1 Corinthians 16
Homilies of Chrysostom
Now concerning the collection for the saints, as I have given order to the churches of Galatia, even so do ye.
Now concerning the collection for the saints, as I gave order to the Churches of Galatia, so also do ye.

Having completed his discourse concerning doctrines, and being about to enter upon that which belongs rather to morals, he dismisses every thing else and proceeds to the chief of good things, discoursing about alms. Nor does he discuss morals in general, but when he hath treated of this matter alone, he leaves off. A thing however obviously unlike what he did every where else; for of alms and of temperance and of meekness and of long-suffering and of all the rest, he treats in the other Epistles in the conclusion. For what reason then doth he handle here this part only of practical morality? Because the greater part also of what had been spoken before was of an ethical nature: I mean, where he chastised the fornicator; where he was correcting those who go to law among Gentiles; where he terrified the drunkards and the gluttons; where he condemned the seditious, the contentious, and those who loved to have the preeminence; where those who unworthily approach the Mysteries were delivered over by him unto that intolerable sentence; where he discoursed concerning love. For this cause, I say, the subject which most pressed on him, viz. the aid required for the saints, this alone he mentions.

And observe his consideration. When he had persuaded them concerning the resurrection, and made them more earnest, then and not till then he discusses this point also.

It is true indeed that on these matters he had spoken to them before, when he said, "If we sowed unto you spiritual things, is it a great matter if we shall reap your carnal things?" And, "Who planteth a vineyard, and eateth not of the fruit thereof?" But because he knew the greatness of this moral achievement, he refuses not to add a fresh mention at the end of his letter.

And he calls the collection logian (a "contribution,") immediately from the very first making out the things to be easy. For when contribution is made by all together, that becomes light which is charged upon each.

But having spoken about the collection, he did not say immediately, "Let every one of you lay up in store with himself;" although this of course was the natural consequence; but having first said, "As I gave order to the Churches of Galatia," he added this, kindling their emulation by the account of the well-doings of others, and putting it in the form of a narration. And this also he did when writing to the Romans; for to them also while appearing to narrate the reason why he was going away to Jerusalem, he introduces thereupon his discourse about alms; "But now I go unto Jerusalem, ministering unto the saints: for it hath been the good pleasure of Macedonia and Achaia to make a certain contribution for the poor among the saints." (Romans 15:25.) Only those he stimulates by mention of Macedonians and Corinthians; these of Galatians. For he saith, "As I gave order to the Churches of Galatia, so also do ye:" for they would surely feel ashamed ever afterwards to be found inferior to Galatians. And he saith not, "I advised," and, "I counselled;" but, "I gave order," which is more authoritative. And he doth not bring forward a single city, or two, or three, but an entire nation: which also he doth in his doctrinal instructions, saying, "Even as also in all the Churches of the saints." For if this be potent for conviction of doctrines, much more for imitation of actions.

[2.] "What then, I ask, didst thou give order about?"

Upon the first day of the week let every one of you lay by him in store, as God hath prospered him, that there be no gatherings when I come.
Ver. 2. "On the first day of the week," that is, the Lord's day, "let each one of you lay by him in store, as he may prosper." Mark how he exhorts them even from the time: for indeed the day was enough to lead them to almsgiving. Wherefore "call to mind," saith he, "what ye attained to on this day: how all the unutterable blessings, and that which is the root and the beginning of our life took place on this day. But not in this regard only is the season convenient for a zealous benevolence, but also because it hath rest and immunity from toils: the souls when released from labors becoming readier and apter to show pity. Moreover, the communicating also on that day in Mysteries so tremendous and immortal instils great zealousness. On it, accordingly, "let each one of you," not merely this or that individual, but "each one of you," whether poor or rich, woman or man, slave or free, "lay by him store." He said not, "Let him bring it the church," lest they might feel ashamed because of the smallness of the sum; but "having by gradual additions swelled his contribution, let him then produce it, when I am come but for the present lay it up," saith he, "at home, and make thine house a church; thy little box a treasury. Become a guardian sacred wealth, a self-ordained steward of the poor. Thy benevolent mind assigns to thee this priesthood."

Of this our treasury [334] even now is a sign: but the sign remains, the thing itself no where.

[3.] Now I am aware that many of this congregation will again find fault with me when I treat of these subjects, and say, "Be not, I beseech you, be not harsh and disagreeable to your audience. Make allowances for their disposition; give way to the mind of the hearers. For in this case you really do put us to shame; you make us blush." But I may not endure such words: since neither was Paul ashamed to be continually troublesome upon such points as these and to speak words such as mendicants use. I grant indeed that if I said, "give it me," and "lay it up in my house," there might perchance be something to be ashamed of in what I:said: hardly however even in that case; for "they who wait upon the altar," we read, "have their portion with the altar." (c. ix. 13.) However, some one perhaps might find fault as if he were framing an argument for his own interest. But now it is for the poor that I make my supplication; nay, not so much for the poor, as for your sake who bestow the gift. Wherefore also I am bold to speak out. For what shame is it to say, Give unto thy Lord in His hunger: Put raiment on Him going about naked; Receive Him being a stranger? Thy Lord is not ashamed before the whole world to speak thus: "I was an hungred, and ye gave Me not to eat," He who is void of all want and requires nothing. And am I to be ashamed and hesitate? Away with this. This shame is of the snare of the devil. I will not then be ashamed, but will say, and that boldly, "Give to the needy;" I will say it with a louder voice than the needy themselves. True it is, if any one can show and prove that in saying these things we are drawing you over unto ourselves, and under the pretence of the poor are ourselves making gain, such a course would be worthy, I say not of shame, but even of ten thousand thunderbolts; and life itself would be more than persons so behaving would deserve. If, on the contrary, by the grace of God, we are in nothing troublesome about ourselves, but "have made the Gospel without charge" to you; laboring indeed in no wise like Paul, but being contented with our own;--with all boldness of speech I will say, "Give unto the needy:" yea, and I will not leave off saying it, and of those who give not I will be a severe accuser. For so, if I were a general and had soldiers, I should not feel ashamed at demanding food for my men: for I vehemently set my heart upon your salvation.

[4.] But that my argument may both be more forcible and more effective, I will take Paul for my comrade, and like him will discourse and say, "Let each one of you lay by him in store, as he may prosper." Now observe also how he avoids being burdensome. He said not, "so much," or "so much," but "as he may prosper," whether much or little. Neither said he, "what any one may have gained," but, "as he may prosper:" signifying that the supply is of God. And not only so, but also by his not enjoining them to deposit all at once, he makes his counsel easy: since the gathering little by little hinders all perception of the burden [335] and the cost. Here you see the reason too for his not enjoining them to produce it immediately, but giving them a long day [336] ; whereof adding the cause, he saith, "That there be no gatherings when I:come:" which means, that ye may not when the season is come for paying in contributions just then be compelled to collect them. And this too in no ordinary degree encouraged them again: the expectation of Paul being sure to make them more earnest.

Ver. 3. "And when I arrive, whomsoever ye shall approve, them will I send with letters to carry your bounty [337] to Jerusalem."

He said not, "this person," and "that," but, "whomsoever ye shall approve," whomsoever you shall choose, thus freeing his ministration from suspicion. Wherefore to them he leaves the right of voting in the choice of those who are to convey it. He is far enough from saying, "The payment is yours, but the privilege of selecting those who are to carry it is not yours." Next, that they might not think him quite absent, he adds his letters, saying, "Whomsoever you approve, I will send with letters." [338] As if he had said, I also will be with them and share in the ministration, by my letters. And he said not, "These will I send to bear your alms," but, "your bounty;" to signify that they were doing great deeds; to mark that they were gainers themselves. And elsewhere he calls it both "a blessing" and "a distribution." (2 Corinthians 9:5, 13.) The one that he might not make them less active, the other that he might not elate them. But in no case whatever hath he called it "alms."

Ver. 4. "And if it be meet for me to go also, they shall go with me."

Here again he exhorts them to liberality. As thus: "if it be so much," saith he, "as to require my presence also, neither will I decline this." But he did not in the first instance promise this, nor say, "When I am come I will carry it." For he would not have made so much of it, if he had so set it down from the first. Afterwards however he adds it well and seasonably. Here then you have the reason why he did not immediately promise, nor yet altogether hold his peace concerning it: but having said, "I will send," then at length he adds himself also. And here too again he leaves it to their own decision; in saying, "If it be meet for me to go also:" whereas this rested with them, namely, to make their collection large; so large even, as to affect his plans and cause him in person to make the journey.

[5.] Ver. 5. "But I will come to you," saith he, "when I shall have passed through Macedonia." This he had said also above; then however with anger: at least he added, (c. iv. 19.) "And I will know not the speech of them that are puffed up, but the power:" but here, more mildly; that they might even long for his coming. Then, that they might not say, "Why is it that you honor the Macedonians above us?" he said not, "When I depart," but, "When I shall have passed through Macedonia; for I do pass through Macedonia."

Ver. 6. "But with you it may be that I shall abide, or even winter." For I do not at all wish to take you merely in my way, but to continue among you and spend some time. For when he wrote this letter, he was in Ephesus, and it was winter; as you may know by his saying, "Until Pentecost I will tarry at Ephesus; but after this I shall go away to Macedonia, and after having gone through it, I will be with you in the summer; and perhaps I shall even spend the winter with you." And why did he say, "perhaps;" and did not positively affirm it? Because Paul did not foreknow all things; for good purposes. Wherefore neither doth he absolutely affirm, in order that if it came not to pass, he might have something to resort to; first, his previous mention of it having been indefinite; and next, the power of the Spirit leading him wheresoever It willed, not where he himself desired. And this also he expresses in the second Epistle, when excusing himself on account of his delay, and saying, "Or the things which I purpose, do I purpose according to the flesh, that with me there should be the yea yea and the nay nay?" (2 Corinthians 1:17.)

"That ye may set me forward on my journey wheresoever I go." This also is a mark of love, and great strength of affection.

Ver. 7. "For I do not wish to see you now by the way; for I hope to tarry awhile with you, if the Lord permit."

Now these things he said, both to signify his love and also to terrify the sinners, not however openly, but with outward demonstration of friendship.

And when I come, whomsoever ye shall approve by your letters, them will I send to bring your liberality unto Jerusalem.
And if it be meet that I go also, they shall go with me.
Now I will come unto you, when I shall pass through Macedonia: for I do pass through Macedonia.
And it may be that I will abide, yea, and winter with you, that ye may bring me on my journey whithersoever I go.
For I will not see you now by the way; but I trust to tarry a while with you, if the Lord permit.
But I will tarry at Ephesus until Pentecost.
Ver. 8. "But I will tarry at Ephesus until Pentecost."

As we should expect, he tells them all exactly, informing them as friends. For this too is a mark of friendship to say the reason why he was not with them, why he delayed, and where he was staying.

Ver. 9. "For a great door and effectual is opened unto me, and there are many adversaries."

Now if it was "great," how could there be "adversaries?" Why on this very account the adversaries were many, because men's faith was great; because the entrance was great and wide. But what means, "A great door?" There are many prepared to receive the faith, many ready to approach and be converted. There is a spacious entrance for me, things being now come to that point that the mind of those approaching is at its prime for the obedience of the faith. On this account, vehement was the blast of the breath of the devil, because he saw many turning away from him.

You see then on both accounts it was needful for him to stay; both because the gain was abundant, and because the struggle was great.

And herewith also he cheered them up, namely, by saying, that henceforth the word works every where and springs up readily. And if there be many who plot against it, this also is a sign of the advance of the Gospel. For at no time doth that evil demon wax fierce, except on seeing his goods made spoil of abundantly. (Matthew 12.

[6.] Let us then, when we desire to effect any thing great and noble, not regard this, the greatness of the labor which it brings, but let us rather look to the gain. Mark, for instance, Paul, not therefore lingering, not therefore shrinking back, because "there were many adversaries;" but because "there was a great door," pressing on and persevering. Yea, and as I was saying, this was a sign that the devil was being stripped, for it is not, depend on it, by little and mean achievements that men provoke that evil monster to wrath. And so when thou seest a righteous man performing great and excellent deeds, yet suffering innumerable ills, marvel not; on the contrary, one might well marvel, if the devil receiving so many blows were to keep quiet and bear the wounds meekly. Even as you ought not to be surprised were a serpent, continually goaded, to grow fierce and spring on the person that goaded it. Now no serpent steals on you so fierce as the devil, leaping up against all; and, like a scorpion with its sting raised, he raises himself upright. Let not this then disturb you: since of course he that returns from war and victory and slaughter must needs be bloody, and oftentimes also have received wounds. Do thou, then, for thy part, when thou seest any one doing alms and performing numberless other good works and so curtailing the power of the devil, and then falling into temptations and perils; be not troubled thereupon. This is the very reason why he fell into temptations, because he mightily smote the devil.

"And how did God permit it?" you will say. That he might be crowned more signally: that the other might receive a severer wound. For when after benefits conferred a man suffers, and that grievously, and yet continually gives thanks, it is a blow to the devil. For it is a great thing, even when our affairs are flowing on prosperously, to show mercy and to adhere to virtue: but it is far greater in grievous calamity not to desist from this noble occupation; this is he who may be most truly said to do so for God's sake. So then, though we be in peril, beloved, though we suffer ever so greatly, let us with the greater zeal apply ourselves to our labors for virtue's sake. For this is not at all the season for retribution.

Here then let us not ask for our crowns, lest when the crowns come in their season, we diminish our recompense. For as in the case of artificers, they who support themselves and work receive higher pay; while those who have their maintenance with their employers, are curtailed in no small part of the wages; so also in regard to the saints: he that doth immense good and suffers extreme evil hath his reward unimpaired and a far more abundant recompense, not only for the good things which he hath done, but also for the evil which he hath suffered. But he that enjoys rest and luxury here, hath not such bright crowns there. Let us not then seek for our recompense here. But "then" of all times let us rejoice, when doing well we suffer ill. For God hath in store for us in that world not only the reward of our good deeds, but that of our temptations also.

But to explain myself more clearly: suppose two rich merciful men, and let them give to the poor: then let one continue in his riches and enjoy all prosperity: the other fall into poverty and diseases and calamities, and give God thanks. Now when these are gone away into the other world, which will receive the greater reward? Is it not quite plain that it will be he who is sick and in adversity, seeing that though he did well and suffered ill, he felt not according to human infirmity? I suppose this is plain to every one. And, in truth, this is the adamantine statue, this is the considerate servant. (See S. Matthew 25:21.) But if we ought not to do any thing good for the hope of the kingdom, but because it so pleaseth God, which is more than any kingdom; what doth he deserve, who because he doth not receive his recompense here, is become more remiss concerning virtue?

Let us then not be troubled when we see that such an one who invited widows and made continual feasts lost his house by fire, or sustained some other such like disaster. Yea, for this very thing he shall receive his reward. For even Job was not so much admired for his alms-deeds as he was for his sufferings afterwards. For this reason his friends also are little esteemed and deemed of no account; because they sought for the recompenses of the present world, and with a view to this gave sentence against the just man. Let us then not seek for our return here; let us not become poor and needy; since surely it is of extreme meanness, when heaven is proposed, and things which are above the heaven, to be looking round on the things which are here. Let us not by any means do so; but whichsoever of unexpected things come upon us, hold we fast the commands of God continually, and obey the blessed Paul.

[7.] And let us make a little chest for the poor at home; and near the place at which you stand praying, there let it be put: and as often as you enter in to pray, first deposit your alms, and then send up your prayer; and as you would not wish to pray with unwashen hands [339] , so neither do so without alms: since not even the Gospel hanging by our bed [340] is more important than that alms should be laid up for you; for if you hang up the Gospel and do nothing, it will do you no such great good. But if you have this little coffer, you have a defence against the devil, you give wings to your prayer, you make your house holy, having meat for the King (S. Matthew 25:34.) there laid up in store. And for this reason let the little coffer be placed also near the bed [341] , and the night will not be troubled with fantasies. Only let nothing be cast into it, which is the fruit of injustice. For this thing is charity; and it cannot be that charity should ever spring out of hardheartedness.

Will you have mention also of the resources out of which you should make your deposits, so as in this respect also to make this kind of contribution easy? The handicraft man, for instance, the sandal-maker, or the leather-cutter, or the brass-founder, or any other artificer,--when he sells any article of his trade, let him give the first-fruits of its price unto God: let him cast in a small portion here, and assign something to God out of his portion, though it be rather scanty [342] . For neither do I ask any great thing; but so much as the childish ones among the Jews [343] , full as they are of innumerable evils, just so much let us cast in, we who look forward to heaven. And this I say not as laying down a law, neither as forbidding more, but as recommending a deposit of not less than a tenth part. And this also do thou practise not in selling only, but also in buying and receiving a recompense. Let those also who possess land observe this law in regard to their rents: yea, let it be a law for all who gather their incomes in an honest way. For with those who demand usury I have no concern, neither with soldiers who do violence to others and turn to their own advantage their neighbors' calamities. Since from that quarter God will accept nothing. But these things I say to those who gather their substance by righteous labor.

Yea, and if we establish ourselves in this kind of habit, we are ever after stung by our conscience if ever we omit this rule; and after a while we shall not even think it a hard thing; and by degrees we shall arrive at the greater things, and by practising how to despise wealth, and by pulling up the root of evils, we shall both pass the present life in peace, and obtain the life to come; which may it be the portion of us all to attain unto, &c. &c.


[334] to gazophulakion, Bingham, viii. 7. 11. says, "The Church had her gazophylacia, or Treasuries, as well as the Temple; which appears from a Canon of the Fourth Council of Carthage," (93. ap. Harduin. i. 984.) "which forbids the offerings of persons at variance with one another to be received either in the Treasury or the Sanctuary. So that the Treasury was a distinct place from the Corban in the Sanctuary....Here all such offerings of the people were laid up as were not thought proper to be brought to the Altar." He further refers to the Apostolical Canons, 4 and 5, "That beside Bread and Wine, nothing should be brought to the Altar, save only new ears of corn and grapes, and oil for the lamps, and incense for the time of the oblation. But all other fruits should be sent eis hoikon, to the Repository, or Treasury it may be, as first-fruits for the Bishop and Presbyters, and not be brought to the Altar, but be by them divided among the Bishops and Clergy." See Harduin, i. 10.

[335] leitourgia.

[336] pollen ten prothesmian.

[337] charin.

[338] [Chrysostom evidently understood the verse in the sense found in the margin of the Revised Version. C.]

[339] S. Chrys. on St. Matthew 15.Hom. 51. "We see this kind of custom prevailing in the Church with most people; they are anxious to come in with clean garments and to wash their hands, but make no account of presenting their soul clean unto God." Ed. Sav. t. ii. 328; cf. Hom. 73. p. 861; in Eph. 3.. p. 778. "Tell me, wouldest thou choose with unwashen hands to approach the Sacrifice? Far from it, to my thinking. Thou wouldest rather not come at all, than with defiled hands. Shall the next thing be, that while thou art so scrupulous in that which is but a trifle, thou approachest with a soul defiled, and darest to touch It?"

[340] The custom here alluded to may perhaps explain the traditional wish or invocation. "Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, "Bless the bed that I lie on."

[341] The reading seems corrupt. It is rendered as if it were dia touto kai para te kline keistho to kibotion.

[342] merizestho pros ton Theon ex elattonos moiras.

[343] Among whom it was a common saying, "Tithes are the Hedge of the Law." Hooker, E. P. v. 79. 8. See S. Luke 18:12.

For a great door and effectual is opened unto me, and there are many adversaries.
Now if Timotheus come, see that he may be with you without fear: for he worketh the work of the Lord, as I also do.
Now if Timothy come to you [344] , see that he be with you without fear.

Perhaps some one may think there is something unworthy of Timothy's courage in this piece of advice. But not on Timothy's account is this said, but for the hearers' sake: lest by their design against him they should hurt themselves: since he for his part had his station always in the way of dangers [345] .

"For as a child serveth a father," saith he, "so he served with me in furtherance of the Gospel." (Philip. ii. 22.) But lest from boldness towards the disciple they should proceed also to the teacher, and become worse, he checks them from afar off, saying, "that he may be with you without fear;" that is, that none of those desperate persons rise up against him. For he intended perhaps to rebuke them about the things concerning which Paul also had written: and indeed Paul professed to send him for this very reason. "For I have sent Timothy unto you," saith he, (c. iv. 17.) "who shall put you in remembrance of my ways in Christ even as I teach every where in every Church." In order then that they might not through confidence in their high birth and wealth, and the support of the people, and the wisdom from without, attack him and spit upon him and plot against him, being grieved at the reproofs which came from him; or lest in revenge for the teacher's rebuke they should demand satisfaction of him, so punishing the other; therefore he saith, "that he be without fear with you." As if he had said, "Tell me not of those who are without, the Gentiles and unbelievers. It is your part that I require, you for whom also the whole Epistle was composed," the persons also whom in the beginning and the outset he had frightened. Wherefore he saith, "with you."

Then in virtue of his ministry he sets him forth as a person to be fully trusted; saying "For the work of the Lord he worketh." That is; "look not," saith he, "to this, his not being rich, namely, nor highly educated, nor old: but what commands are laid upon him, what work he is doing. For the work of the Lord he worketh.'" And this serves him instead of all nobility and wealth and age and wisdom.

And he is not content with this, but adds, "Even as I also." And some way above, "Who is my beloved son and faithful in the Lord; he shall put you in remembrance of my ways in Christ." Seeing then that he was both young, and had been singly entrusted with the improvement of so numerous a people, both of which things tended to bring him into contempt, he adds, as we might expect,

Let no man therefore despise him: but conduct him forth in peace, that he may come unto me: for I look for him with the brethren.
Ver. 11. "Let no one therefore despise him." And not this only doth he demand of them, but also greater honor; wherefore also he saith, "but set him forward in peace;" that is, without fear; causing no fightings or contentions, no enmities or hatreds, but rendering all subjection as to a teacher.

"That he may come unto me: for I expect him with the brethren." This also was the language of one that would alarm them. That is, in order that they might become more considerate, as knowing that all would be told him whatever Timothy's treatment might be, he adds therefore, "for I expect him." And besides, hereby he both shows that Timothy is worthy of their confidence; since being on the point of departing he waits for him; and also signifies the love which he hath towards them, it appearing that for their sakes he sent away one so useful to him.

As touching our brother Apollos, I greatly desired him to come unto you with the brethren: but his will was not at all to come at this time; but he will come when he shall have convenient time.
Ver. 12. "But as touching Apollos the brother, I besought him much to come unto you with the brethren."

This man appears to have been both well-educated and also older than Timothy. Lest they should say then, "For what possible reason did he not send the man grown, but the youth instead of him?" observe how he softens down this point also, both calling him a brother, and saying that he had besought him much. For lest he should seem to have held Timothy in higher honor than him and to have exalted him more, and on this account not to have sent him, and cause their envy to burst out more abundantly, he adds, "I besought him much to come." What then: did not the other yield nor consent? did he resist and show himself contentious? He saith not this, but that he might not excite prejudice against him, and also might make excuse for himself, he saith, "and it was not at all his will to come now." Then to prevent their saying that all this was an excuse and pretence, he added, "but he will come to you when he shall have opportunity." This was both an excuse for him, and a refreshment to them who desired to see him, by the hope which it gave of his coming.

[2.] Afterwards indicating that not in the teachers but in themselves they ought to have their hopes of salvation, he saith,

Watch ye, stand fast in the faith, quit you like men, be strong.
Ver. 13. "Watch ye, stand fast in the faith."

Not in the wisdom which is without: for there it is not possible to stand, but to be borne along; even as "in the faith" ye may "stand." "Quit you like men, be strong." "Let all that ye do be done in love." Now in saying these things, he seems indeed to advise; but he is reprimanding them as indolent. Wherefore he saith, "Watch," as though they slept; "Stand," as though they were rocking to and fro: "Quit you like men," as though they were playing the coward: "Let all that ye do be done in love," as though they were in dissensions. And the first caution refers to the deceivers, viz., "Watch," "stand:" the next, to those who plot against us, "Quit you like men:" the third, to those who make parties and endeavor to distract, "Let all that ye do be done in love;" which thing is "the bond of perfectness," and the root and fountain of all blessings.

But what means, "All things in love?" "Whether any one rebuke," saith he, "or rule or be ruled, or learn or teach, let all be in love:" since in fact all the things which have been mentioned arose from neglect of it. For if this had not been neglected, they would not have been puffed up, they would not have said, "I am of Paul, and I of Apollos." If this had existed, they would not have gone to law before heathens, or rather they would not have gone to law at all. If this had existed, that notorious person would not have taken his father's wife: they would not have despised the weak brethren; there would have been no factions among them; they would not have been vain-glorious about their gifts. Therefore it is that he saith, "Let all things be done in love."

[3.] Ver. 15. "Now I beseech you, brethren;--ye know the house of Stephanas, that it is the first-fruits of Achaia, and that they have set themselves to minister unto the saints."

In the beginning too he mentions this man, saying, "I baptized also the home of Stephanas:" and now he speaks of him as "the first-fruits" not of Corinth only, but also of all Greece. And this too is no small encomium that he was the first to come to Christ. Wherefore also in the Epistle to the Romans, praising certain persons on this account, he said, "Who also were in Christ before me." (Romans 16:7.) And he said not, that they were the first who believed, but were the "first-fruits;" implying that together with their faith they showed forth also a most excellent life, in every way proving themselves worthy, as in the case of fruits. For so the first-fruits ought to be better than the rest of those things whereof they are the first-fruits: a kind of praise which Paul hath attributed to these also by this expression: namely, that they not only had a genuine faith, as I was saying, but also they exhibited great piety, and the climax of virtue, and liberality in alms-giving.

And not from hence only, but from another topic likewise he indicates their piety, i. e., from their having filled their whole house also with godliness.

And that they flourished in good works also, he declares by what follows, saying, "They have set themselves to minister unto the saints." Hear ye, how vast are the praises of their hospitality? For he did not say, "they minister," but, "have set themselves:" this kind of life they have chosen altogether, this is their business in which they are always busy.

"That ye also be in subjection unto such, that is, "that ye take a share with them both in expenditure of money, and in personal service: that ye be partakers with them." For both to them the labor will be light when they have comrades, and the results of their active benevolence will extend to more.

And he said not merely, "be fellow-helpers," but added, "whatsoever directions they give, obey;" implying the strictest obedience. And that he might not appear to be favoring them, he adds, "and to every one that helpeth in the work and laboreth." "Let this," saith he, "be a general rule: for I do not speak about them individually, but if there be any one like them, let him also have the same advantages." And therefore when he begins to commend, he calls upon themselves as witnesses, saying, "I beseech you, ye know the house of Stephanas." "For ye also yourselves are aware," saith he, "how they labor, and have no need to learn from us."

Ver. 17. "But I was glad of the coming of Stephanas and Fortunatus and Achaicus, for that which was lacking on your part they supplied."

Ver. 18. "For they refreshed my spirit and yours."

Thus, since it was natural for them to be greatly irritated against these persons, for it was they who had come and showed him all about the division, inasmuch as by them also they had written the questions about the virgins, and about the married persons:--mark how he softened them down; both in the beginning of his Epistle by saying, "For it hath been signified unto me by them which are of the house of Chloe;" thus at once concealing these and bringing forward the others: (for it should seem that the latter had given their information by means of the former:) and in this place again, "They have supplied your lack, and refreshed my spirit and yours:" signifying that they had come instead of all, and had chosen to undertake so great a journey on their behalf. How then may this, their peculiar praise, become common? "If you will solace me for what was wanting on your part by your kindness towards them; if you will honor, if you will receive, them, if you will communicate with them in doing good." Wherefore he saith, "Acknowledge ye then them that are such." And while praising those that came, he embraces also the others in his praise, the senders together with the sent: where he saith, "They refreshed my spirit and yours, therefore acknowledge such as these,' because for your sakes they left country and home." Dost thou perceive his consideration? He implies that they had obliged not Paul only, but the Corinthians likewise, in that they bore about in themselves the whole city. A thing which both added credit to them, and did not allow the others to sever themselves from them, inasmuch as in their persons they had presented themselves to Paul.

Let all your things be done with charity.
I beseech you, brethren, (ye know the house of Stephanas, that it is the firstfruits of Achaia, and that they have addicted themselves to the ministry of the saints,)
That ye submit yourselves unto such, and to every one that helpeth with us, and laboureth.
I am glad of the coming of Stephanas and Fortunatus and Achaicus: for that which was lacking on your part they have supplied.
For they have refreshed my spirit and yours: therefore acknowledge ye them that are such.
The churches of Asia salute you. Aquila and Priscilla salute you much in the Lord, with the church that is in their house.
Ver. 19. "All the Churches of Asia salute you." He is continually making the members combine and cleave together in one by means of the salutation.

"Aquila and Priscilla salute you much in the Lord;"--for with them he was lodging, being a tent-maker--"with the Church which is in their house." This thing too is no small excellency, that they had made their very house a Church.

[4.] Ver. 20. "All the brethren salute you. Salute one another with an holy kiss." This addition of the "holy kiss" he makes only [346] here. What may the reason be? They had been widely at variance with one another on account of their saying, "I am of Paul, and I of Apollos, and I of Cephas, and I of Christ;" on account of "one being hungry, and another drunken;" on account of their having contentions and jealousies and suits. And from the gifts there was much envying and great pride. Having then knit them together by his exhortation, he naturally bids them use the holy kiss [347] also as a means of union: for this unites, and produces one body. This is holy, when free from deceit and hypocrisy.

Ver. 21. "The salutation of me Paul with mine own hand;" intimates that the Epistle was composed with great seriousness; and therefore he added,

Ver. 22. "If any man love not our Lord Jesus Christ, let him be anathema."

By this one word he strikes fear into all: those who made their members the members of an harlot; those who put stumbling blocks in the way of their brethren by the things offered in sacrifice unto idols; those who named themselves after men; those who refuse to believe the resurrection. And he not only strikes fear, but also points out the way of virtue and the fountain of vice, viz. that as when our love towards Him hath become intense, there is no kind of sin but is extinguished and cast out thereby; so when it is too weak, it causes the same to spring up.

"Maran atha." [348] For what reason is this word used? And wherefore too in the Hebrew-tongue? Seeing that arrogance was the cause of all the evils, and this arrogance the wisdom from without produced, and this was the sum and substance of all the evils, a thing which especially distracted Corinth; in repressing their arrogance he did not even use the Greek tongue, but the Hebrew: signifying that so far from being ashamed of that sort of simplicity, he even embraces it with much warmth.

But what is the meaning of "Maran atha?" "Our Lord is come." For what reason then doth he use this phrase in particular? To confirm the doctrine of the Economy: out of which class of topics more than any other he hath put together those arguments which are the seeds of the Resurrection [349] . And not only this, but also to rebuke them; as if he had said, "The common Lord of all hath condescended to come down thus far, and are ye in the same state, and do ye abide in your sins? Are ye not thrilled with the excess of His love, the crown of His blessings? Yea, consider but this one thing," saith he, "and it will suffice thee for progress in all virtue, and thou shalt be able to extinguish all sin."

Ver. 23. "The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you."

This is like a teacher, to help not only with advice, but also with prayers.

Ver. 24. "My love be with you all in Christ Jesus, Amen."

Thus to hinder them from thinking that in flattery to them he so ended, he saith, "In Christ Jesus." It having nothing in it human or carnal, but being of a sort of spiritual nature. Wherefore it is thoroughly genuine. For indeed the expression was that of one who loves deeply. As thus; because he was separated from them as regards place, as it were by the stretching out of a right hand he incloses them with the arms of his love, saying, "My love be with you all;" just as if he said, "With all of you I am." Whereby he intimates that the things written came not of wrath or anger, but of provident care, seeing that after so heavy an accusation he doth not turn himself away, but rather loves them, and embraces them when they are afar off, by these epistles and writings throwing himself into their arms.

[5.] For so ought he that corrects to do: since he at least, who acts merely from anger is but satisfying his own feeling; but he who after correcting the sinner renders also the offices of love, shows that those words also, whatsoever he spake in reproof, were words of fond affection. Just so let us too chasten one another; and let neither the corrector be angry, (for this belongs not to correction, but to passion,) nor let him that is corrected take it ill. For what is done is healing, not despite. Now if physicians use cautery and are not found fault with, and that too, frequently, though they quite miss their object; but even in their pain the subjects of the cautery and amputation esteem as benefactors those who excite this pain; much more ought he who receives reproof to be so disposed, and as to a physician so to give heed to the corrector, and not as to an enemy. And let us also who rebuke approach with great gentleness, with great prudence. And if thou seest a brother committing sin, as Christ commanded, make not your rebuke public, but "between thee and him alone:" (Matthew 18:15.) not reproaching nor insulting over him when down, but in pain and with a melting heart [350] . And show thyself ready also to receive reproof, if thou commit error in any thing.

Now that what I say may be plainer, let us put an imaginary case and so try our rule. For God forbid that in very deed we should be provided with such an illustration of it. Suppose any brother dwelling in the same house with a virgin, in honor and chastity, and yet not even so quite escaping evil report. [351] If then you should hear talk of this their dwelling together, be not contemptuous, nor say, "Why, hath he no understanding? Doth he not himself know what is for his good? Get love for nothing, but do not for nothing get hatred. Why, what have I to do with taking up a gratuitous enmity?" These are the doting words of wild beasts, or rather of demons: for it is not so that he is hated for nothing who doth this for his brother's correction, rather it is for great blessings and crowns unutterable.

But if thou sayest, "What? hath he no understanding?" thou shalt hear from me that he hath not: drunken as he is with his passion. For if in the heathen courts of justice, [352] those who are injured must not speak for themselves while glowing with wrath; (although there be no fault in that kind of sympathy;) how much more those whom evil habit holds in subjection. Wherefore I say that manifold as his wisdom may be, he hath not his mind awake. For what can be wiser than David, the man who said, "The dark and the hidden things of Thy wisdom Thou hast made known unto me?" (Psalm 51:6. Revelation 70.l. 6.) But when he looked on the wife of the soldier with unjust eyes, then according to what he himself said (Psalm 107:27.) of those who sail on the raging sea, "all his wisdom was swallowed up;" and he stood in need of others to correct him, and did not even perceive amidst what evils he was. Wherefore also, bewailing his offences, he said, "As a heavy burden they weighed grievously upon me: my wounds stank and were corrupt because [353] of my folly." (Psalm 38:5.) He therefore that committeth sin hath no understanding. For he is drunken and is in darkness. Do not then say these things, neither add that other remark, "I care not at all about it. For each man shall bear his own burden.'" (Galatians 6:5.) Nay, against thyself also it grows up into a grievous accusation, that seeing one in error thou dost not restore him. For if it was not right according to the law of the Jews (Exodus 23:4, 5.) to slight the beast of one's enemy; he who despises not the beast of burden nor yet the soul of an enemy perishing, but that of a friend, what pardon shall he obtain?

Yea, neither is it enough for our excuse that he hath understanding: since we too after our many and manifold exhortations have not been sufficient, nor proved useful, unto ourselves. Bear this in mind then in regard to him also that is in error; that it is natural he should receive the best counsel rather from thee than from himself.

And say not, "But what care I about these things?" Fear thou him who first spoke this word; for the saying, "Am I my brother's keeper?" (Genesis 4:9.) tends to the same point as this. This is the mother of all our evils that we esteem the concerns of our own body as foreign to us. What sayest thou? Thou carest not for thy brother? Who then is to care for him? the unbeliever who rejoices over and reproaches and insults him? or the devil who urges him on and supplants him?

And whence comes this? "How do I know that I shall accomplish anything," saith he, "though I speak and advise what is right." But how is it clear that thou wilt do no good? Why, this again is extreme folly, while the end remains in obscurity to incur the manifold blame of confessed indifference. And yet God who foresees the future often speaks and doth no good; yet doth He not even so give up; and that, knowing that He shall not even persuade men. Now if He who knows beforehand that He shall win no advantage, ceases not from the work of correction, what excuse wilt thou have, who art completely ignorant of the future and yet faintest and art benumbed? Yea, and many have succeeded by frequent attempts: and when they most of all despaired, then did they most gain their point. And though thou shouldest gain no advantage, thou hast done thine own part.

Be not then inhuman, nor unmerciful, nor careless: for that these words come of cruelty and indifference is plain from what follows: viz. What is the reason that when one of the members of thy body is in pain, thou sayest not, "What care I?" Yet whence is it plain, that if it be taken due care of, it is restored? And yet thou leavest nothing undone, that even although thou profit not, thou mayest not have to blame thyself for the omission of any thing which ought to have been done. Hereupon I ask, are we to take such care for the members of our body and to neglect those of Christ? Nay, how can such things deserve pardon? For if I make no impression upon thee by saying, "Have a care of thine own member;" in order that thou mayest become better were it only through fear, I put thee in mind of the body of Christ. But how can it be other than a matter of horror to see His flesh putrefying, and neglect it? And if thou hadst a slave or an ass afflicted with a mortifying sore, thou couldest not have the heart to neglect it: but seest thou the Body of Christ full of scurvy [354] , and hurriest by? and thinkest not that such things deserve innumerable thunder-bolts? For this cause all things are turned upside down, because of this our inhumanity, because of our indifference. Wherefore now, I beseech you, let this cruelty be cast out from among us.

[6.] Draw near to him whom I speak of, as dwelling with a virgin, and speak some small praise of thy brother, making it up from the other excellencies which he hath. And foment him with thy commendations as it were with warm water, and so mitigate the tumor of his wound. Speak of thyself also as wretched; accuse the common race of mankind; point out that we are all in sins; ask for pardon, saying, that thou art undertaking things too great for thee, but love persuades thee to dare all things. Then in giving thine advice, do it not imperiously, but in a brotherly way. And when by all these means thou hast reduced the swelling and soothed the pain arising from the cutting reproof which is in store for him, and when thou hast again and again deprecated and besought him not to be angry: when thou hast bound him down with these things, then use the knife; neither pressing the matter too close, nor yet undoing it; that he may neither fly off on the one hand, nor on the other think little of it. For if thou strike not to the quick thou hast done no good, and if thy blow be violent, thou makest him start away.

Wherefore, even after all this, being on the very point of the reproof, mix up again commendation with thy censures. And seeing that this proceeding considered in itself cannot be matter of praise, (for it is not commendable to keep house with a damsel that is a virgin;) let the purpose of him who doth so be thy topic for effecting this; and say, "I know indeed that thou doest it for God's sake, and that the desolation and unprotected state of that poor woman met thine eye, and caused thee to stretch out thine hand to her." And although he may not be doing it with this intention, do thou speak so; and after this add what follows also; again excusing thyself and saying, "These things I speak not to direct but to remind thee. Thou doest it for God's sake; I too know that. But let us see whether another evil be not produced thereby. And if there be none, keep her in thine house, and cling to this excellent purpose. There is no one to hinder thee. But if any mischief arise from hence exceeding the advantage, let us take care, I beseech you, lest while we are earnest to comfort one soul, we put a stumbling-block in the way of ten thousand." And do not add immediately the punishments due to those who give offence, but take his own testimony also, saying, "Thou hast no need to learn these things from me: thou thyself knowest, if any one offend one of these little ones,' how great a penalty is threatened. And thus, having sweetened thy speech and smoothed down his wrath, apply the medicine of thy correction. And should he again urge her forlorn condition, do not thou even so expose his pretence, but say to him, "Let nothing of this sort make you afraid: thou wilt have an ample plea, the offence given to others: since not for indifference, but in care towards them, didst thou cease from this thy purpose."

And let the matter of thine advice be brief, for there is no need of much teaching; but let the expressions of forbearance on the other hand be many and close upon one another. And continually have thou recourse to the topic of love; throwing into shade the painfulness of what thou sayest, and giving him his full power, and saying, "This is what I for my part advise and recommend; but about taking the advice thou art only judge: for I do not compel and force thee, but submit the whole thing to thine own discretion."

If we so manage our reproof, we shall easily be able in correct those in error: even as what we now do is surely more like the conduct of wild beasts or irrational creatures than of men. For if any persons now perceive any one committing errors of this kind, with the person himself they do not at all confer, but themselves, like silly old women who have drunk too much, whisper with another. And the saying, "Get love for nothing, but do not get hatred for nothing," hath not here any place in their opinion. But, when they have a fancy to speak evil, they mind not being "hated for nothing," rather I should say, "being punished;" since it is not hatred alone that is hereby produced, but also punishment. But when there is need of correction, they allege both this, and innumerable other pretexts. Whereas then would be the time to think of these things, when thou speakest evil, when thou calumniatest; I mean the saying, "Be not hated for nothing," and "I can do nothing," and "it is no care of mine." But as things are, in the former case, thou art vehemently and idly curious, and carest not for hatred and ills innumerable; but when thou shouldest be taking thought for the salvation of thy brother, then it is thy pleasure to be a sort of unofficious, inoffensive person. And yet from evil speaking arises hatred both on God's part and on men's; and this is no great care to thee: but by giving advice privately, and reproofs of that kind, both he and God will be made thy friends. And even should he hate thee, God goes on loving thee the rather on this account. Nay, in fact, not even so will he hate thee, as when his hatred came from thine evil speaking: but in that case he will avoid thee as a foe and an enemy, whereas now he will consider thee more venerable than any father. And if he apparently take it ill, inwardly and privately he will feel much obliged to thee.

[7.] Bearing in mind these things therefore let us have a care of our own members, and not sharpen the tongue against one another, nor speak words "which may do hurt, [355] " undermining the fame of our neighbor, and as in war and battle, giving and receiving blows. For what after all is the good of fasting or watching, when the tongue is drunken, and feasts itself at a table more unclean than of dog's flesh; when it is grown ravening after blood, and pours out filth, and makes the mouth a channel of a sewer, nay rather something more abominable than that? For that which proceeds from thence pollutes the body: but what comes from the tongue often suffocates the soul.

These things I say, not in anxiety about those who have an ill report falsely: for they are worthy even of crowns, when they bear what is said nobly; but in anxiety for you that so speak. For him that is evil reported of falsely, the Scriptures pronounce "blessed;" but the evil-speaker they expel from the holy Mysteries, nay even from the very precincts. For it is said, (Psalm 101:5.) "Him that privily speaketh against his neighbor, this man did I chase out." And he saith too that such a one is unworthy to read the sacred books. For, "Why," saith He, (Psalm 50.16.) "dost thou declare My righteous laws, and takest My covenant in thy mouth?" Then, annexing the cause He saith (v. 20.) "Thou satest and spakest against thy brother." And here indeed he doth not distinctly add whether they be things true or false which he speaks. But elsewhere this too makes part of His prohibition: He implying, that even though thou speak truths, yet such things are not to be uttered by thee. For, "Judge not," saith He," that ye be not judged:" (Matthew 7:1.) since he too who spoke evil of the publican was condemned, although it was true which he laid to his neighbor's charge.

"What then," you will say, "if any one be daring and polluted, must we not correct him? must we not expose him?" We must both expose and correct: but in the way which I mentioned before. But if thou do it upbraiding him, take heed lest thine imitation of that Pharisee cause thee to fall into his state. For no advantage accrues from hence; none to thee who speakest, none to him who hears thee, none to the person accused. But the latter, for his part, becomes more reckless: since as long as he is unobserved, he is sensible of shame; but as soon as he becomes manifest and notorious, he casts off the curb also which that feeling imposed on him.

And the hearer will in his turn be yet more injured. For whether he be conscious to himself of good deeds, he becomes puffed and swoln up with the accusation brought against another; or of faults, he then becomes more eager for iniquity.

Thirdly, the speaker too himself will both incur the bad opinion of the hearer, and will provoke God to more anger against himself.

Wherefore, I beseech you, let us cast from us every word that is unsavory. If there be any thing good unto edification, this let us speak.

But hast thou a fancy to avenge thyself on the other person? Why then punish thyself instead of him? Nay, do thou, who art so earnestly seeking redress from those who have annoyed thee, avenge thyself as Paul recommended to take vengeance. "If thine enemy hunger, feed him; if he thirst, give him drink." (Romans 12:20.) But if thou do not so, but only plot against him, thou pointest the sword against thyself.

Wherefore if that other speak evil, answer him with praises and commendations. For so wilt thou be able both to take vengeance on him, and wilt deliver thyself from evil surmising. Since he that feels pain at hearing ill of himself, is thought to be so affected because of some consciousness of evil: but he that laughs to scorn what is said, exhibits a most unquestionable token of his not being conscious to himself of any evil thing. [356]

Seeing then that thou profitest neither thine hearer, nor thyself, nor him that is accused, and dost but point thy sword at thine own self, even from such considerations do thou learn more soberness. For one ought indeed to be moved by the thought of the kingdom of heaven, and of what pleases God: but since thou art of grosser disposition and bitest like a wild beast, hereby even be thou instructed; that these arguments having corrected thee, thou mayest be able to order thyself simply from consideration of what pleases God; and having come to be above every passion, mayest obtain the heavenly blessings:--which may God grant us all to obtain, through the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, and His mercy towards mankind; with Whom, to the Father and the Holy Spirit, be glory, power, honor, now and henceforth, and unto everlasting ages. Amen.


[344] pros humas not in rec. text.

[345] pros kindunous en parembeblemenos.

[346] [It seems quite certain that the orator was incorrectly reported here. For this direction is found in the Second Epistle (xiii. 12), and also at the close of First Thessalonians (v. 26) and of Romans (xvi. 16). But his explication of the meaning is correct. Tertullian (de Oratione, xviii.) speaks of it as "the kiss of peace," and on this account it was eminently fitting that the distracted Church of Corinth should not omit a salutation so significant. The qualifying epithet "holy" was added, not as Chrysostom says in his Homily on the passage in Second Corinthians, in order to distinguish it from a hollow kiss such as Judas gave to our Lord, but to denote its religious and Christian character. It was not a mere expression of domestic kinship and friendliness, but a recognition of the tender relation existing between each believer and all the other members of Christ's mystical person. It required to be free from deceit and hypocrisy, but it also needed to be given and received as a pledge of mutual forgiveness and love, otherwise the whole object of the salutation failed. C.]

[347] That is, the kiss of peace, constantly used as part of the ceremonial of the holy Eucharist; as appears by all the Primitive Liturgies.

[348] [Chrysostom gives correctly the object of this solemn utterance. It was surely to strike terror into all who by contentiousness, by profligacy, by covetousness, by litigiousness, by idolatry, by arrogance, or in any other way showed that they were destitute of love to Jesus Christ, our Lord and Saviour. For such there is no outlook in the future but perdition. But the answers to the other questions proposed are not so happy. The use of the East Aram?an term Maran atha is hardly to be accounted for by supposing that the Apostle wished to cross the conceit of the Corinthians in their Hellenic language and wisdom, although it is harsh in Meyer to pronounce this "singularly absurd." In the absence of any direct clew to the purpose it is well to accept the opinion of Calvin that the Apostle roused by the gravity of the occasion could not satisfy himself without clothing in the older and more sacred dialect the tremendous truth which gave such solemn weight to the anathema. A similar feeling seems to lie at the root of the use of the corresponding terms, Abba in Mark 14:36, Romans 8:15, Galatians 4:6, (Compare the Hebrew words Abaddon and Armageddon in the Apocalypse.) So in regard to the meaning of the words Maran atha. They can just as well bear the rendering "The Lord cometh" as that which Chrysostom gives, "The Lord has come" and the connection renders the latter far more likely, notwithstanding Jerome, Erasmus and Castalio agree with the Greek Fathers. Hence nearly all modern interpreters hold that there is a reference to the final Parousia. It is a solemn warning that the approaching advent of the Son of Man would bring about the execution of the dreadful curse, just as in the 25th chapter of Matthew the sentence of the cursed is said to be announced and put in force when "the Son of Man comes in his glory and all the angels with him." The reference to the incarnation has significance as emphasizing the greatness of the sin of those who love not the Lord, but the reference to the Second Advent has much more as it exhibits and enforces the certainty and severity of the doom that awaits all such sinners. C.]

[349] ex hon malista ta spermata tes anastaseos suntetheiken.

[350] tekomenos.

[351] St. Chrysostom "attacked in the first instance those ecclesiastics who, under pretence of charity, lived with virgins, whom they treated as adopted sisters, who they called subintroduct?' or adelphai agapetai. Their excuses were, to assist a maiden left desolate without relations or friends; to take care of her affairs, if rich, and to maintain her in charity, if poor....On the other hand, the clergy said they cast on them the burden of their household, and those trifling cares for which women are most proper, in order to be more at liberty for the offices of their ministry. For the rest, they affirmed that in this intimacy there was no sort of criminal liberty, not at all making the less profession of continence. So Chrysostom maintained the contrary; and we have two whole discourses of his on this subject, which seem to have been written about this time," the time of his promotion to the see of Constantinople. Fleury, E. H. b. 20. ?. 38.

[352] The Areopagus, and other courts resembling it, which allowed no appeals to the passions.

[353] apo prosopou, "before the face."

[354] psoras.

[355] rhemata katapontismou. Ps. 52.. 4. Revelation 70, 51. 4. "Words of swallowing up in the sea;" i. e., as St. Augustin on the place intimates, "words so sinful that they plunge the swimmer again in the deep, and complete his shipwreck, when by repentance he ought to lay hold of the cross."

[356] [It is impossible to read this Homily without being struck with the consummate skill of the great Christian orator. Nowhere in the literature that preceded or followed him is to be found a better exposition of the duty of reproof or of the manner in which it is to be performed. The disciple must have drunk deeply in the Spirit of the Master to be able to set forth a difficult and delicate obligation in such a wise and winning form. Nothing is overlooked, nothing carelessly stated. C.]

All the brethren greet you. Greet ye one another with an holy kiss.
The salutation of me Paul with mine own hand.
If any man love not the Lord Jesus Christ, let him be Anathema Maranatha.
The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you.
My love be with you all in Christ Jesus. Amen.
The Homilies of St. John Chrysostom
Text Courtesy of Christian Classics Etherial Library.

Bible Hub
1 Corinthians 15
Top of Page
Top of Page