Revelation 19:11
And I saw heaven opened, and behold a white horse; and he that sat upon him was called Faithful and True, and in righteousness he doth judge and make war.
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(11) And I saw heaven opened . . .—Better, And I saw the heaven opened (not “opening,” but set open, already opened, as in Revelation 4:1), and behold a white horse, and (behold) one that sitteth upon him called Faithful and True, and in righteousness He judgeth and warreth. The description reminds us of the opening of the first seal. Again we have the white horse, and the rider. That early vision of a conquering Christ had been first a hope and then a despair, as age after age interposed its obstacles to the manifestation of the sons of God; but now, with added splendour, the vision is renewed: the hopes of the waiting shall not perish for ever. Once more the victorious rider appears, and His name dispels all fear, though the vision has been long in tarrying. At the end it speaks and does not tarry (Habakkuk 2:1-4), for He who rides upon the heavens, as it were upon a horse, has His name Faithful and True (Hebrews 10:23; Hebrews 10:36-38). This name combines two characteristics: fidelity to promises, trustworthiness; and the power to satisfy every legitimate desire which has been awakened in the hearts of His people; for in Him all hopes find repose, and every ideal is realised. He is further pictured as a warrior. This warrior bridegroom carries us back to Psalms 45, where a similar combination of marriage joy and martial triumph is found. Righteousness marks His progress in war, as faithfulness is manifested towards those who trust Him (Isaiah 11:4-5). Here is comfort on the threshold of a vision of deliverance. The book has shown us war, conflict, confusion: the passions of men surging against one another, and dashing like vain waves against God’s immutable laws; the world history is written in blood. We blame men for these cruel and desolating wars; but another question rises imperiously, Why does an all-good ruler allow these heart-breaking scenes? If earth’s groans pain and trouble us, do they not grieve Him? Where is He that He permits all this? The answer is, “In righteousness He judges and makes war.” The worked-out history of the world will make this plain. The righteousness of God is being revealed: all will see it one day; but now the just must live by faith in Him who is faithful and true, and who preserves the germ of all divine life in the history of the world.

Revelation 19:11-16. And I saw heaven opened — This is a new and peculiar opening of it, in order to show the magnificent expedition of Christ and his attendants against his great adversary; and behold a white horse — Many paid little regard to Christ when he came meek and lowly, riding upon an ass: but what will they say or think, when he comes forth upon his white horse, with the sharp sword of his mouth? The white horse, on which Christ is represented as riding, was intended to denote his justice and holiness, and also that victory and triumph should mark his progress. And he that sat on him was called Faithful — In performing all his promises; and True — In executing all his threatenings; and in righteousness — With the utmost justice and equity; he doth judge and make war — Often the sentence and execution go together. His eyes were as a flame of fire — Gloriously bright and piercing. He is described in such characters as are appropriated to him in this book, and in the ancient prophets; and on his head were many crowns — In token of his numerous conquests, and the many countries now become the kingdoms of our God and of his Christ. And he had a name written upon them that no man knew but himself

The praise of his mediatorial undertaking being ineffable and incomprehensible, and his person mysterious and wonderful, Jdg 13:18; Isaiah 9:6. Hence we read, Matthew 11:27, No man knoweth the Son but the Father. And he was clothed with a vesture of pure white, emblematical of his holiness; and dipped in blood — In token of his sufferings; or rather, as some think, of the blood of the enemies already conquered. See Isaiah 63:1, &c. And his name is called, The Word of God — Because he spoke every thing into being, and revealeth his Father and his Father’s will to mankind. In other words, he has this name because he is that glorious and Divine Person, said, John 1:1-2, to have been in the beginning with God, and to be himself God; and who was the great medium of divine revelation in all ages. And the armies which were in heaven — The heavenly hosts; followed him — As being most willingly and entirely under his command; upon white horses — All the inhabitants of heaven being pure and holy. and all in a state of joy and triumph. And out of his mouth goeth a sharp sword — Signifying that his word is quick and powerful, and sharper than any two-edged sword; that with it he should smite the nations — That he was now about to use it in a strict execution of justice on his enemies; and he shall rule them — Who are not slain by his sword; with a rod of iron — That is, if they will not submit to his golden sceptre; see on Psalm 2:9; and he treadeth the wine-press of the fierceness Του θυμου, of the indignation; and wrath of Almighty God — Signified, probably, by the blood which stained his garments. The metaphor signifies that he shall subdue the proudest of his enemies with as much ease as men crush grapes by treading them under their feet. And — To the everlasting confusion of his enemies, and the perpetual joy of his friends and followers; he hath on his vesture and on his thigh — Or on the part of the vesture which was upon his thigh; a name written — Different from that mentioned above; KING OF KINGS, AND LORD OF LORDS — To show that he was really possessed of a just dominion over all the princes and kingdoms of the earth; a dominion which the eastern monarchs, and after them the Roman emperors, unjustly attempted to acquire and establish, and a title which, with great vanity, they assumed to themselves. It was usual of old, for great personages in the eastern countries to have magnificent titles inscribed on, or affixed to, their garments.

19:11-21 Christ, the glorious Head of the church, is described as on a white horse, the emblem of justice and holiness. He has many crowns, for he is King of kings, and Lord of lords. He is arrayed in a vesture dipped in his own blood, by which he purchased his power as Mediator; and in the blood of his enemies, over whom he always prevails. His name is The Word of God; a name none fully knows but himself; only this we know, that this Word was God manifest in the flesh; but his perfections cannot be fully understood by any creature. Angels and saints follow, and are like Christ in their armour of purity and righteousness. The threatenings of the written word he is going to execute on his enemies. The ensigns of his authority are his name; asserting his authority and power, warning the most powerful princes to submit, or they must fall before him. The powers of earth and hell make their utmost effort. These verses declare important events, foretold by the prophets. These persons were not excused because they did what their leaders bade them. How vain will be the plea of many sinners at the great day! We followed our guides; we did as we saw others do! God has given a rule to walk by, in his word; neither the example of the most, nor of the chief, must influence us contrary thereto: if we do as the most do, we must go where the most go, even into the burning lake.And I saw heaven opened - He saw a new vision, as if an opening were made through the sky, and he was permitted to look into heaven. See the notes on Revelation 4:1.

And behold, a white horse - On the white horse as a symbol, see the notes on Revelation 6:2. He is here the symbol of the final victory that is to be obtained over the beast and the false prophet Revelation 19:20, and of the final triumph of the church.

And he that sat upon him was called Faithful and True - He is not designated here by his usual and real name, but by his attributes. There can be no doubt that the Messiah is intended, as he goes forth to the subjugation of the world to himself. The attributes here referred to - faithful and true - are especially appropriate, for they are not only strongly marked attributes of his character, but they would be particularly manifested in the events that are described. He would thus show that he was faithful - or worthy of the confidence of his church in delivering it from all its enemies; and true to all the promises that he has made to it.

And in righteousness he doth judge - All his acts of judgment in determining the destiny of people are righteous. See the notes on Isaiah 11:3-5.

And make war - That is, the war which he wages is not a war of ambition; it is not for the mere purpose of conquest; it is to save the righteous, and to punish the wicked.

11. behold a white horse; and he that sat upon him—identical with Re 6:2. Here as there he comes forth "conquering and to conquer." Compare the ass-colt on which He rode into Jerusalem (Mt 21:1-7). The horse was used for war: and here He is going forth to war with the beast. The ass is for peace. His riding on it into Jerusalem is an earnest of His reign in Jerusalem over the earth, as the Prince of peace, after all hostile powers have been overthrown. When the security of the world power, and the distress of the people of God, have reached the highest point, the Lord Jesus shall appear visibly from heaven to put an end to the whole course of the world, and establish His kingdom of glory. He comes to judge with vengeance the world power, and to bring to the Church redemption, transfiguration, and power over the world. Distinguish between this coming (Mt 24:27, 29, 37, 39; Greek, "parousia") and the end, or final judgment (Mt 25:31; 1Co 15:23). Powerful natural phenomena shall accompany His advent [Auberlen]. The remaining part of this chapter is conceived more fully to open what shall come to pass under the sixth and seventh vials, mentioned Revelation 16:12,17, more especially the battle in Armageddon, mentioned there, Revelation 16:16. There mention was made only of the armies’ being gathered together; here it is more fully described. At the beginning of the gospel, (saith a late learned annotator), John saw only a door opened, Revelation 4:1. At the resurrection of the witnesses, he saw the temple opened, Revelation 11:19. Here, after the ruin of Babylon, he seeth

heaven opened.

And behold a white horse: John saw such a horse, Revelation 6:2. Dr. More observes, that the horse with his rider signifies rule; and the white colour, prosperity and success. It appears that the rider was Christ, because he is called

Faithful and True, which agrees with Revelation 1:5; and by the names in the following verses, Revelation 19:13,16, given to him.

And I saw heaven opened,.... This vision refers not to the same time the first seal does, Revelation 6:2 for though a white horse, with a rider on it, is seen here, as there; that respects the first times of the Gospel, this the latter part of the dispensation of it; nor to the war in heaven between Michael and the dragon, and their angels, Revelation 12:7 that issued in the downfall of Paganism in the Roman empire, this will issue in the downfall of the Papacy in it; nor to the personal coming of Christ to the last judgment, of which an account is given in the following chapter; but to the battle at Armageddon, to which the sixth vial is a preparation, and which is finished under the seventh, Revelation 16:13 and what is briefly hinted at there is at large related here; in which Christ, the General, and his armies, on the one hand, and the kings of the earth, with the beast and false prophet, and their armies, on the other hand, appear to give battle to each other: and the issue of the battle is particularly represented, in order to have a view of which, "John saw heaven opened": not literally, as at Christ's baptism, and at the stoning of Stephen, nor in a spiritual sense, by the blood of Christ, but visionally, as in Revelation 4:1 and since heaven, often in this book, signifies the church on earth, a more glorious and comfortable state of the church may be designed; when her gates shall be opened continually, and not shut day nor night, to receive the forces of the Gentiles, and their kings, Isaiah 60:15 such a state as is referred to in Revelation 11:19 to which visions this is contemporary; and it may denote a very glorious appearing of Christ, not in person, which will be after this, but in his kingdom and power, in defeating his enemies, and reigning spiritually with his saints: and it may also design the clear revelation and discerning John had of the following things:

and behold a white horse which, as in Revelation 6:2 may be a symbol of the Gospel, and Gospel ministers, as there in the former, here in the latter part of the Gospel dispensation; signified by a horse, to denote the swift progress of the Gospel in the latter day, the majesty, power, and authority with which it will come, bearing down all opposition made against it; and by a white horse, to express the purity of the Gospel, and of its preachers and professors, and the peace it publishes, and gives, and the joy it brings, and the triumphs that will attend it.

And he that sat upon him was called Faithful and True: that Christ is here meant, is evident from the description of his eyes, Revelation 19:12 being the same as in Revelation 1:14 and from his name, Revelation 19:13 which is the peculiar name of the Son of God, John 1:1 and he sits upon, and is bore by, and rides forth in the Gospel, and the ministry of it, with glory and majesty, and prosperously, Psalm 45:3 and the characters of faithful and true well agree with him; See Gill on Revelation 3:7. See Gill on Revelation 3:14. He is "faithful and true" to God, who appointed him a Leader and Commander of the people, and to them he is the Commander of: and these characters well suit him now, when he will accomplish all the glorious things spoken of the church, relating to her spiritual and happy state in the latter day, and serve greatly to recommend him as a General.

And in righteousness he doth judge and make war; which is to be understood not of the last judgment, though that will be executed in righteousness, and therefore is called the righteous judgment, yet in that day there will be no war, no opposition, the wicked will at once submit; but of Christ's judging of his people, and avenging their blood on their enemies, and the remainder of them among Papists, Pagans, and Mahometans; who will be gathered together at Armageddon in battle array against them, when there will be an utter discomfiture of them in righteous judgment; for as in times past the beast made war with the saints and witnesses, and overcame them, Christ will enable his people to make war with him and his accomplices, and overcome them, as the sequel of this vision shows, Christ being at the head of them, though not in person, yet in power.

{12} And I saw {13} heaven opened, and behold a white horse; and he that sat upon him was called Faithful and True, and in righteousness he doth judge and make war.

(12) The second part of this chapter (as I said in) see Geneva Re 19:1 is of the victory gained by Christ against both the beasts: in which first Christ is described as one ready to fight, to the sixteenth verse Re 19:12-16, then the battle is shown to begin, there to the eighteenth verse Re 19:17,18, lastly is set forth the victory, to the end the chapter Re 19:19-21. In this place the most excellent properties of Christ as our heavenly judge and avenger shine forth, according to his person, company, effects and names.

(13) Properties belonging to his person, that he is heavenly, judge, faithful, true, just, in this verse, knowing all things, ruling over all, to be known by no one, Re 19:12, the triumpher and in essence, the Word of God, in Re 19:13.

Revelation 19:11-16. The going forth of Christ and his followers from heaven to the judgment.

τὸν οὐρανὸν ἠνεῳγμένον, cf. Revelation 4:1. The seer, at Revelation 17:3, in spirit was carried to the earth.[4091]

ΚΑῚ ἸΔΟῪ ἼΠΠΟς ΛΕΥΚῸς, cf. Revelation 4:2.

ΚΑΛΟΎΜΕΝΟς ΠΙΣΤῸς ΚΑῚ ἈΛΗΘΙΝῸς. The construction of the individual expressions is also entirely similar to that of Revelation 6:2. The ΚΑΛΟΎΜΕΝΟς placed without ἘΣΤΊΝ in a kind of apposition to Ὁ ΚΑΘΉΜ. ἘΠʼ ΑὐΤΟΝ effects a transition to the description in the finite tense (ΚΑῚ ἘΝ ΔΙΚ. ΚΡΊΝΕΙ, Κ.Τ.Λ.). Concerning the idea of ΠΙΣΤΌς and of ἈΛΗΘΙΝΌς, cf. Revelation 3:7; Revelation 3:14. There is a significant prominence given to the circumstance that the one now going forth to most complete final victory is called not only “faithful,” with respect to his promises to his believers now to be fulfilled by himself, but also “true;” for it is just by his present triumphal march against his enemies, that he proves himself to be the Messiah announced from olden time. Hence the entire description is filled with tones harmonizing with the O. T. prophecies; the Lord now manifests himself as the One who was truly meant in all those prophecies.

ΚΑῚ ἘΝ ΔΙΚΑΙΟΣΎΝῌ ΚΡΊΝΕΙ. Cf. Isaiah 11:3 sqq. The ΚΑῚ ΠΟΛΕΜΕῖ added in this passage expresses the meaning of the ΚΡΊΝΕΙ in a way corresponding to the nature of the description here presented.[4092]

ΟἹ ΔῈ ΟΦΘΑΛΜΟῚ ΑὐΤ., Κ.Τ.Λ. Cf. Revelation 1:14.

ΔΙΑΔΉΜΑΤΑ ΠΟΛΛΆ. If the many diadems upon his head are to be regarded trophies of victories already won,[4093] the kings, possibly the ten kings of ch. 17,[4094] must at all events be regarded as vanquished. But the judgment upon these is not yet fulfilled. It might also be said that the Lord, going forth as triumphant victor, who also (Revelation 6:2) receives from the very beginning a victor’s garland, appears here already adorned with the crowns of the kings to be judged by him. But the reference to Revelation 19:16, where Christ is called the ΒΑΣΙΛΕῪς ΒΑΣΙΛΈΩΝ, is more probable.[4095] The explanation of Andr., that the dominion of Christ over all who are in heaven and on earth is indicated, is too indefinite.


. Either the name mentioned in Revelation 19:13 is meant,[4096] or although it was “written,”—possibly on the Lord’s forehead,[4097] but not, indeed, upon his vesture,[4098] or on the many diadems,[4099]—and therefore was visible to John, the name remained, nevertheless, unknown to him, because it was inscrutable[4100] To think of any definite name besides that designated (Revelation 19:13), and to attempt to conjecture it, is an undertaking in violation of the context.[4101] The second of the two possible views is the more probable; for even if the Ὃ ΟὐΔΕῚς ΕἸΔΕΝ, Κ.Τ.Λ., be explained by the mystery lying in the name Ὁ ΛΌΓΟς ΤΟῦ ΘΕΟῪ,[4102] yet the context makes the impression, particularly as the assertion ΚΑῚ ΚΈΚΛΗΤΑΙ ΤῸ ὌΝΟΜΑ ΑὐΤΟῪ, Κ.Τ.Λ., is separated from Revelation 19:12 by a special item of the description (Κ. ΠΕΡΙΒ., Κ.Τ.Λ.), that a name is intended to be indicated, which is known only to the Lord himself, since He alone has and knows what is designated in the name.[4103] But in accordance with Revelation 3:12, it may be thought that the complete blessedness of believers in immediate communion with the Lord (Revelation 19:9) will disclose also the mystery of this name.[4104]

καὶ περιβεβλημένος ἱμάτιον βεβαμμένον αἵματι. After the manner of the victor, Isaiah 63:1 sqq.,[4105] whose prophetic description finds its true fulfilment in the Lord.[4106]

καὶ κέκληται τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ ὁ λόγος τοῦ θεοῦ. The form of the expression κέκληται τ. ὄν. αὐτ. shows that here[4107] the definite name, familiar to believers, which the Lord has received as a significant proper name,[4108] and continues to bear, is intended to be designated. The name corresponds to the position of the Lord as Mediator, as described Revelation 1:1 sqq.[4109] Cf. also Introduction, p. 66.

τὰ στρατεύματα, κ.τ.λ. The armies of the Lord[4110] are not only the hosts of angels who appear elsewhere as attendants of the Lord coming to judgment,[4111] but departed believers are also to be regarded as referred to.[4112] This is indicated not only by the comprehensive expression τὰ στρατ. τὰ ἐν τῷ οὐρ., but also by the vesture (βύσσ. λευκ. καθ.; cf. Revelation 19:8).

ῥομφαία ὀξεῖα. The sharp sword proceeding from the mouth of the Lord designates here, where, besides, it is attached to statements recalling ancient prophetical descriptions (ἵυα ἐν αὐτ. πατάξῃ τὰ ἔθνη),[4113] still more clearly than Revelation 1:16, the Lord thus appearing as the true and real One who is to come (Revelation 19:11).

ΚΑῚ ΑὐΤῸς ΠΑΤΕῖ, Κ.Τ.Λ. Cf. also, on this definitive and, therefore, so full-toned description, which gives assurance[4114] of the certainty of the threat by Τ. ΘΩΟῦ Τ. ΠΑΝΤΟΚΡ., Isaiah 63:2 sq. with Revelation 14:10; Revelation 14:19. The expression ΤῊΝ ΛΗΝῸΝ ΤΟῦ ΟἼΝΟΥ, Hengstenb. explains, not, indeed, accurately, by saying that the wine-press is the wrath of God, and the wine flowing from it is the blood of enemies. The form of the idea in which the two figures of the wine-press[4115] and the cup of wrath[4116] are combined,[4117] affirms, however, that from the wine-press trodden by the Lord, the wine of God’s anger flows, with which his enemies are to be made drunk.

The name, which (Revelation 19:16) is written on the vesture and on the thigh, ΒΑΣΙΛΕῪς ΒΑΣΙΛΈΩΝ ΚΑῚ ΚΎΡΙΟς ΚΥΡΊΩΝ, gives—as is made prominent at the conclusion of this entire description, Revelation 19:11 sqq.—the express pledge of that which is distinctly marked already in the entire appearance of the Lord; viz., that the Lord who now goes forth to the conflict with the kings of the earth, will show himself to be the King of all kings.

ΚΑῚ ἘΠῚ ΤῸΝ ΜΗΡῸΝ ΑὐΤ. The meaning cannot be that the name stood not only on the vesture, but also on the actual thigh, so that, after laying aside the bloody garment, the name could appear in the same place.[4118] But the explanation of Wetst., Eichh., De Wette, Bleek, etc., who allude to the fact that, e.g., sculptors are accustomed to fix the stamp of their name on the body of the statue in the region of the thighs, is opposed by the preceding ἘΠῚ ΤῸ ἹΜΆΤΙΟΝ, in connection with which the ΚΑῚ ἘΠῚ ΤῸΝ ΜΗΡῸΝ ΑὐΤ. has the force, that the name, at all events, must be regarded as on the vesture, and that, too, where the thigh is. The name is, therefore, not to be sought upon an imaginary[4119] sword-handle,[4120] but we must regard it as being upon the girdle, although this, however, does not come into consideration as the sword-belt,[4121] but as a girdle which holds the tucked-up vesture of one advancing to battle.[4122] In violation of the context, Ew. ii.: “From the shoulders to the thighs.”

[4091] De Wette. Cf. Revelation 22:10.

[4092] Revelation 19:14 : στρατεύματα; Revelation 19:19 : τ. πόλεμον.

[4093] Cf. 2 Samuel 12:13; 1Ma 11:13. Grot., Wetst., Beng.; cf. also Vitr.

[4094] Züllig.

[4095] Ewald, De Wette, Hengstenb., Bleek, Volkm., Luthardt.

[4096] Calov., Vitr., etc.

[4097] Ewald, Bleek, Hengstenb.

[4098] Calov.

[4099] Eichh.

[4100] Grot., Beng., De Wette, Hengstenb., Ebrard.

[4101] Against Ewald, Volkmar, etc., who understand the name יהוה.

[4102] Vitr.

[4103] Cf. Revelation 2:17.

[4104] The several names indicated in the at least uncertain reading (see Critical Notes) give no clear idea. Perhaps also the plural διαδ. πολλ. has had much to do with the origin of the reading.

Revelation 19:11-21 : a second vision of doom, on the Beast and his allies (in fulfilment of Revelation 12:5). Their fate (Revelation 19:17-21) follows a procession of the angelic troops (Revelation 19:11-16, contrast Revelation 9:16 f.). The connexion of this and the foregoing volume (Revelation 19:7-9) is mediated by the idea that the marriage of the warrior-messiah (cf. En. lx. 2; 4 Esd. 12:32, 13:38; Apoc. Bar. xxxix., xl., lxx.) cannot take place till he returns from victory (so in the messianic Psalms 45.). Now that the preliminary movements of the enemy (Revelation 17:16-17) are over, the holy war of Revelation 17:14 begins, which is to end in a ghastly Armageddon. This passage and the subsequent oracle of Revelation 20:1-10 reproduce in part a messianic programme according to which the dolores Messiae (cf. Klausner: mess. Vorstellungen d. jüd. Volkes im Zeitalter der Tannaiten, 1904, 47 f, and Charles on Apoc. Bar. 27:1) are followed by messiah’s royal advent on earth (here sketched in part from Sap. 18:4-24) to found a kingdom of the just (i.e., Israel) who are raised for this purpose. Israel supplants Rome as the world-power (Bar. 39.). Her period of superiority opens with the rebuilding of Jerusalem and the temple, and closes with a crushing defeat of Gog and Magog, who are led by an incarnate villain (“dux ultimus,” xl.), but are finally vanquished by the aid of the ten tribes who return to take part in this campaign. Death and Satan then are annihilated, and eternal bliss ensues. Like Paul in 1 Corinthians 15:20 f., John modifies this scheme of tradition freely for his own Christian ends. He introduces a realistic expansion of the messianic age into three periods: (a) a victory of messiah (mounted, like Vishnu, on a white horse for the last battle) and his ἅγιοι (cf. Revelation 14:20) over the beast, the false prophet, and the kings of the world, who—as already noted—turn their attention to the saints after crushing Rome (Revelation 19:11-21); (b) an undisturbed reign of Christ and his martyrs (Revelation 20:1-6), evidently in Palestine; (c) the final defeat of Gog and Magog, with Satan their instigator (Revelation 20:7-10). There is little or nothing specifically Christian in all this section (except Revelation 20:4-6, cf. Revelation 19:13), but the general style betrays the author’s own hand, and there is no reason to suppose that a Jewish source in whole or part (so e.g., Vischer, Sabatier, de Faye, Weyland, Spitta, von Soden) underlies it. The sequence of the passage with Revelation 16:13-16; Revelation 16:18-20 is due to a common cycle of tradition, rather than to any literary source (Schön). It is a homogeneous finalê written by the prophet, in terms of current eschatology, to round off the predictions at which he has already hinted. Moralising traits emerge amidst the realism, but it is impossible to be sure how far the whole passage (i.e., 11–21) was intended to be figurative.

The Victory of the Rider on the White Horse, Revelation 19:11-2111. heaven opened] Ezekiel 1:1; St Matthew 3:16, and parallels, St John 1:51; Acts 7:56; Acts 10:11. Something more seems to be implied than in Revelation 4:1; the “door” through which the seer was called up is not sufficient to let out this mounted army, or “the chariot of paternal Deity” which appeared to Ezekiel.

a white horse] Revelation 6:2, where see notes. Here, at least, there is no doubt about the interpretation.

and he that sat upon him] Had better not be separated in punctuation from the previous clause: “behold a white horse, and he that sat upon him, [who was] called,” &c.

called] There is some, but not sufficient, authority for omitting this word.

Faithful and True] Revelation 3:14; also Revelation 1:5, Revelation 3:7.

in righteousness] Isaiah 11:4.

make war] In Psalm 45:3-5 (4–6) we have the same mixture as here of the Bridegroom with the triumphant Warrior. Compare St Chrysostom on Rom. xiii. 12, “Fear not at hearing of array and arms … for it is of light that the arms are.… As the bridegroom goes forth with joyous looks from His chamber, so doth he too who is defended with these arms; for he is at once soldier and bridegroom.”

Revelation 19:11. [211] ἽΠΠΟς ΛΕΥΚῸς, a white horse) Antithetical to ὄνον, Matthew 21— ΚΡΊΝΕΙ, judges) Lange joins with this chapter many passages, even of the New Testament, concerning the coming of Christ in glory, concerning the resurrection of the dead, and the judgment. Comm. Apoc. f. 107, 108, 256–259. But there is in truth but one coming of Christ in glory, at the last day: of which, however, there is an illustrious and remarkable prelude in the destruction of the beast. See above on 2 Thessalonians 2 T. ii. pp. 333, 334, and Ord. Temp. p. 412 [Ed. II. p. 354]. And the sum of the testimony respecting the resurrection and the judgment has reference to the same last day.

[211] Ver. 10. καὶ ἔπεσα, and I fell) John appears to have regarded the things which occur ver. 9 as the conclusion of the vision: but there still remained things more excellent than those which had preceded.—V. g.

Verse 11. - And I saw heaven opened, and behold a white horse. A new vision now opens, which is, however, part of the preceding series, commencing at Revelation 13:1. The destruction of certain forms of evil - typified by Babylon and the harlot - has been declared; the final overthrow of the dragon has vet to be related, though there may be no such separation in the actual infliction of these punishments as there necessarily is in the relation of them. The warfare now to be described must be understood to be that which is taking place between the hosts of Christ and Satan throughout the period of the world's existence. The heaven opened (cf. Revelation 4:1). A similar figure has been already employed in the first seal vision (Revelation 6:2). It has been pointed out that the same image is employed at the beginning and at the end of the description of the warfare between Christ and the devil. He who is the First and the Last, the Alpha and Omega (Revelation 1:8), rides forth conquering and to conquer (Revelation 6:2). And he that sat upon him was called Faithful and True, and in righteousness he doth judge and make war. Even the participial construction here employed connects this account with Revelation 6:2. "Faithful and True" are the titles applied to our Lord in Revelation 3:14, which see. In righteousness he cloth judge; cf. Isaiah's prophecy of Christ: "But with righteousness shall he judge the poor" (Isaiah 11:4); cf. ver. 2 of this chapter. The purposes of this expedition are "to judge and make war." Revelation 19:11A white horse

Compare Revelation 6:2.

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