and recurs uniformly in all similar passages, even though another expression[1947] be chosen, is the number four, which serves to mark[1948] the idea of universality.[1949] Every more definite reference, however, which is given any one of the four expressions,[1950] is consistent neither with the πάσης, nor with the intention of the entire manner of expression.

καὶ ἐποίησας αὐτοὺς βασιλείαν καὶ ἱερεῖς βασιλεύουσιν ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς. This passage is distinguished from what is said in Revelation 1:6, first, by the καὶ before ἱερεῖς, and immediately afterwards by the important addition καὶ βασιλεύουσιν, κ.τ.λ. The latter would be superfluous, if either the reading received by Hengstenb., etc., were correct,[1951] or the βασιλείαν could have had the meaning stated by Hengstenb. on Revelation 1:6, i.e., “a people invested with regal authority.” Three things are here expressed: first, that those purchased to be God’s property have been made into a βασιλεία, viz., of God,—i.e., they are gathered as God’s property into God’s kingdom; immediately afterwards (καὶ) that they are made priests; finally (καὶ), they themselves have been invested with regal authority. So Ebrard, correctly.[1952] The last, expressed in an independent member of the sentence, and so far distinguished from the two predicates βασιλείαν and ἱερεῖς, has its justification in the meaning of Revelation 1:9; and it is a perversion to change the present βασιλεύουσιν into a future,[1953] or to take it in the sense of a future. It is especially appropriate that the heavenly beings into whose mouths the song of praise, Revelation 5:9-10, is placed, should recognize in the contending and persecuting church the kings of the earth.

[1937] De Wette, etc.

[1938] C. a Lap., Beng., etc.

[1939] In violation of the context, Klief.: The reception and sealing of the book have to do with “the actual final accomplishment of the divine purpose.” The subject here has to do with the opening of the book only in order that the revelation of the mysteries therein contained may be communicated to the seer.

[1940] Cf. Vitr., who, at the same time, thinks of the new kind of song; Stern, Ebrard, Hengstenb.

[1941] Cf. also Revelation 5:5.

[1942] Cf. Ew.

[1943] Cf. Revelation 1:5 sqq.

[1944] See Critical Notes.

[1945] ἐν τ. αἱμ. σ. Cf. Winer, p. 365.

[1946] Revelation 7:9, Revelation 11:9, Revelation 13:7, Revelation 14:6; cf. Revelation 10:11, Revelation 17:15.

[1947] Revelation 7:9, Revelation 11:9, Revelation 13:7, Revelation 14:6; cf. Revelation 10:11, Revelation 17:15.

[1948] Beng., Hengstenb.

[1949] Beng., Hengstenb.

[1950] Beng. refers the φυλῆς, Züll. the λαοῦ, to the Jews.

[1951] See Critical Notes.

[1952] Cf. Beng.

[1953] See Critical Notes.

NOTES BY THE AMERICAN EDITOR

XLVII. Revelation 5:9. ᾠδην καινὴν

The adjective is καινὸς, new in kind, not νεὸς, recent. Luthard: “In distinction from the song of creation (ch. 4), the new song of redemption.” Bengel: “The word new is a thoroughly Apocalyptic word,—new name, new song, new heavens, new earth, new Jerusalem,—every thing new.” Calov.: “It is new because the singers are new, viz., the renewed in heaven; and the theme is new, viz., the incarnation, passion, and redemption of Christ.” [1993]

[1993] Cf. De Apocalypsi Joannea ex rebus vatis aetate gestis explicanda disseruit. Ed. Böhmer. Fasc. 1, Hal. Sax., 1854.

Revelation 5:9. ᾠδὴν κ. followed (14) by ἀμήν, as in the worship of the church on earth (Colossians 3:16, 1 Corinthians 14:15-16). ᾄδουσιν (historic present) no longer to God as creator (Revelation 4:11) but to the Lamb as redeemer, for the cost and scope and issue of his redemption. This unique and remarkable passage in early Christian literature marks the growing sense and value attaching to Jesus as being far more than a mere national messiah, in fact as the one assurance of God possessed by men, as their pledge of bliss and privilege and pardon. And this is due to his redeeming function, upon which the relationship of men to God depends. It is a further stage of the Christian development when, as in Asc. Isa. ix. 27–32, the vision and praise of Jesus is followed by that of the Holy Spirit (ver 35, 36) and of God himself (ver 37–42). The prophet John’s “theology” is less advanced. Universal allegiance and homage paid not, as in the contemporary sense of the οἰκουμένη, to a Cæsar’s proud pretensions, but to the sacrifice of a Christ (see G. A. Smith, Hist. Geogr. 478, 479) is a new thing in the world. An undivided church, gathered from the divisions of humanity, is also a new and unexpected development, to which a foil is presented by the exclusiveness voiced at the annual Jewish paschal rite, and in the daily Shema-prayer (“For Thou hast chosen us from amongst all nations and tongues.… Blessed be the Lord that chose in love his people Israel”). For ἀγοράζειν (cf. note on Revelation 1:5) = the buying of slaves, cf. Dittenberger’s Orientis Gr. Inscript. Selectae, 33823.

The New Song, Revelation 5:9-139. And they sung] Should be they sing. It may be only an historic present, but perhaps, though to the Seer the song of adoration appeared to begin now, and to stop in time to let other voices be heard, he means to intimate that in fact their adoration is continued to eternity. See on Revelation 4:9-10.

and hast redeemed] The word rendered “redeemed” means simply “bought,” as it is rendered in 1 Corinthians 6:20, &c.: it does not express that the effect of the purchase was to restore those bought either to their rightful owner, or to liberty, though of course both are true, but all that this text expresses, is, that Christ has bought us, and that we now belong to His Father.

us] Should be omitted. The elders probably represent the whole multitude of the redeemed, but they are not here said to belong to their number, and the living creatures certainly do not. The true reading is, “Thou wast slain, and hast purchased to God by Thy Blood out of every tribe, and tongue, and people, and nations, and hast made them unto our God a kingdom and priests, and they [shall] reign upon the earth.”

to God] Notice that the phrase is the exact reverse of some lax modern language on the Atonement, which speaks as if the Son redeemed men from the Father. To say that Christ redeemed men from God’s wrath may be justified (e.g. by Galatians 3:13); but even that mode of expression is not exactly Scriptural. The metaphor of a ransom, which is frequent in Scripture, must not be pressed.

out of every kindred] The first of many indications in this Book of the catholicity of the Church: of course, a conclusive refutation of the theories (see on Revelation 2:2) which ascribe to this Book a controversial anti-Pauline purpose, and a spirit of Jewish exclusiveness. There is really hardly anything in St Paul as strong as this or Revelation 7:9.

Revelation 5:9. Ὠδὴν καινὴν) So Psalm 144:9, ὠδὴν καινὴν; but in the other Psalms it is ᾆσμα καινὸν.—ἐκ πάσης φυλῆς καὶ γλώσσης καὶ λαοῦ καἱ ἔθνους) So, ἐκ παντὸς ἔθνους καὶ φυλῶν καὶ λαῶν καὶ γλωσαῶν, ch. Revelation 7:9 ἐκ τῶν λαῶν καὶ φυλῶν καὶ γλωσσῶν καὶ ἐθνῶν, ch. Revelation 11:9; ἐπὶ πᾶσαν φυλὴν καὶ λαὸν καὶ γλῶσσαν καὶ ἔθνος, ch. Revelation 13:7; πᾶν ἔθνος καὶ φυλὴν καὶ γλῶσσαν καὶ λαὸν, ch. Revelation 14:6. So, commonly, ἐπὶ λαοῖς καὶ ἔθνεσι καὶ γλώσσαις καὶ βασιλεῦσι πολλοῖς, ch. Revelation 10:11; λαοὶ καὶ ὄχλοι καὶ ἔθνη καὶ γλῶσσαι, ch. Revelation 17:15. In these passages γλῶσσαι, ἔθνη and λαοὶ, are always mentioned; but instead of φυλῶν, ὄχλοι is used once, and βασιλεῖς once. The number of four, therefore, is always preserved, having regard to the four quarters of the world. The number of three is used, Daniel 3:4; Daniel 3:7; Daniel 3:29, the tribes (in Hebrew) being excepted; that is, the Israelites.

Verse 9. - And they sung a new song, saying. They sing; the worship is unceasing. The song is new because it is only now, subsequent to the accomplishment of Christ's work of redemption, that the song can be sung. It is not" Thou art worthy, for thou wilt redeem," but "thou didst redeem." Victorinus says, "It is the preaching of the Old Testament together with that of the New which enables the world to sing a new song." Thou art worthy to take the book, and to open the seals thereof. (For a consideration of the book, and the opening of it, see on ver. 1.) For thou wast slain, and hast redeemed us to God by thy blood. The reason why Christ is worthy. And didst redeem unto God by thy blood out of every kindred, etc. Though the reading "us" is supported by various manuscripts, and similarly the first person is used in ver. 10. yet, on the whole, it seems better to omit it, the phrase being taken in a partitve sense - "Thou didst redeem unto God by thy blood some out of every kindred, etc., and hast made them, etc., and they shall reign." Again, "Thou didst purchase us at the price of thy blood" would, perhaps, give the sense more correctly; for such is the force of the words, "in thy blood" (ἐν τῷ αἵματι). The words point to a particular act performed at a definite time, viz. the death of Christ, by which he repurchased men from sin and Satan for the service of God; the price of the purchase being the shedding of his own blood. The words show, too, that the fruits of the redemption are intended for the whole world; not limited to any chosen nation, though some are excluded by their own act. Out of every kindred, and tongue, and people, and nation. This fourfold classification continually recurs in the Revelation. It includes all the bases of classification of mankind, all the circumstances which separate men, the barriers which were overthrown by the redeeming work of Christ. Revelation 5:9They sing

Present tense, denoting the continuous, unceasing worship of heaven, or possibly, as describing their "office generally rather than the mere one particular case of its exercise" (Alford).

Redeem (ἠγόρασας)

Lit., purchase, as Rev. See John 4:8; John 6:5.

Us

Omit us and supply men, as Rev.

With Thy blood (ἐν τῷ αἵματί σου)

Lit., "in Thy blood." The preposition in is used Hebraistically of the price; the value of the thing purchased being contained in the price.

Kindred (φυλῆς)

Rev., tribe. Often in the New Testament of the twelve tribes of Israel.

People, nation (λαοῦ, ἔθνους)

See on 1 Peter 2:9.

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