1 Timothy 2:1
I exhort therefore, that, first of all, supplications, prayers, intercessions, and giving of thanks, be made for all men;
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(1) I exhort therefore.—Now Timothy was to begin to carry out his master St. Paul’s great charge—the charge which bade him teach all men to put their entire, their perfect, trust in the Saviour of sinners—by instructing the Church of Ephesus, in the first place, to pray constantly for all sorts and conditions of men. The detailed injunctions how the charge was to be carried out are introduced by the Greek particle oun, translated in our version by “therefore;” it may be paraphrased thus: “In pursuance of my great charge, I proceed by special details; in the first place, let prayers for all be offered by the congregation.”

Supplications, prayers, intercessions, and giving of thanks.—Many attempts, some of them not very happy ones, have been made by grammarians and commentators to distinguish between these terms, each of which denotes prayer. On the whole, it may be assumed that the Greek word translated “supplications” signifies a request for particular benefits, and is a special form of the more general word rendered “prayers.” The third expression in the English version translated “intercessions” suggests a closer and more intimate communion with God on the part of the one praying. It speaks of drawing near God, of entering into free, familiar speech with Him. The Greek word suggests prayer in its most individual, urgent form. The fourth term, “giving of thanks,” expresses that which ought never to be absent from any of our devotions, gratitude for past mercies. Archbishop Trench remarks how this peculiar form of prayer will subsist in heaven when, in the very nature of things, all other forms of prayer will have ceased in the entire fruition of the things prayed for, for then only will the redeemed know how much they owe to their Lord. The word eucharist is derived from the Greek word used in this place—eucharistia—for in the Holy Communion the Church embodies its highest act of thanksgiving for the highest benefits received.

For all men.—Professor Reynolds well comments on the hardness of the task set us here—“It is difficult for us always to love all men, to think of all men as equally dear to God, or to regard all men as equally capable of being blessed. Timothy, after reading this letter, probably walked along the marble colonnade of the great temple of Artemis, or heard the hum of some twenty thousand Asiatic Greeks crowded in the vast theatre to witness the gladiatorial fight, or encountered a procession of Bacchantes, or turned into the synagogue on the side of the Coresias and saw the averted looks, and felt the bitter hatred of some old friends. We, with some knowledge of the modern world, have to look into the ‘hells’ upon earth; to survey the gold-fields and battle-fields; the African slave-hunts; the throngs and saloons of Pekin, Calcutta, and Paris; the monasteries of Tibet; and make prayers, petitions, intercessions, and thanksgivings, too, on behalf of all men. In the beginning of the Gospel, Timothy received this quiet injunction from the Apostle Paul. Now the once whispered word peals like the voice of many waters and mighty thunderings over the whole Church of God.”

1 Timothy 2:1. I exhort therefore — Seeing God is so gracious, and thou art intrusted with the office of the ministry, I give thee this in charge among other things. He proceeds to give directions, 1st, With regard to public prayers; and, 2d, With regard to doctrine. That supplications — To prevent evil; prayers — To procure good; intercessions — On behalf of others; and giving of thanks — For mercies received; be made for all men — Chiefly in public. “Supplications, δεησεις,” says Whitby, “are deprecations for the pardon of sin, and averting divine judgments; προσευχαι, prayers, for the obtaining of all spiritual and temporal blessings; εντευξεις, intercessions, addresses presented to God for the salvation of others. And by this rule were the devotions of the church continually directed. For, saith the author of the book De Vocatione Gentium, ‘there is no part of the world in which the Christian people do not put up such prayers as these, praying not only for the saints, but for infidels, idolaters, the enemies of the cross, and the persecutors of Christ’s members; for Jews, heretics, and schismatics.’” Of prayer in general we may observe, it is any kind of offering up of our desires to God. But the true, effectual, fervent prayer, which St. James speaks of as availing much, implies the vehemency of holy zeal, the ardour of divine love, arising from a calm, undisturbed soul, moved upon by the Spirit of God. “By this exhortation,” says Macknight, “we are taught, while men live, not to despair of their conversion, however wicked they may be, but to use the means necessary thereto, and to beg of God to accompany these means with his blessing.”

2:1-7 The disciples of Christ must be praying people; all, without distinction of nation, sect, rank, or party. Our duty as Christians, is summed up in two words; godliness, that is, the right worshipping of God; and honesty, that is, good conduct toward all men. These must go together: we are not truly honest, if we are not godly, and do not render to God his due; and we are not truly godly, if not honest. What is acceptable in the sight of God our Saviour, we should abound in. There is one Mediator, and that Mediator gave himself a ransom for all. And this appointment has been made for the benefit of the Jews and the Gentiles of every nation; that all who are willing may come in this way, to the mercy-seat of a pardoning God, to seek reconciliation with him. Sin had made a quarrel between us and God; Jesus Christ is the Mediator who makes peace. He is a ransom that was to be known in due time. In the Old Testament times, his sufferings, and the glory that should follow, were spoken of as things to be revealed in the last times. Those who are saved must come to the knowledge of the truth, for that is God's appointed way to save sinners: if we do not know the truth, we cannot be ruled by it.I exhort, therefore - Margin, "desire." The word exhort, however, better expresses the sense of the original. The exhortation here is not addressed particularly to Timothy, but relates to all who were called to lead in public prayer; 1 Timothy 2:8. This exhortation, it may be observed, is inconsistent with the supposition that a liturgy was then in use, or with the supposition that there ever would be a liturgy - since, in that case, the objects to be prayed for would be prescribed. How singular would it be now for an Episcopal bishop to "exhort" his presbyters to pray "for the President of the United States and for all who are in authority." When the prayer is prescribed, do they not do this as a matter of course?

First of all - That is, as the first duty to be enjoined; the thing that is to be regarded with primary concern; compare Luke 12:1; 2 Peter 1:20. It does not mean that this was to be the first thing in public worship in the order of time, but that it was to be regarded as a duty of primary importance. The duty of praying for the salvation of the whole world was not to be regarded as a subordinate and secondary thing.

Supplications - It is not entirely easy to mark the difference in the meaning of the words used here, and it is not essential. They all relate to prayer, and refer only to the different parts of prayer, or to distinct classes of thought and desire which come before the mind in pleading for others. On the difference between the words supplications and prayers, see notes on Hebrews 5:7.

Intercessions - The noun used occurs only in this place and in 1 Timothy 4:5, of this Epistle. The verb, however ἐντυγχάνω entungchanō, occurs in Acts 25:4; Romans 8:27, Romans 8:34; Romans 11:2; Hebrews 7:25. See the meaning explained in the Romans 8:26 note; Hebrews 7:25 note. There is one great Intercessor between God and man, who pleads for our salvation on the ground of what he himself has done, but we are permitted to intercede for others, not on the ground of any merit which they or we possess, but on the ground of the merit of the great Advocate and Intercessor. It is an inestimable privilege to be permitted to plead for the salvation of our fellow-men.

Giving of thanks - That is, in behalf of others. We ought to give thanks for the mercy of God to ourselves; it is right and proper also that we should give thanks for the goodness of God to others. We should render praise that there is a way of salvation provided; that no one is excluded from the offer of mercy; and that God is using so many means to call lost sinners to himself.

For all men - Prayers should be made for all people - for all need the grace and mercy of God; thanks should be rendered for all, for all may be saved. Does not this direction imply that Christ died for all mankind? How could we give thanks in their behalf if there were no mercy for them, and no way had been provided by which they could be saved? It may be observed here, that the direction to pray and to give thanks for all people, showed the large and catholic nature of Christianity. It was opposed entirely to the narrow and bigoted feelings of the Jews, who regarded the whole Gentile world as excluded from covenant mercies, and as having no offer of life. Christianity threw down all these barriers, and all people are on a level; and since Christ has died for all, there is ample ground for thanksgiving and praise in behalf of the whole human race.

See Supplementary note, 2 Corinthians 5:14.


1Ti 2:1-15. Public Worship. Direction as to Intercessions for All Men, since Christ Is a Ransom for All. The Duties of Men and Women Respectively in Respect to Public Prayer. Woman's Subjection; Her Sphere of Duty.

1. therefore—taking up again the general subject of the Epistle in continuation (2Ti 2:1). "What I have therefore to say to thee by way of a charge (1Ti 1:3, 18), is," &c.

that, first of all … be made—Alford takes it, "I exhort first of all to make." "First of all," doubtless, is to be connected with "I exhort"; what I begin with (for special reasons), is … As the destruction of Jerusalem drew near, the Jews (including those at Ephesus) were seized with the dream of freedom from every yoke; and so virtually "'blasphemed" (compare 1Ti 1:20) God's name by "speaking evil of dignities" (1Ti 6:1; 2Pe 2:10; Jude 8). Hence Paul, in opposition, gives prominence to the injunction that prayer be made for all men, especially for magistrates and kings (Tit 3:1-3) [Olshausen]. Some professing Christians looked down on all not Christians, as doomed to perdition; but Paul says all men are to be prayed for, as Christ died for all (1Ti 2:4-6).

supplications—a term implying the suppliant's sense of need, and of his own insufficiency.

prayers—implying devotion.

intercessions—properly the coming near to God with childlike confidence, generally in behalf of another. The accumulation of terms implies prayer in its every form and aspect, according to all the relations implied in it.1 Timothy 2:1-3 Paul exhorteth to pray and give thanks for all men,

for kings and magistrates especially.

1 Timothy 2:4-6 God willeth the savation of all men.

1 Timothy 2:7 Paul’s commission to teach the Gentiles.

1 Timothy 2:8-10 He directeth how women should be attired,

1 Timothy 2:11-14 permiteth them not to teach,

1 Timothy 2:15 promiseth that they shall be saved by child-bearing

on certain conditions.

Timothy (as was said before) was left at Ephesus to manage the affairs of the church there in the absence of Paul, who in this Epistle directs him as to this management. First he exhorts him to see that prayers should be made for all men.

Supplications, dehseiv, for supply of wants.

Prayers, proseucav, signifieth much the same; some will have it to signify petitions for the conservation or increase of what good things we have.

Intercessions, enteuzeiv, prayers for others, whether for the averting of evils from them, or the collation of good things upon them.

And giving of thanks; and blessings of God for good things bestowed upon ourselves or others. These Paul wills should be made uper pantwn, which may be of all men, or for all men, but the next verse plainly shows that it is here rightly rendered

for all men, for there were at this time no kings in the church. Paul here establisheth prayers as a piece of the public ministry in the church of God, and a primary piece; therefore he saith, he exhorts that first of all; not in respect of time so much, as, principally, intimating it a great piece of the public ministry, which he would by no means have neglected. And he would have these prayers put up for all orders and sorts of men, such only excepted of whom St. John speaks, 1Jo 5:16, who had sinned that sin, for which he would not say Christians should pray.

I exhort therefore, that first of all,.... The two principal parts of public worship, being the ministry of the word and prayer; and the apostle having insisted on the former, in the preceding chapter, in which he orders Timothy to charge some that they teach no other doctrine than that of the Gospel, gives an account of his own ministry, and call to it, and of the glorious Gospel of the blessed God, which was committed to his trust, and stirs up Timothy to the faithful and diligent discharge of his work and office; now proceeds to the latter, to prayer, and exhorts unto it; either Timothy in particular, for so read the Syriac, Arabic, and Ethiopic versions, "I exhort thee", or "desire thee"; or else the church in general; unless it should rather be thought to be a charge to Timothy to exhort, and so Beza's Claromontane copy reads, "exhort thou therefore": but it is commonly considered as an exhortation of the apostle's, which he was very urgent in: it was what lay much upon his mind, and he was greatly desirous that it should be attended unto; for so the words may be read, "I exhort first of all", or before all things; of all things he had to say, this was the chief, or it was what he would have principally and chiefly done by others: for this does not so much regard the order of time, that prayer should be made early in the morning, in the first place, before anything else is done, and particularly before preaching, which seems to have been the custom of the primitive saints, Acts 4:31 but the pre-eminence and superior excellency of it; though the words may be rendered, "I exhort, that first, the supplications of all be made": and so may regard public prayer, the prayer of the whole church, in distinction from private prayer, or the prayer of a single person; which is expressed by different words,

supplications, prayers, intercessions, and giving of thanks: the first of these, "supplications", signifies such petitions for things that are wanted by men, either by themselves or others; and that either for their bodies or souls, as food and raiment for the one, and discoveries of pardoning love, supplies of grace, spiritual peace, comfort, &c. for the other: and the second word, "prayers", signifies good wishes and desires, directed and expressed to God for things that are in themselves to be wished for, and desired of God, either for ourselves or others: and the next word, "intercessions", intends either complaints exhibited in prayer against others that have done injuries; or prayers put up for others, either for the averting of evil from them, or for the bestowing some good thing on them: and the last word, "thanksgivings", with which requests should always be made known to God, designs that branch of prayer in which thanks are given to God for mercies received, whether temporal or spiritual: and these are to

be made for all men; not only for all the saints, for all the churches of Christ, and, ministers of the Gospel; nor only for near relations and friends, according to the flesh; but for all the inhabitants of the country and city in which men dwell, the peace and prosperity of which are to be prayed for; yea, for enemies, and such as reproach, persecute, and despitefully use the saints, even for all sorts of men, Jews and Gentiles, rich and poor, high and low, bond and free, good men and bad men: for it cannot be understood of every individual that has been, is, or shall be in the world; millions of men are dead and gone, for whom prayer is not to be made; many in hell, to whom it would be of no service; and many in heaven, who stand in no need of it; nor is prayer to be made for such who have sinned the sin unto death, 1 John 5:16 besides, giving of thanks, as well as prayers, are to be made for all men; but certainly the meaning is not, that thanks should be given for wicked men, for persecutors, and particularly for a persecuting Nero, or for heretics, and false teachers, such as Hymenaeus and Alexander, whom the apostle had delivered to Satan. But the words must be understood of men of all sorts, of every rank and quality, as the following verse shows.

I {1} exhort therefore, that, first of all, supplications, prayers, intercessions, and giving of thanks, be made for all men;

(1) Having dispatched those things which pertain to doctrine, he speaks now in the second place of the other part of the ministry of the word, that is, of public prayers. And first of all, answering the question for whom we ought to pray, he teaches that we must pray for all men, and especially for every type of magistrate. And this thing was at that time somewhat doubted of, seeing that kings, indeed, and most of the magistrates, were at that time enemies of the Church.

1 Timothy 2:1. After directing Timothy’s attention generally to the στρατεία to which he had been appointed, Paul proceeds to mention in detail the things for which, in his office, he had to care. This connection of thought is marked by the particle of transition οὖν (Wiesinger), which therefore does not stand (as de Wette, following Schleiermacher, thinks) without any logical connection.[82]

ΠΡῶΤΟΝ ΠΆΝΤΩΝ] is not to be taken with ΠΟΙΕῖΣΘΑΙ, as Luther does: “to do before everything else,” but with ΠΑΡΑΚΑΛῶ (Heydenreich, Matthies, de Wette, Wiesinger, van Oosterzee).

ΠΟΙΕῖΣΘΑΙ ΔΕΉΣΕΙς Κ.Τ.Λ.] The apostle herewith begins to give “instructions regarding public prayer” (Wiesinger). The idea of prayer is here expressed by four words. ΔΈΗΣΙς and ΠΡΟΣΕΥΧΉ are connected in other passages as synonyms—in Ephesians 6:18, Php 4:6; the difference between them is this, that ΔΈΗΣΙς can be used only of petitionary prayer, ΠΡΟΣΕΥΧΉ of every kind of prayer. Not less general in meaning is ἜΝΤΕΥΞΙς, from ἘΝΤΥΓΧΆΝΕΙΝ ΤΙΝΊ incidere in aliquem, adire aliquem, and in reference to God: pray (Wis 8:21; Wis 16:28). The reference to another is not contained in the word itself, but in the preposition connected with it, as in Romans 11:2 : κατά τινος; and Romans 8:34; Hebrews 7:25 : ὙΠΈΡ ΤΙΝΟς. Accordingly, the substantive ἜΝΤΕΥΞΙς, which occurs only here and in chap. 1 Timothy 4:5, does not in itself possess the meaning of intercession for others, but denotes simply prayer as an address to God (Wiesinger); comp. Plutarch, Vita Numae, chap. 14: μὴ ποιεῖσθαι τὰς πρὸς τὸ θεῖον ἐντεύξεις ἐν ἀσχολίᾳ καὶ παρέργως. The three words, accordingly, are thus distinguished: in the first, the element of insufficiency is prominent; in the second, that of devotion; and in the third, that of child-like confidence (prayer—the heart’s converse with God). Calvin is right in his remark, that Paul joined these three words together here “ut precandi studium et assiduitatem magis commendet ac vehementius urgeat.”[83]

εὐχαριστίας] “prayers of thanksgiving,” the apostle adds, because in Christian prayer the giving of thanks should never be wanting; comp. Php 4:6 : ἐν παντὶ τῇ προσευχῇ καὶ τῇ δεήσει μετὰ εὐχαριστίας τὰ αἰτήματα ὑμῶν γνωρίζεσθαι πρὸς τὸν Θεόν.

ὑπὲρ πάντων ἀνθρώπων] is not to be referred merely to εὐχαριστία, but also to the preceding words (Wiesinger). The prayer of the Christian community (for this and not private prayer is here spoken of) is—in petition and thanksgiving—to embrace all mankind.

[82] Hofmann’s reference of οὖν to 1 Timothy 1:15 and the conclusion of ver. 16 is far-fetched: “If Christ came into the world to save sinners, and if the long-suffering of God towards the man whom He made His apostle from being a reviler, was to be a prophecy regarding the conversion of those who were afterwards made to believe on Him, it becomes Christians not, in sectarian fashion, to limit its command to its sphere at that time, but to extend it to all men.”

[83] In regard to the more precise definition of the word, there is much that is arbitrary in expositors older and more recent. Thus δέησις is understood to be prayer for averting the punishment of sin; προσευχή, prayer for the bestowal of benefits; ἔντευξις, prayer for the punishment of the unrighteous (Theodoret: δέησίς ἐστιν, ὑπὲρ ἀπαλλαγῆς τινῶν λυπηρῶν ἱκετεία προσφερομένη· προσευχή ἐστιν αἴτησις ἀγαθῶν· ἔντευξίς ἐστι κατηγορία τῶν ἀδικούντων; so, too, Theophylact and Oecumenius). Photius (ad Amphil. qu. 193) explains ἐντυχία in the same way: ἐντυχία (ὅταν τὶς κατὰ τῶν ἀδικούτων ἐντυγχάνῃ τῷ Θεῷ, προσκαλούμενος αὐτὸν εἰς ἐκδίκησιν); but the other two words differently: δέησις μὲν λέγεται, ὅταν τὶς Θεὸν ἀξεοῖ εἰς πρᾶγμα· προσευχὴ δὲ, ὅταν ὑμνῇ τὸν Θεόν. Origen (περὶ εὐχῆς, § 44) finds a climax in the succession of the words, and distinguishes προσευχαί from δεήσεις in this way, that the former are prayers joined with a δοξολογία, made for greater things and μεγαλοφυέστερον, while ἐντεύξεις are the prayers of one who has παῤῥησίαν τινὰ πλείονα.—Still more arbitrary is Kling’s explanation, that δεήσεις are prayers in reference to the circumstances of all mankind; προσευχαί, prayers for some benefit; ἐντεύξεις, prayers for the aversion of evil. Matthies is partly right, partly wrong when he says: δέησις is the prayer made with a feeling of the need of God, so that the inner side of the need and of uprightness (?) is particularly prominent; προσευχή, prayer, in the act of devotional address to the Godhead, therefore with reference to the outward exercise (?); ἐντεύξεις, intercession, made not so much for ourselves as on behalf of others (?).—There is no ground whatever for the opinion of Heydenreich, that the first two expressions are used of prayer (δέησις = petition; προσευχή = thanksgiving) for the whole Christian community, while the other two (ἔντευξις = petition; εὐχαριστία = thanksgiving) are used of prayer for the whole of mankind. Lastly, we may note the peculiar view of Augustine (Ep. 59), according to which the four expressions are to be understood of prayers used at the celebration of the Lord’s Supper, δεήσεις being the precationes before consecration; προσευχαί, the orationes at the benediction, consecration, and breaking of bread; ἐντεύξεις, the interpellationes at the benediction of the congregation; and εὐχαριστία, the gratiarum actio at the close of the communion. Plitt so far agrees with this view of Augustine, that he thinks the apostle’s various expressions denote the various liturgical prayers, as they were defined even in ancient times at the celebration of the Eucharist (?).

1 Timothy 2:1-7. In the first place, let me remind you that the Church’s public prayers must be made expressly for all men, from the Emperor downwards. This care for all becomes those who know that they are children of a Father who wishes the best for all His children. He is one and the same to all, and the salvation He has provided in the Atonement is available for all. My own work among the Gentiles is one instance of God’s fetching home again His banished ones.

1–7. Directions for Common Prayer and Intercession for all, since the Gospel is for all

1. I exhort therefore that, first of all] Rather, I exhort therefore first of all; as my first special injunction after my general charge and commission, ch. 1 1Tim 1:3–5, 18, 19; the verb itself partly suggests the taking up of the subject in new form.

that … supplications … be made] The position of the Greek verb suggests its being middle voice rather than passive. So R.V. margin and Alford following Chrysostom: ‘I exhort to make supplications.’ The present tense implies the habitual making; and the absence of a subject leaves it unemphatic. In a modern rendering it might run exactly “I recommend therefore first of all the practice of common supplication and prayer, of common intercession and thanksgiving, in behalf of all men.” The middle is found in 17 places at least in N. T., in two of these governing the same word ‘supplications,’ Luke 5:33; Php 1:4. So Chrysostom in his comment here uses as the natural phrase ‘for all the world … we make our supplication.’ The only place where the passive occurs is in the perfect participle, Hebrews 12:27, ‘as of things that have been made.’

supplications, prayers, intercessions] In the first word there is, from its derivation, the idea of a felt ‘want’ and petition for its supply; cf. esp. Php 1:4; Luke 1:13; 2 Timothy 1:3. Notice how in English, in the prayer of St Chrysostom, ‘our common supplications’ is explained by “requests” and by “desires and petitions.”

In the second, the idea of vow and ‘worship towards’ God, cf. Matthew 21:13, ‘my house shall be called the house of prayer,’ Acts 2:42, ‘they continued stedfastly … in the breaking of bread and the prayers.’

In the third, the idea of a personal interview and solicitation, such as Abraham’s for Sodom: either (1) against, or (2) for some one: for (1) cf. Acts 25:24, ‘made suit to me, crying that he ought not to live,’ Romans 11:2, ‘he pleadeth with God against Israel’: for (2) Romans 8:26, ‘The Spirit (and Rom 8:34 Christ Jesus) maketh intercession for us,’ Hebrews 7:25 ‘He ever liveth to make intercession for us.’ See note also on chap. 1 Timothy 4:5.

The plural of each as being a collection of concrete examples is the earlier way of representing the abstract noun; and it also helps to give the force, implied by the whole context, of common, public, prayer. Augustine says that the four words refer to the liturgical form of administration of Holy Communion: we may certainly say the converse that our ‘Divine Liturgy’ is modelled on this authorised rule, taking e.g. the modern ‘Prayer for the Church Militant’ with its express embodiment of this passage, or the ancient Gloria in Excelsis—(1) “In earth peace, goodwill towards men: (2) we bless thee, we worship Thee, O Lord, (3) Thou that takest away the sins of the world, have mercy upon us; (4) we give thanks to Thee, God the Father Almighty”: or taking the service as a whole, we get (1) the supplication for mercy and grace in the Kyrie after each Commandment, in the collects for the Queen and that for the day and the Church Militant, (2) the prayer of worship in the prayers of humble access and consecration, (3) the intercession in the Lord’s Prayer and following prayers, (4) the thanksgiving of the Gloria in Excelsis summarising all before.

1 Timothy 2:1. Παρακαλῶ, I exhort) In this chapter he describes public worship: I. In regard to prayers; II. In regard to doctrine, 1 Timothy 2:11-12.—οὖν, therefore) This exhortation flows from that sense of grace [spoken of, last chap., 1 Timothy 2:14]. Paul intimates not only what he himself wishes, but what Timothy ought to inculcate.—πρῶτον πάντων ποιεισθαι, first of all to make) The highest duty. [The apostle here furnishes sufficient employment to prevent any ἀλλοτριοεπισχοπίας, curious investigation into irrelevant questions, ch. 1 Timothy 1:4.—V. g.]—δεήσεις, προσευχὰς, ἐντεύξεις, εὐχαριστίας) The plural number indicates force: δέησις (from δεῖ) is the imploring of grace in any special necessity: προσευχὴ, prayer, is exercised, when on any occasion we offer our wishes and desires to God: ἔντευξις is earnest intercession for other men or creatures, ch. 1 Timothy 4:5, even if they cannot pray for themselves: εὐχαριστίας, giving of thanks, is becoming to be made also for all men, because, for example, God wishes all men to be saved, and Christ is the Mediator of all.—ὑπὲρ, for) This is connected with supplications—thanksgivings. All, at separate times, have special necessities.—πάντων, for all) 1 Timothy 2:4; 1 Timothy 2:6.

Verse 1. - First of all, that for that, first of all, A.V.; thanksgivings for and giving of thanks. A.V. I exhort therefore. The insertion of the connecting particle "therefore" marks that this arrangement of Church prayers is a part - as the following words, first of all, mark that it is the first part - of that charge or administration which was now committed to Timothy. Supplications, prayers, intercessions, thanksgivings (see the Prayer for the Church Militant). The question naturally arises whether the first words here used - δεήσις προσευχάς, and ἐντεύξεις - have any distinctive meaning, or are merely accumulated, like synonyms m legal documents, or various phrases in rhetorical addresses, to ensure completeness and to add force. It is against the notion of any distinctive meaning attaching to them that no such distinction can be supported by actual use. In Philippians 4:6 two of the words (προσευχή and δέησις) are used in conjunction as here with εὐχαριστία, with no apparent difference, both being the way of making known their requests to God (so also Ephesians 6:18 and 1 Timothy 5:5). Again, in the ancient Liturgies, the words δεέσθαι and προσεύχεσθαι are constantly used of the same praying. It may, however, perhaps be said that every δέησις is a προσευχή, though every προσευχή is not a δέησις. The δέησις is a "petition" - a distinct asking something of God, which a προσευχή need not necessarily be. It may be merely an act of adoration, of confession, of recital of God's mercies, and so on. So as regards ἐντεύξεις, here rendered "intercessions." There is nothing in the etymology/ or in the use of this word, which only occurs elsewhere in the New Testament in 1 Timothy 4:5, to limit the meaning of it to "intercession." Nor has it this meaning in the passage where it occurs in the Liturgy of St. Clement, near the close, where God is addressed as Ὁ καὶ τῶν σιωπώντων ἐπιστάμενος τὰς ἐντεύξεις, "Who understandest the petitions even of those who are silent." In 2 Macc. 4:8 and Diod. Sic., 16:55 it seems to mean "a request preferred in a personal interview," which is an extension of its common meaning in classical Greek of "access," "an interview," "social intercourse," or the like. But when we turn to the use of the verb ἐντυγχάνω in the New Testament, we seem to get the idea of "intercession." Αντυγχάνειν is to go to someone to ask him to take action against or in favor of some third party (see Acts 25:24; Romans 11:2; Romans 8:27, 28, 34; Hebrews 7:25); and so Chrysostom (quoted in Steph., 'Thesaur.') explains ἐντυχία to be the action of one who applies to God to avenge him of those who have done him wrong. So that perhaps "intercessions" is, on the whole, the best rendering here, though an imperfect one; and would comprise the prayers for the emperor, for the Church, for the sick, travelers, slaves, captives, etc., for the bishops, clergy, and laity, etc., and such prayers as "Turn away from us every plot (ἐπιβουλήν) of wicked men" (Liturgy of St. Mark). 1 Timothy 2:1I exhort (παρακαλῶ)

See on consolation, Luke 6:24.

First of all (πρῶτον πάντων)

Connect with I exhort. The only instance of this phrase in N.T.

Supplications be made (ποιεῖσθαι δεήσεις)

The phrase occurs Luke 5:33; Philippians 1:4. olxx. oClass. Δέησις is petitionary prayer. Προσευχὴ prayer is limited to prayer to God, while δέησις may be addressed to men. The two are associated, 1 Timothy 5:5 : the inverse order, Ephesians 6:18; Philippians 4:6.

Intercessions (ἐυντεύξεις)

Only here and 1 Timothy 4:5. lxx, 2 Macc. 4:8. The verb ἐντυγχάνειν, commonly rendered to make intercession, Romans 8:27, Romans 8:34; Romans 11:2; and ὑπερεντυγχάνειν to intercede in behalf of, Romans 8:26. The verb signifies to fall in with a person; to draw near so as to converse familiarly. Hence, ἔντευξις is not properly intercession in the accepted sense of that term, but rather approach to God in free and familiar prayer. Ἑντυγχάνειν in the passages cited is not to make intercession, but to intervene, interfere. Thus in Romans 8:26, it is not that the Spirit pleads in our behalf, but that he throws himself into our case; takes part in it. So Hebrews 7:25 : not that Jesus is ever interceding for us, but that he is eternally meeting us at every point, and intervening in al our affairs for our benefit. In ἐντεύξεις here the idea of interposition is prominent: making prayers a factor in relations with secular rulers.

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