1 Timothy 2:2
For kings, and for all that are in authority; that we may lead a quiet and peaceable life in all godliness and honesty.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(2) For kings, and for all that are in authority.—Without any special reference to the Roman emperors, the expression simply directs that prayer should be offered in all Christian congregations for the supreme authorities of the Roman empire, and especially of that particular province in which the church, where the prayer was offered, happened to be situate. Josephus especially mentions how a refusal on the part of the Jews to pray for Roman magistrates led to the great war with the empire which ended in their destruction as a separate nation.

A well-known passage in the Apology of Tertullian, written about a century and a quarter after St. Paul sent his first letter to Timothy, shows how well and carefully this charge of the great teacher, written to the Church in Ephesus, was kept in distant Carthage:—“We Christians. . . . do intercede for all the emperors that their lives may be prolonged, their government be secured to them, that their families may be preserved in safety, their senates faithful to them, their armies brave, their people honest, and that the whole empire may be at peace, and for whatever other things are desired by the people or the Cæsar.”

Early in the second century, Polycarp of Smyrna bears similar testimony to this practice in the early Church of praying publicly for their heathen rulers:—“Pray for all the saints; pray, too, for all kings and powers and rulers, and for your persecutors, and those that hate you, and for your cruel enemies.”

That we may lead a quiet and peaceable life.—What now is the special object of this prayer for those in high authority and power? First, that through their wise rule the Christians might enjoy peace; and, second, that the temper of the people who prayed thus for the ruling powers might be so affected the constant repetition of such prayers: that all thoughts of revolt and resistance would be gradually stamped out.

St. Paul knew whom he was addressing. The Christian congregations of his age were largely made up of Jews. An intense longing to throw off the yoke of Rome pervaded the whole nation. The terrible events of the year 70 (only four or five years at most from the time of writing this Epistle) show how deep-seated was their hatred of the stranger. No Christian, however, was implicated in that fatal rebellion; so thoroughly had the teaching of St. Paul and his fellow Apostles done its work among the Jewish followers of the Crucified.

In all godliness and honesty.—The word rendered “honesty” is better translated gravity, or decorum. These words are only used by St. Paul in his Pastoral Epistles, where “godliness” occurs nine times, and “gravity” three times. The sphere, so to speak, in which St. Paul’s ideal Christian must walk during his quiet, unobtrusive pilgrimage, was reverence and decorum.

1 Timothy 2:2-4. For kings — Especially; and for all that are in authority — “That is, for the ministers and counsellors of kings, and for the inferior magistrates, by whatever name they may be called, seeing even the lowest country magistrates frequently do much good or much harm. In the early times the Jews prayed for the heathen princes, who held them in captivity, (Ezra 6:10; Bar 1:10-11,) being directed by God so to do, Jeremiah 29:7. But afterward becoming more bigoted, they would not pray for any heathen ruler whatever. Nay, the zealots among them held that no obedience was due from the people of God to idolatrous princes, and often raised seditions in the heathen countries, as well as in Judea, against the heathen magistrates. This malevolent disposition some of the Jewish converts brought with them into the Christian Church. The apostle, therefore, agreeably to the true spirit of the gospel, commanded the brethren at Ephesus to pray, both in public and private, for all men, whatever their nation, their religion, or their character might be, and especially for kings. That we may lead a quiet and peaceable life — God supports the power of magistracy for the sake of his own people, when, in the present state of men, it could not otherwise be kept up in any nation whatever. And we should pray that our rulers may exercise their power in such a wise and equitable manner, that, under the protection of their government, we may live in peace with our neighbours, and undisturbed by foreign enemies. In all godliness — In the genuine fear, love, worship, and service of God; and honesty — A comprehensive word, taking in the whole duty we owe to our neighbour. “In the first age, when the disciples of Christ were liable to be persecuted for their religion by their heathen neighbours, it was highly necessary, by praying for kings and all in authority, to make the heathen rulers sensible that they were good subjects. For thus they might expect to be less the object of their hatred.” For this — That we should pray for them and all men; is good and acceptable in the sight of God our Saviour — Who has actually saved us, and is willing to save all. For the disciples of Christ thus to pray for all men, especially for their heathen enemies and persecutors, was of excellent use to make the latter sensible how good, how patient, and how benevolent the disciples of Jesus were, and that their religion led them to no seditious practices. Indeed, as Macknight observes, this display of the Christian character was then peculiarly necessary, in that the heathen were apt to confound the Christians with the Jews, and to impute to them the odious spirit and wicked practices of the Jews, who, confining their benevolence to those of their own religion, cherished a most rancorous hatred of all the rest of mankind. Who will have all men — Not a part only, much less the smallest part; to be saved — Eternally. This is treated of 1 Timothy 2:5-6. And — In order thereto; to come — (They are not compelled;) to the knowledge of the truth — Which brings salvation. This is treated of 1 Timothy 2:6-7; to which knowledge they would be most likely to come, if they should see the professors of it behaving in the manner now recommended, and avoiding all occasions either of public or private offence.2:1-7 The disciples of Christ must be praying people; all, without distinction of nation, sect, rank, or party. Our duty as Christians, is summed up in two words; godliness, that is, the right worshipping of God; and honesty, that is, good conduct toward all men. These must go together: we are not truly honest, if we are not godly, and do not render to God his due; and we are not truly godly, if not honest. What is acceptable in the sight of God our Saviour, we should abound in. There is one Mediator, and that Mediator gave himself a ransom for all. And this appointment has been made for the benefit of the Jews and the Gentiles of every nation; that all who are willing may come in this way, to the mercy-seat of a pardoning God, to seek reconciliation with him. Sin had made a quarrel between us and God; Jesus Christ is the Mediator who makes peace. He is a ransom that was to be known in due time. In the Old Testament times, his sufferings, and the glory that should follow, were spoken of as things to be revealed in the last times. Those who are saved must come to the knowledge of the truth, for that is God's appointed way to save sinners: if we do not know the truth, we cannot be ruled by it.For kings - On the respect due to rulers, see the notes on Romans 13:1-7. The meaning here is, that while all people should be the subjects of prayer, those should be particularly remembered before the throne of grace who are in authority. The reason is, that so much depends on their character and plans; that the security of life, liberty, and property, depends so much on them. God has power to influence their hearts, and to incline them to what is just and equal; and hence we should pray that a divine influence may descend upon them. The salvation of a king is of itself of no more importance than that of a peasant or a slave; but the welfare of thousands may depend on him, and hence he should be made the special subject of prayer.

All that are in authority - Margin, or, "eminent place." This does not necessarily mean those who hold office, but refers to any of elevated rank. The happiness of all who are under their control depends greatly on them, and hence we should pray for them that they may be converted people, and inclined to do that which is right.

That we may lead a quiet and peaceable life - That their hearts may be so inclined to what is right that they may protect us in the enjoyment of religion, and that we may not be opposed or harassed by persecution. This does not mean that their protection would dispose us to lead quiet and peaceful lives, but that under their protection we may be saved from oppression on account of our religion. Christians are disposed of themselves to be peaceful and orderly; they ask of their rulers only that they may not be harassed in the enjoyment of their rights.

In all godliness and honesty - In the practice of all our duties toward God, and of all the duties which we owe to people. The word godliness here denotes piety - or the duty which we owe to God; the word honesty refers to our duties to our fellow-men. The Christian asks from civil rulers such protection that; he maybe enabled quietly to perform both these classes of duties.

2. For kings—an effectual confutation of the adversaries who accused the Christians of disaffection to the ruling powers (Ac 17:7; Ro 13:1-7).

all … in authority—literally, "in eminence"; in stations of eminence. The "quiet" of Christians was often more dependent on subordinate rulers, than on the supreme king; hence, "all … in authority" are to be prayed for.

that we may lead—that we may be blessed with such good government as to lead … ; or rather, as Greek, "to pass" or "spend." The prayers of Christians for the government bring down from heaven peace and order in a state.

quiet—not troubled from without.

peaceable—"tranquil"; not troubled from within [Olshausen]. "He is peaceable (Greek) who makes no disturbance; he is quiet (Greek) who is himself free from disturbance" [Tittmann].

in all godliness—"in all (possible … requisite) piety" [Alford]. A distinct Greek word, 1Ti 2:10, expresses "godliness."

honesty—Greek, "gravity" (Tit 2:2, 7), "decorum," or propriety of conduct. As "piety" is in relation to God, "gravity" is propriety of behavior among men. In the Old Testament the Jews were commanded to pray for their heathen rulers (Ezr 6:10; Jer 29:7). The Jews, by Augustus' order, offered a lamb daily for the Roman emperor, till near the destruction of Jerusalem. The Jewish Zealots, instigated by Eleazar, caused this custom to cease [Josephus, Wars of the Jews, 2.17], whence the war originated, according to Josephus.

For kings, and for all that are in authority: the kings of the earth at that time were all heathens, and enemies to the Christian religion, so (generally) were those who were in a subordinate authority to them, yet the apostle commands that prayers should be made in the Christian congregations for them. What the matter of their petitions was to be is not expressed, but doubtless not to be limited by the next words, for that were not to have prayed for them but for themselves. Prayers for magistrates ought to be directed by their circumstances. If magistrates were idolaters and persecutors, they were to pray for their conversion, and the change of their hearts. However, they were to pray for their life and health so far forth as might be for God’s glory, and for God’s guidance of them in the administration of their government, and their success in their lawful counsels and undertakings, &c. The latter words,

that we may lead a quiet and peaceable life in all godliness and honesty, contain the reason why prayers should be made for governors, and the good effect of them. For it is for this end that the supreme Lord hath ordained the office and dignity of kings and governors, that, being armed with authority and power, they may perserve public order and peace, by punishing evil-doers, and protecting and encouraging those that do well. Thus, under the Old Testament, the Jews were commanded to pray for the peace of the nation or city whither they should be carried captives, for in their peace they should have peace, Jeremiah 29:7. For kings, and for all that are in authority,.... For supreme governors, as the emperor of Rome, and kings of particular nations; and for all sub-governors, or inferior magistrates, as procurators or governors of provinces, and proconsuls, and the like; all that were in high places, and acted under the authority of those that were supreme; these are particularly mentioned, the then governors, whether supreme or subordinate, who were avowed enemies, and violent persecutors of the saints; and it might be a scruple with some of them, whether they should pray for them, and therefore the apostle enjoins it; and this in opposition to the notions and practices of the Jews, who used to curse the Heathens, and pray for none but for themselves, and those of their own nation:

that we may lead a quiet and peaceable life, in all godliness and honesty; which does not merely design the end of civil government by kings and magistrates, which is to preserve the peace and quiet of the commonwealth; to protect the persons and properties of men, that they may possess their own undisturbed; and to secure to them their civil and religious rights and liberties, that they may have the free use and exercise of religion, signified by "all godliness"; and to encourage morality and virtue, expressed by "honesty"; and so is an argument for prayer, taken from the advantage of civil government: nor does this clause only point out the duty of saints to live peaceably under the government they are, and not disturb it; to mind only their religious exercises among themselves, and behave honestly and morally among men, as they generally speaking are, the quiet in the land; but also expresses the thing to be prayed for; and the sense is, that since the hearts of kings are in the hands of the Lord, and he can turn them as he pleases, prayer should be made to him for them, that he would either convert them, and bring them to the knowledge of the truth, they now persecuted; or at least so dispose their hearts and minds, that they might stop the persecution, and so saints might live peaceably under them, enjoy their religious liberty, and be encouraged in their moral conversation. The Arabic version renders it, "that they may be preserved": that is, kings, and all in authority. It is a saying of R. Hananiah, or Ananias, the sagan of the priests (s),

"pray for the peace or safety of the kingdom (one of their commentators on it adds (t), even of the nations of the world, which is remarkable, and agrees with the exhortation of the apostle); for if there was no fear of that, men would devour one another alive.''

(s) Pirke Abot, c. 3. sect. 2.((t) Bartenora in Pirke Abot, c. 3. sect. 2.

For kings, and for all that are in authority; {2} that we may lead a quiet and peaceable life in all godliness and {a} honesty.

(2) An argument taken of the end: that is, because magistrates are appointed to this end, that men might peaceably and quietly live in all godliness and honesty: and therefore we must commend them especially to God, that they may faithfully execute so necessary an office.

(a) This word includes every type of duty, which is to be used by men in all their affairs.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
1 Timothy 2:2. Ὑπὲρ βασιλέων] βασιλεῖς are not merely the Roman emperors, the apostle using the plural because of the emperor’s colleagues (Baur); the word is to be taken, in a more general sense, as denoting the highest authorities in the state.

καὶ πάντων τῶν ἐν ὑπεροχῇ ὄντων] not only denoting the governors in the provinces, but all who hold the office of magistrate anywhere. The expression is synonymous with ἐξουσίαι ὑπερέχουσαι in Romans 13:1; comp. 2Ma 3:11 : ἀνὴρ ἐν ὑπεροχῇ κείμενος. Josephus calls the magistrates simply αἱ ὑπεροχαί (Antiq. vi. 4. 3). In the old liturgies we find, in express accordance with this passage, the δέησις ὑπὲρ βασιλέων καὶ τῶν ἐν ὑπεροχῇ, ὑπὲρ τῆς εἰρήνης τοῦ σύμπαντος κόσμου. The purpose for which intercession is specially to be made for all men in authority is given in the words that follow: ἵνα ἤρεμον καὶ ἡσύχιον βίον δίαγωμεν, which, as de Wette rightly remarks, denotes the objective and not the subjective purpose. Paul does not mean here to direct attention to the value which intercession has for our own inner life, and by means of this for outward peace, as Heydenreich (“Christians are to pray also for heathen rulers, that by this prayer they may keep alive within themselves the quiet submissive spirit of citizens”), Matthies (“animated with loving thoughts towards the representatives of the government, they are to be blameless in their walk, and to strive after the undisturbed enjoyment of outward peace”), and others think; but the apostle is speaking of the still, quiet life as a blessing which the church obtains by prayer to God for the rulers.[84] The prayer is directed, as Wiesinger rightly remarks, not for the conversion of the heathen rulers, but for the divine blessing necessary to them in the discharge of their office (Romans 13:14).

The adj. ἬΡΕΜΟς occurs only here[85] in the N. T., and ἡσύχιος only here and in 1 Peter 3:4 (synonymous with πραΰς). The expression βίον διάγειν also occurs only here; in Titus 3:3, διάγειν is used without βίον.

No exact distinction can be established between ἤρεμος and ἡσύχιος. Olshausen (in Wiesinger) says, without reason, that the former means: “not disquieted from without;” the latter, “from within.” Ἠρέμα denotes, in classic Greek at any rate, “still, tranquil existence;” but ἡσύχιος (ἥσυχος) has the same meaning, and also denotes that there is no disturbance from without. The collocation of the two words serves to give more force to the thought; a ἤρ. κ. ἡσύχ. βίος is a life led without disturbance from without, with no excitement of fear, etc.

βίον διάγειν] “spend life, more than ἄγειν” (Wiesinger); the same expression is often found in classical writers.

ἐν πάσῃ εὐσεβείᾳ καὶ σεμνότητι] Not on this, but on ἠρ. καὶ ἡσύχ. is the chief emphasis of the sentence laid (Plitt); the words only add a more precise definition. Εὐσέβεια, a word foreign to the other Pauline Epistles, and (with εὐσεβής, εὐσεβῶς, εὐσεβέω) occurring only in the Pastoral Epistles, in Acts, and in 2 Pet., denotes the godliness of the heart; σεμνότης, also peculiar to the Pastoral Epistles (σεμνός, only here and in Php 4:8), denotes the becoming conduct of the Christian in all the relations of life. Hofmann is arbitrary in separating this addition from what immediately precedes, and joining it with ποιεῖσθαι δεήσεις κ.τ.λ., as “denoting the manner in which the prayer commended is to be made.”

[84] Hofmann maintains, without grounds, that ἵνα κ.τ.λ. does not give the purpose of the prayer for all men and for rulers, but “the purpose for which rulers exist” (!).

[85] Nor is the positive ἤρεμος used in the Greek classics. As yet it has been found only in the Inscript. Olbiopol. n. 2059, v. 24, by Lobeck; see Winer, p. 68 [E. T. p. 82]; Buttmann, p. 24.—The substantives ἡσυχία and ἠρεμία are frequently found together in the classics; e.g. Demosth. de Contributione, § 8; Bekk. s. Dorville, On Chariton. p. 411.1 Timothy 2:2. ὑπὲρ βασιλέων: Prayer for all men must be given intensity and directness by analysis into prayer for each and every sort and condition of men. St. Paul begins such an analytical enumeration with kings and all that are in high place; but he does not proceed with it. This 1 Timothy 2:2 is in fact an explanatory parenthesis, exemplifying how the prayer “for all men” is to begin. The plural kings has occasioned some difficulty; since in St. Paul’s time, Timothy and the Ephesian Church were concerned with one king only, the Emperor. Consequently those who deny the Pauline authorship of the Pastorals suppose that the writer here betrays his consciousness of the associated emperors under the Antonines. But, in the first place, he would have written τῶν βασιλέων: and again, the sentiment was intended as a perfectly general one, applicable to all lands. St. Paul knew of kingdoms outside the Roman empire to which, no doubt, he was sure the Gospel would spread; and even within the Roman empire there were honorary βασιλεῖς whose characters could seriously affect those about them. The plural is similarly used in Matthew 10:18 and parallels.

On the duty of prayer for kings see Jeremiah 29:7, Ezra 6:10, Bar 1:11, 1Ma 7:33, Romans 13:1, Titus 3:1, 1 Peter 2:13.

Such prayer was a prominent feature in the Christian liturgy from the earliest times to which we can trace it (e.g., Clem. Rom. ad Cor. i. 61). It is specially noted in the Apologies as a proof of the loyalty of Christians to the Government, e.g., Justin Martyr, Apol. i. 17; Tert. Apol. 30, 31, 39; Athenagoras, Legatio, p. 39. Origen, Cont. Cels. viii. 12.

ἐν ὑπεροχῇ: in high place (R.V.). The noun occurs in an abstract sense, καθʼ ὑπεροχὴν λόγου ἢ σοφίας, 1 Corinthians 2:1; but the verb is found in this association: Romans 13:1, ἐξουσίαις ὑπερεχούσαις; 1 Peter 2:13, βασιλεῖ ὡς ὑπερέχοντι. The actual phrase τῶν ἐν ὑπεροχῇ ὄντων is found in an inscription at Pergamum “after 133 B.C.” (Deissmann, Bible Studies, trans. p. 255).

ἵνα ἤρεμον: This expresses not the reason why prayer was to be made for kings, but the purport of the prayer itself. Cf. Tert. Apol. 39, “Oramus etiam pro imperatoribus, pro ministeriis eorum ac potestatibus, pro statu seculi, pro rerum quiete”. So Clem. Rom. ad Cor. i. 60, δὸς ὁμόνοιαν καὶ εἰρήνην ἡμῖν … [ὥστε σώζεσθαι ἡμᾶς] ὑπηκόους γινομένουςτοῖς ἄρχουσιν καὶ ἡγουμένοις ἡμῶν ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς, and esp. § 61. Von Soden connects ἵνα, κ.τ.λ. with παρακαλῶ.

ἤρεμος and ἡσύχιος, tranquil and quiet (R.V.), perhaps refer to inward and outward peace respectively. See Bengel, on 1 Peter 3:4. ἡσυχία also has an external reference where it occurs in N.T., Acts 22:2, 2 Thessalonians 3:12, 1 Timothy 2:11-12. ἠρεμέω is found in a papyrus of ii. A.D. cited by Moulton and Milligan, Expositor, vii., vii. 471.

διάγω is used in the sense of passing one’s life, absolutely, without βίον expressed, in Titus 3:3.

ἐν πάσῃ εὐσεβείᾳ κ. σεμνότητι: with as much piety and earnestness or seriousness as is possible. This clause, as Chrys. points out, qualifies the prayer for a tranquil and quiet life. εὐσέβεια and σεμνότης, piety and seriousness, belong to the vocabulary of the Pastoral Epistles, though εὐσ. occurs elsewhere; see reff. In the Pastorals εὐσέβεια is almost a technical term for the Christian religion as expressed in daily life. It is used with a more general application, religious conduct, in 1 Timothy 6:11 and in 2 Peter. It and its cognates were “familiar terms in the religious language of the Imperial period” (Deissmann, Bible Studies, trans. p. 364). σεμνότης is rather gravitas, as Vulg. renders it in Titus 2:7, than castitas (Vulg. here and 1 Timothy 3:4) just as σεμνός is a wider term than pudicus as Vulg. always renders it (Php 4:8; 1 Timothy 3:8; 1 Timothy 3:11; Titus 2:2). The A.V. honesty is an older English equivalent for seemliness. σεμνός and σεμνότης connote gravity which compels genuine respect.2. in authority] R.V. in high place. The noun occurs only 1 Corinthians 2:1, ‘I came not with excellency of speech,’ but the participle in Romans 13:1, ‘the higher powers.’

Though there is no special reference to Roman emperors, yet as Wordsworth well says, under the circumstances of its writing, this exhortation is ‘an evidence of the courage and divine commission of St Paul.’ It is also a practical reply to the charge, so commonly brought at the time and after, of civil disaffection.

in all godliness and honesty] ‘Godliness,’ a constant devout realization of God’s presence and greatness. The word occurs ten times in these epistles, and in 2 Peter 1:3; 2 Peter 1:6-7; its opposite in 1 Timothy 1:9. It is another characteristic word of the Pastoral Epistles. ‘Honesty’ appears to have the same sense as in the Marriage Service, ‘that they may live together in godly love and honesty,’ that is, purity and fidelity to the marriage vow, and therefore well to represent the Greek word which only occurs here and 1 Timothy 3:4, and Titus 2:7. The idea is that of propriety of conduct, the outward counterpart of godliness. The adjective which occurs 1 Timothy 3:8; 1 Timothy 3:11; Titus 2:2 and Php 4:8 is in the last place rendered by A.V. ‘honest,’ by R.V. ‘honourable.’ Joseph in his thought and in his conduct exemplified both; “How can I do this great wickedness and sin against God?” Conybeare’s rendering gravity has been adopted by the commentators and R.V. The Prayer for the Church Militant expressly echoes this verse, ‘that under her we may be godly and quietly governed.’

quiet and peaceable] Rather, peaceable and quiet; ‘outward peace and inward tranquillity’ Olshausen and Ellicott, who translate ‘quiet and tranquil’: but the distinction is doubtful, and R.V. gives ‘tranquil and quiet.’

life] ‘Manner of life’ according to the usual distinction between bios and zoè. See Trench, N. T. Syn. § 27.1 Timothy 2:2. Ὑπὲρ βασιλέων, for kings) on whom other men depend, [and who frequently enjoy less opportunity of arriving at the knowledge of saving truth.—V. g.]—πάντων, all) Often the humblest magistrates, even in villages, do much harm, or else are of much benefit.—ἐν ὑπεροχῇ, in eminent stations, authority) as for instance the counsellors of kings, or, where there is no king, other magistrates.—ἵνα, that) The reason, why we must pray for kings.—ἤρεμον, quiet) free, aliens being removed out of the country. Chrysostom, for example, applies ἠρεμίαν to the Holy of Holies in the temple; and the word agrees with ἔρημος, lonely, by Metathesis.—ἡσύχιον, peaceable) free; those who are aliens, if allowed to reside, at least giving us no disturbance.—εὐσεβείᾳ, in godliness) piety towards God. The word is frequently used in the epistles to Timothy and Titus. [Luke uses the same word in the Acts, and Peter in his second epistle. It may be mentioned among the vile rabble of a most perverse world as a remarkable stratagem, contrary to the kingdom of God and advantageous to the aims of Satan, that piety, in name at least never hitherto lightly esteemed, has at length been converted into a term of reproach, ‘Pietist,’ by an anonymous person of the worst character, whose death, as we are informed, was shocking. Nor even does the termination itself involve anything bad in itself, as it corresponds to the words, Statist, Copyist, Linguist. But if the intention is to distinguish by a peculiar name fanatics and men assuming the appearance of holiness (in which case it ought to be made certain, that a blow is not dealt at those really innocent), why, pray, is piety hereby virtually punished? A serious matter is at stake. Experience cries out in witness of the fact; in conversations and social meetings, when a man, having said not as much as a word for the cause of religion, has conducted himself somewhat more modestly, he is easily assailed by this title, of which not even the pronunciation is in some instances well known to the common people. It can scarcely be told, what a number of sparks of piety have been quenched by the use of the scoffing term, pietist. GOD will execute judgment for all this, Jude, 1 Timothy 2:15.—V. g.]—σεμνότητι, [honesty] propriety) on the part of men towards one another.Verse 2. - And all for and for all, A.V.; high place for authority, A.V.; tranquil and quiet for quiet and peaceable, A.V.; gravity for honesty, A.V. For kings, etc. The early Liturgies closely followed these directions. "Every day, both in the evening and the morning, we offer prayers for the whole world, for kings, and for all in authority" (Chrysost., in lee.). So in the Liturgy of St. Mark: "Preserve our king in peace, in virtue, and righteousness.... Subdue his enemies under him... incline him to peace towards us and towards thy Holy Name, that in the serenity of his reign we too may lead a tranquil and quiet life in all piety and honesty [or, 'gravity']." In the Liturgy of St. Clement: "Let us pray for kings and those in authority, that they may be peaceably inclined toward us, and that we may lead a tranquil and quiet life in all piety and honesty [or, 'gravity']." In the Liturgy of St. Chrysostom: "Let us pray for our most religious and God-protected emperors, and all their palace and court." "We offer this our reasonable service on behalf of our most faithful and Christian (φιλοχρίστων) emperors, and all their palace and court." And in the Liturgy of St. Basil: "Remember, Lord, our most religious and faithful kings... that in their serenity we may lead a tranquil and quiet life in all godliness and gravity. Remember, O Lord, all rulers and all in authority, and all our brethren in the palace, and the whole court." In high place (ἐν ὑπεροχῇ); elsewhere only in 1 Corinthians 2:1, where it is rendered "excellency." But in Romans 13:1 we have ἐξουσίαις ὑπερεχούσαις "the higher powers;" and in 1 Peter 2:13, τῷ βασιλεῖ ὡς ὑπερέχοντι, "the king as supreme." In 2 Macc. 3:11 the phrase, ἀνδρὸς ἐν ὑπεροχῇ κειμένου, occurs; and in Polybius, οἱ ἐν ὑπεροχῇ ὔντες It is often used in Polybius for "authority" or "power." That we may lead a tranquil and quiet life in all godliness and gravity. The prayer for the rulers is recommended (as was explained in the above extracts from the Liturgies) in order to obtain for Christians a tranquil life, undisturbed by persecution and molestation, in spite of their peculiar way of life. Their wish was to be allowed to live in the faith and obedience of the gospel, "in godliness and gravity," without being interfered with by the heathen magistrates. The clause in the Prayer for the Church Militant which corresponds to this is "that under her we may be godly and quietly governed." Tranquil (ἤρεμος); found only here in the New Testament. The derivatives, ἠρέμιος ἠρεμέω, etc., are common in the LXX. They all apply to a still, undisturbed, life. Quiet (ἡσύχιος); found only here and l Peter 3:4 in the New Testament, and in the LXX. in Isaiah 66:2. But the noun ἡσυχία and the verb ἡσυχάζειν are common. Godliness (εὐσεβεία). One of the words almost peculiar to the pastoral Epistles (1 Timothy 3:16; 1 Timothy 4:7, 8; 1 Timothy 6:3, 5, 6, 11; 2 Timothy 3:5; Titus 1:1); but elsewhere only in Acts 3:12; 2 Peter 1:3, 6, 7; 2 Peter 3:11. Cornelius was αυησεβής, and so was one of the soldiers who waited upon him (Acts 10:2, 7). Ananias was ἀνὴρ εὐσεβής (Acts 22:12, T.R.). The adverb εὐσεβῶς is also peculiar to the pastoral Epistles (2 Timothy fit. 12; Titus 2:12). Gravity (σεμνοτής): so rendered also in the A.V. of 1 Timothy 3:4 and Titus 2:7 - the only other places in the New Testament where it is found. So also the adjective σεμνός (1 Timothy 3:8, 11; Titus 2:2). Elsewhere in the New Testament only in Philippians 4:8, where it is rendered" honest" in the A.V., and "honorable" in the R.V. In classical Greek σεμνός is properly spoken of the gods, "august," "venerable," and, when applied to persons, indicates a similar quality. Here σεμνοτής is the respectable, venerable, and dignified sobriety of a truly godly man. Kings (βασιλέων)

In Paul only 2 Corinthians 11:32.

That are in authority (τῶν ἐν ὑπεροχῇ ὄντων)

Ὑπεροχή authority only here and 1 Corinthians 2:1. Several times in lxx Originally, projection, prominence: metaphorically, preeminence, superiority. In Byzantine Greek, a little like our Excellency. This very phrase is found in an inscription of the early Roman period, after 133 b.c., at Pergamum. Paul has the phrase ἐξ ουσίαι ὑπερεχούσαι higher powers, Romans 13:1; and οἱ ὑπερέχοντες those in high places is found Wisd. 6:5.

We may lead (διάγωμεν)

Pasto. Comp. Titus 3:3.

Quiet and peaceable (ἤρεμον καὶ ἡσυχιον)

Ἤρεμος, N.T.o. In Class. only the adverb ἠρέμα quietly. Ἡσύχιος tranquil, oP. Only here and 1 Peter 3:4. In lxx once, Isaiah 66:2. Ἡρεμος denotes quiet arising from the absence of outward disturbance: ἡούχιος tranquillity arising from within. Thus, ἀνήρ ἡσύχιος is the composed, discreet, self-contained man, who keeps himself from rash doing: ἤρεμος ἀνήρ is he who is withdrawn from outward disturbances. Hence, ἤρεμος here may imply keeping aloof from political agitation's and freedom from persecutions.

Honesty (σεμνότητι)

Better, gravity. Honesty, according to the modern acceptation, is an unfortunate rendering. In earlier English it signified becoming department, decency, decorum. So Shakespeare: "He is of a noble strain, of approved valor and confirmed honesty" (Much Ado, ii.1). This noun and the kindred adjective σεμνὸς only in the Pastorals, except Philippians 4:8. The adjective signifies reverend or venerable; exhibiting a dignity which arises from moral elevation, and thus invites reverence. In lxx it is used to characterize the name of God (2 Macc. 6:28); the words of wisdom (Proverbs 8:6); the words of the pure (Proverbs 15:26).

Godliness (εὐσεβεία)

See on 1 Peter 1:3, and see on sound doctrine, 1 Timothy 1:10. oP. Mostly in the Pastorals.

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