Matthew 24:9
Then shall they deliver you up to be afflicted, and shall kill you: and ye shall be hated of all nations for my name's sake.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(9) Then shall they deliver . . .—The adverb, here and in Matthew 24:10, points to synchronism rather than sequence in its connection with Matthew 24:8.

To be afflicted.—Literally, unto affliction. The words repeat in substance the predictions of Matthew 10:22. (See Notes there.) Here we have “hated of all the nations,” i.e., heathen nations, instead of the wider “hated of all men.” So, when Paul reached Rome, the “sect” of the Christians was “everywhere spoken against” (Acts 28:22) “as evildoers” (1Peter 2:12). So, a little later on, Tacitus describes them as “hated for their crimes” (Ann. xv. 44).

Matthew 24:9. Then shall they deliver you up to be afflicted, &c. — From the calamities of the nation in general, he passes to those of the Christians in particular: and indeed the former were in a great measure the occasion of the latter; famines, pestilences, earthquakes, and the like calamities, being reckoned judgments for the sins of the Christians, and the poor Christians being often maltreated and persecuted on that account, as we learn from some of the earliest apologies for the Christian religion. Now the calamities which were to befall the Christians were cruel persecutions, and we need look no further than the Acts of the Apostles for the completion of this prediction. But if we would look further, we have still a more melancholy proof of the truth of it in the persecutions under Nero, in which, not to mention numberless other Christians, those two great champions of the Christian faith, Peter and Paul, fell. Indeed, as Tertullian calls it, it was nominis prælium, a war against the very name. For though a man was possessed of every human virtue, it was crime enough if he was a Christian; so true were our Saviour’s words, that they should be hated of all nations for his name’s sake.

24:4-28 The disciples had asked concerning the times, When these things should be? Christ gave them no answer to that; but they had also asked, What shall be the sign? This question he answers fully. The prophecy first respects events near at hand, the destruction of Jerusalem, the end of the Jewish church and state, the calling of the Gentiles, and the setting up of Christ's kingdom in the world; but it also looks to the general judgment; and toward the close, points more particularly to the latter. What Christ here said to his disciples, tended more to promote caution than to satisfy their curiosity; more to prepare them for the events that should happen, than to give a distinct idea of the events. This is that good understanding of the times which all should covet, thence to infer what Israel ought to do. Our Saviour cautions his disciples to stand on their guard against false teachers. And he foretells wars and great commotions among nations. From the time that the Jews rejected Christ, and he left their house desolate, the sword never departed from them. See what comes of refusing the gospel. Those who will not hear the messengers of peace, shall be made to hear the messengers of war. But where the heart is fixed, trusting in God, it is kept in peace, and is not afraid. It is against the mind of Christ, that his people should have troubled hearts, even in troublous times. When we looked forward to the eternity of misery that is before the obstinate refusers of Christ and his gospel, we may truly say, The greatest earthly judgments are but the beginning of sorrows. It is comforting that some shall endure even to the end. Our Lord foretells the preaching of the gospel in all the world. The end of the world shall not be till the gospel has done its work. Christ foretells the ruin coming upon the people of the Jews; and what he said here, would be of use to his disciples, for their conduct and for their comfort. If God opens a door of escape, we ought to make our escape, otherwise we do not trust God, but tempt him. It becomes Christ's disciples, in times of public trouble, to be much in prayer: that is never out of season, but in a special manner seasonable when we are distressed on every side. Though we must take what God sends, yet we may pray against sufferings; and it is very trying to a good man, to be taken by any work of necessity from the solemn service and worship of God on the sabbath day. But here is one word of comfort, that for the elect's sake these days shall be made shorter than their enemies designed, who would have cut all off, if God, who used these foes to serve his own purpose, had not set bounds to their wrath. Christ foretells the rapid spreading of the gospel in the world. It is plainly seen as the lightning. Christ preached his gospel openly. The Romans were like an eagle, and the ensign of their armies was an eagle. When a people, by their sin, make themselves as loathsome carcasses, nothing can be expected but that God should send enemies to destroy them. It is very applicable to the day of judgment, the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ in that day, 2Th 2:1. Let us give diligence to make our calling and election sure; then may we know that no enemy or deceiver shall ever prevail against us.To be afflicted - By persecution, imprisonment, scourging, etc.

"They shall deliver you up to councils" (Mark). To the great council, or Sanhedrin - for this is the word in the original. See the notes at Matthew 5:22. This was fulfilled when Peter and John were brought before the council, Acts 4:5-7. Mark further adds Mark 13:9 that they should be delivered to synagogues and to prisons to be beaten, and should be brought before rulers and kings for his name's sake. All this was remarkably fulfilled. Peter and John were imprisoned Acts 4:3; Paul and Silas were imprisoned Acts 16:24, and also beaten Acts 16:23; Paul was brought before Gallic Acts 18:12, before Felix Acts 24:24, and before Agrippa Acts 25:23.

And shall kill you - That is, shall kill some of you. Stephen was stoned Acts 7:59; James was killed by Herod Acts 12:2; and, in addition to all that the sacred writers have told us, the persecution under Nero took place before the destruction of Jerusalem, in which were put to death, with many others, Peter and Paul. Most of the apostles, it is believed, died by persecution.

When they were delivered up, Jesus told them not to premeditate what they should say, for he would give them a mouth and wisdom which all their adversaries would not be able to gainsay or resist, Luke 21:14-15. The fulfillment of this is recorded in the case of Stephen Acts 6:10, and of Paul, who made Felix "tremble," Acts 24:25.

Ye shall be hated of all nations - This was fulfilled then, and has been in all ages. It was judged to be a crime to be a Christian. Multitudes for this, and for nothing else, were put to death.

For my name's sake - On account of attachment to me, or because you bear my "name as Christians."

CHAPTER 24

Mt 24:1-51. Christ's Prophecy of the Destruction of Jerusalem, and Warnings Suggested by It to Prepare for His Second Coming. ( = Mr 13:1-37; Lu 21:5-36).

For the exposition, see on [1355]Mr 13:1-37.

Mark hath this thus, Mark 13:9, But take heed to yourselves: for they shall deliver you up to councils; and in the synagogues ye shall be beaten: and ye shall be brought before rulers and kings for my sake, for a testimony against them. Luke saith, Luke 21:12,13, But before all these, they shall lay their hands on you, and persecute you, delivering you up to the synagogues, and into prisons, being brought before kings and rulers for my name’s sake. And it shall turn to you for a testimony. Our Saviour, knowing that his disciples’ minds still ran upon a secular kingdom, here calls off their thoughts by giving them a sign of his coming, an account of those persecutions and trials which they should undergo before his coming, either in his power to the destruction of the Jews, or in his glory at the last day: the afflictions specified are, a being hated of all nations, delivered up to councils, beating in the synagogues, casting into prisons, and being killed; all which happened to the disciples of Christ before the destruction of Jerusalem. The Christians were counted a sect every where spoken against, Acts 28:22. Stephen was stoned, Acts 7:59. James was killed with the sword, Acts 12:2. Paul and Silas were imprisoned, Acts 16:23. Paul five times received of the Jews forty stripes save one; he was thrice beaten with rods, once stoned, 2 Corinthians 11:24,25. He was brought before king Agrippa and Festus. Peter and John were called before the council, Acts 4:7 Acts 5:21. So as all these things happened before the destruction of Jerusalem, and this may be interpreted as a sign of that great destruction; but not of that only, for the text saith,

ye shall be hated of all nations, which came to pass afterward, when Christianity was persecuted by heathens for three hundred years together. Mark saith, this should be done for a testimony against them, that is, the persecutors. Luke saith, it shall turn to you for a testimony. The persecutions of Christians are,

1. A testimony against the persecutors, of their ingratitude, and cruelty, and hatred to the name of Christ.

2. They are a testimony to the persecuted, of their faith, and patience, and courage, &c.

Then shall they deliver you up to be afflicted,.... Our Lord proceeds to acquaint his disciples, what should befall them in this interval; and quite contrary to their expectations, who were looking for a temporal kingdom, and worldly grandeur, assures them of afflictions, persecutions, and death; that about these times, when these various signs should appear, and this beginning of sorrows take place; whilst these will be fulfilling in Judea, and other parts of the world; the Jews continuing in their obstinacy and unbelief, would deliver them up to the civil magistrates, to be scourged and imprisoned by them; either to their own sanhedrim, as were Peter and John; or to the Roman governors, Gallio, Festus, and Felix, as was the Apostle Paul.

And shall kill you; as the two James', Peter, Paul, and even all the apostles, excepting John, who suffered martyrdom, and that before the destruction of Jerusalem:

and ye shall be hated of all nations for my name's sake; as the apostles and first Christians were, both by Jews and Gentiles; the latter being stirred up against them by the former, wherever they came, and for no other reason, but because they professed and preached in the name of Christ, as the Acts of the Apostles show: and their hatred proceeded so far, as to charge all their calamities upon them; as war, famine, pestilence, earthquakes, &c. as the apologies of the first Christians declare.

Then shall they deliver you up to be afflicted, and shall kill you: and ye shall be hated of all nations for my name's sake.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
Matthew 24:9. Jesus now exhibits the sequel of this universal beginning of woes in its special bearing upon the disciples and the whole Christian community. Comp. on Matthew 10:17 ff.

τότε] then, when what is said at Matthew 24:7 will have begun. Differently in Luke 21:12 (πρὸ δὲ τούτων), where, though τότε is not in any way further defined (Cremer), we have clearly a correction in order to adapt the expression to the persecutions that in the evangelist’s time had already begun. Seeing that the expressions are distinctly different from each other. it is not enough to appeal to the “elasticity” of the τότε (Hoelemann).

ἀποκτενοῦσιν ὑμᾶς] spoken generally, not as intimating, nor even presupposing (Scholten), the death of all of them. After παραδώς. ὑμᾶς the current of prophetic utterance flows regularly on, leaving to the hearers themselves to make the necessary distinctions.

καὶ ἔσεσθε μισούμενοι] It is a mistake to suppose that we have here a reference to Nero’s persecution (proceeding upon an erroneous interpretation of the well-known “odio humani generis” in Tacit. Ann. xv. 44, see Orelli on the passage), because it is the disciples that are addressed; and to regard them as the representatives of Christians in general, or as the sum total of the church (Cremer), would be arbitrary in the highest degree; the discourse does not become general in its character till Matthew 24:10. Comp. 1 Corinthians 4:13.

ὑπὸ πάντων τ. ἐθνῶν] by all nations. What a confirmation of this, in all general respects, is furnished by the history of the apostles, so far as it is known to us! But we are not justified in saying more, and especially when we take into account the prophetic colouring given to our discourse, must we beware of straining the πάντων in order to favour the notion that the expression contains an allusion to the vast and long-continued efforts that would be made to disseminate the gospel throughout the world (Dorner); let us repeat that it is the apostles who are in question here. Comp. Matthew 10:17 f., 22.

Matthew 24:9-14. Third sign, drawn from apostolic experiences. This passage Weiss regards as an interpolation into the prophetic discourse by Matthew following Mark. It certainly resembles Matthew 10:17-22 (much less, however, than the corresponding passage in Mk.), and individual phrases may be interpolations: but something of the kind was to be expected here. The disciples were not to be mere spectators of the tragedy of the Jewish nation destroying itself. They were to be active the while, preaching the gospel of the kingdom, propagating the new faith, bringing in a new world. Jesus would have them go on with their work undistracted by false enthusiasms, or warlike terrors, and to this end assures them that they will have both to do and to suffer a great deal before the final crisis of Jerusalem comes. The ground of this prophetic forecast as to their experience is faith that God will not allow the work He (Jesus) has inaugurated to perish. The gospel will be preached widely, with whatever tribulations to the preachers.

Matthew 24:9. Ἀποκτενοῦσιν ὑμᾶς, they shall kill you) sc. some of you; see Luke 21:16. The Lord does not point these out, in order that all may watch. Before the destruction of Jerusalem, James the Greater was slain by Herod, as St Luke mentions; Peter, by Nero, as ecclesiastical history hands down. You: as if you were in fault, and were the authors of the misery of the human race. This is the last consolation of the world. “Judgment begins with the house of God.”—μισούμενοι, hated) The Christian religion has something peculiar, hateful to the corrupt world, which tolerates all other denominations.

Verse 9. - The Lord passes to the fate of his followers, or the corporate Church. Then. St Mark does not note the time; St. Luke writes, "before all these things." Hence we gather that the calamities now announced will precede, accompany, and follow those before mentioned. That which befell the apostles and early believers is an emblem of what Christianity will undergo at the hands of an antagonistic world. St. John, in the Revelation, has shadowed forth these things as doomed to fall upon the Church in the latter days. Shall they deliver you up to be afflicted (comp. Matthew 10:17, 18). Christ is speaking, not only of the apostles, but of disciples generally. They shall deliver you over to the authorities, civil and religious, to be punished. The Book of the Acts contains numerous examples of such afflictions (see Acts 4:3; Acts 8:1; Acts 12:4; Acts 13:50: 14:19, etc.). Kill. As Stephen (Acts 7:59), James the brother of John (Acts 12:2), Peter and Paul (Eusebius, 'Hist. Eccl.,' 2:25), and many others. Hated of all [the] nations (Acts 28:22, "As concerning this sect, it is known to us that everywhere it is spoken against"). Tacitus speaks of those "quos per flagitia invisos vulgus Christianos appellabat" ('Ann.,' 15:44). The Romans seem to have placed Jews and Christians in the same category, and to have bestowed on the latter the hatred felt for the former. But the Lord's words point to some feeling more universal and permanent than this temporary animosity, even to the hatred which occasioned the death of martyrs in all ages, the warfare between good end evil, faith and unbelief, which shall continue and increase in virulence unto the end (John 15:20; John 16:2). Matthew 24:9
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