1 Peter 2:1
Wherefore laying aside all malice, and all guile, and hypocrisies, and envies, and all evil speakings,
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(1) Wherefore.—That is, Because the Pauline teaching is correct which brings the Gentiles up to the same level with the Jews. It may be observed that this newly enunciated principle is called by St. Peter in the previous verse of the last chapter, a “gospel,” or piece of good news, for all parties.

Laying aside.—This implies that before they had been wrapped up in these sins. There had been “malice” (i.e., ill will put into action) on the part of these Hebrew Christians against their Gentile brethren, and “guile,” and “hypocrisies,” and “jealousies,” which are all instances of concealed malice. Of these three, the first plots, the second pretends not to plot, and the third rejoices to think of the plot succeeding. The word for “all evil speakings” is literally, all talkings down—this is “malice” in word. Archbishop Leighton well says, “The Apostles sometimes name some of these evils, and sometimes other of them; but they are inseparable, all one garment, and all comprehended under that one word (Ephesians 4:22), ‘the old man,’ which the Apostle there exhorts to put off; and here it is pressed as a necessary evidence of this new birth, and furtherance of their spiritual growth, that these base habits be thrown away, ragged filthy habits, unbeseeming the children of God.” All these vices (natural vices to the Jewish mind) are contrasted with the “unfeigned (literally, un-hypocritical) brotherly kindness” of 1Peter 1:22.

1 Peter 2:1-3. Wherefore — Since the word of God is so excellent and durable in itself, and has had such a blessed effect upon you as to regenerate you, and bring you to the enjoyment of true Christian love; laying aside — As utterly inconsistent with that love; all malice — All ill- will, every unkind disposition; or all wickedness, as κακιαν may be properly rendered, all sinful tempers and practices whatsoever; and all guile — All craft, deceitful cunning, and artifice, every temper contrary to Christian simplicity; and hypocrisies — Every kind of dissimulation; and envies — Grieving at the prosperity or good, temporal or spiritual, enjoyed by others; and all evil speakings — All reproachful or unkind speeches concerning others; as new-born babes — As persons lately regenerated, and yet young in grace, mere babes as to your acquaintance with the doctrines, your experience of the graces, your enjoyment of the privileges, and your performance of the duties of Christianity; desire Επιποθησατε, desire earnestly, or love affectionately, or from your inmost soul, the sincere — The pure, uncorrupted milk of the word — That is, that word of God which nourishes the soul as milk does the body, and which is free from all guile, so that none are deceived who cleave to it, and make it the food of their souls; that ye may grow thereby — In Christian knowledge and wisdom, in faith, hope, and love; in humility, resignation, patience, meekness, gentleness, long-suffering, in all holiness and righteousness, unto the full measure of Christ’s stature. In the former chapter the apostle had represented the word of God as the incorruptible seed, by which the believers, to whom he wrote, had been born again, and by obeying which they had purified their souls; here he represents it as the milk by which the new-born babes in Christ grow up to maturity. The word, therefore, is both the principle by which the divine life is produced in the soul, and the food by which it is nourished. Some critics, following the Vulgate version, render λογικον αδολον γαλα, the unadulterated rational milk. But the context evidently shows that our translators have given us the true meaning of the apostle. By adding the epithet, αδολον, unadulterated, or pure, the apostle teaches us that the milk of the word will not nourish the divine nature in those that use it, if it be adulterated with human mixtures. If so be, or rather since, ye have tasted — Have sweetly and experimentally known; that the Lord is gracious — Is merciful, loving, and kind, in what he hath already done, and in what he is still doing for and in you. The apostle seems evidently to allude to Psalm 34:8, O taste and see that the Lord is good: where see the note. Not only think and believe, on his own testimony, or on the testimony of others, that he is good, but know it by your own experience; know that he is good to you in pardoning your sins, adopting and regenerating you by his grace, shedding his love abroad in your heart, and giving you to enjoy communion with himself through the eternal Spirit.

2:1-10 Evil-speaking is a sign of malice and guile in the heart; and hinders our profiting by the word of God. A new life needs suitable food. Infants desire milk, and make the best endeavours for it which they are able to do; such must be a Christian's desires after the word of God. Our Lord Jesus Christ is very merciful to us miserable sinners; and he has a fulness of grace. But even the best of God's servants, in this life, have only a taste of the consolations of God. Christ is called a Stone, to teach his servants that he is their protection and security, the foundation on which they are built. He is precious in the excellence of his nature, the dignity of his office, and the glory of his services. All true believers are a holy priesthood; sacred to God, serviceable to others, endowed with heavenly gifts and graces. But the most spiritual sacrifices of the best in prayer and praise are not acceptable, except through Jesus Christ. Christ is the chief Corner-stone, that unites the whole number of believers into one everlasting temple, and bears the weight of the whole fabric. Elected, or chosen, for a foundation that is everlasting. Precious beyond compare, by all that can give worth. To be built on Christ means, to believe in him; but in this many deceive themselves, they consider not what it is, nor the necessity of it, to partake of the salvation he has wrought. Though the frame of the world were falling to pieces, that man who is built on this foundation may hear it without fear. He shall not be confounded. The believing soul makes haste to Christ, but it never finds cause to hasten from him. All true Christians are a chosen generation; they make one family, a people distinct from the world: of another spirit, principle, and practice; which they could never be, if they were not chosen in Christ to be such, and sanctified by his Spirit. Their first state is a state of gross darkness, but they are called out of darkness into a state of joy, pleasure, and prosperity; that they should show forth the praises of the Lord by their profession of his truth, and their good conduct. How vast their obligations to Him who has made them his people, and has shown mercy to them! To be without this mercy is a woful state, though a man have all worldly enjoyments. And there is nothing that so kindly works repentance, as right thoughts of the mercy and love of God. Let us not dare to abuse and affront the free grace of God, if we mean to be saved by it; but let all who would be found among those who obtain mercy, walk as his people.Wherefore laying aside - On the word rendered laying aside, see Romans 13:12; Ephesians 4:22, Ephesians 4:25; Colossians 3:8. The allusion is to putting off clothes; and the meaning is, that we are to cast off these things entirely; that is, we are no longer to practice them. The word "wherefore" (οὖν oun) refers to the reasonings in the first chapter. In view of the considerations stated there, we should renounce all evil.

All malice - All "evil," (κακίαν kakian.) The word "malice" we commonly apply now to a particular kind of evil, denoting extreme enmity of heart, ill-will, a disposition to injure others without cause, from mere personal gratification, or from a spirit of revenge - Webster. The Greek word, however, includes evil of all kinds. See the notes at Romans 1:29. Compare Acts 8:22, where it is rendered wickedness, and 1 Corinthians 5:8; 1 Corinthians 14:20; Ephesians 4:31; Colossians 3:8; Titus 3:3.

And all guile - Deceit of all kinds. See the Romans 1:29 note; 2 Corinthians 12:16 note; 1 Thessalonians 2:3 note.

And hypocrisies - See the 1 Timothy 4:2, note; Matthew 23:28; Galatians 2:13, on the word rendered dissimulation. The word means, feigning to be what we are not; assuming a false appearance of religion; cloaking a wicked purpose under the appearance of piety.

And envies - Hatred of others on account of some excellency which they have, or something which they possess which we do not. See the notes at Romans 1:29.

And all evil speaking - Greek: "speaking against others." This word (καταλαλιὰ katalalia) occurs only here and in 2 Corinthians 12:20, where it is rendered "backbitings." It would include all unkind or slanderous speaking against others. This is by no means an uncommon fault in the world, and it is one of the designs of religion to guard against it. Religion teaches us to lay aside whatever guile, insincerity, and false appearances we may have acquired, and to put on the simple honesty and openness of children. We all acquire more or less of guile and insincerity in the course of life. We learn to conceal our sentiments and feelings, and almost unconsciously come to appear different from what we really are. It is not so with children. In the child, every emotion of the bosom appears as it is. "Nature there works well and beautifully." Every emotion is expressed; every feeling of the heart is developed; and in the cheeks, the open eye, the joyous or sad countenance, we know all that there is in the bosom, as certainly as we know all that there is in the rose by its color and its fragrance. Now, it is one of the purposes of religion to bring us back to this state, and to strip off all the subterfuges which we may have acquired in life; and he in whom this effect is not accomplished has never been converted. A man that is characteristically deceitful, cunning, and crafty, cannot be a Christian. "Except ye be converted, and become as little children, ye shall not enter into the kingdom of heaven," Matthew 18:3.


1Pe 2:1-25. Exhortations.

To guileless feeding on the word by the sense of their privileges as new-born babes, living stones in the spiritual temple built on Christ the chief corner-stone, and royal priests, in contrast to their former state: also to abstinence from fleshly lusts, and to walk worthily in all relations of life, so that the world without which opposes them may be constrained to glorify God in seeing their good works. Christ, the grand pattern to follow in patience under suffering for well-doing.

1. laying aside—once for all: so the Greek aorist expresses as a garment put off. The exhortation applies to Christians alone, for in none else is the new nature existing which, as "the inward man" (Eph 3:16) can cast off the old as an outward thing, so that the Christian, through the continual renewal of his inward man, can also exhibit himself externally as a new man. But to unbelievers the demand is addressed, that inwardly, in regard to the nous (mind), they must become changed, meta-noeisthai (re-pent) [Steiger]. The "therefore" resumes the exhortation begun in 1Pe 1:22. Seeing that ye are born again of an incorruptible seed, be not again entangled in evil, which "has no substantial being, but is an acting in contrariety to the being formed in us" [Theophylact]. "Malice," &c., are utterly inconsistent with the "love of the brethren," unto which ye have "purified your souls" (1Pe 1:22). The vices here are those which offend against the BROTHERLY LOVE inculcated above. Each succeeding one springs out of that which immediately precedes, so as to form a genealogy of the sins against love. Out of malice springs guile; out of guile, hypocrises (pretending to be what we are not, and not showing what we really are; the opposite of "love unfeigned," and "without dissimulation"); out of hypocrisies, envies of those to whom we think ourselves obliged to play the hypocrite; out of envies, evil-speaking, malicious, envious detraction of others. Guile is the permanent disposition; hypocrisies the acts flowing from it. The guileless knows no envy. Compare 1Pe 2:2, "sincere," Greek, "guileless." "Malice delights in another's hurt; envy pines at another's good; guile imparts duplicity to the heart; hypocrisy (flattery) imparts duplicity to the tongue; evil-speakings wound the character of another" [Augustine].1 Peter 2:1-3 The apostle exhorteth the Christian converts to lay

aside all uncharitableness.

1 Peter 2:4-10 He showeth their privileges through Christ, the chief

corner stone.

1 Peter 2:11,12 He beseecheth them to abstain from fleshly lusts, and

by their good conversation to promote God’s glory

among the Gentiles.

1 Peter 2:13-17 He enforceth obedience to magistrates,

1 Peter 2:18-25 and teacheth servants to obey their masters, and to suffer

patiently for well-doing, after the example of Christ.

Having in the former chapter mentioned the new birth, 1 Peter 1:23, and exhorted to brotherly love, as agreeable to it, 1 Peter 1:22, he begins this chapter with a dehortation, wherein he dissuades them from those vices which are contrary to the state of regenerate men in the general, and brotherly love in particular.

Laying aside; or, put off; a metaphor from an old over worn garment, fit only to be thrown away: see Ephesians 4:22 Colossians 3:8,9 Jas 1:21.

All malice; malignity, when men do evil to others voluntarily and industriously, or delight in other men’s harms: see Romans 1:29 Ephesians 4:31.

All guile: all fraudulence and impostures, and circumventing of others in any kind.

Hypocrisies; all flattering, and counterfeiting friendship, and showing love in words and outward carriage, when the heart is otherwise affected. Christ calls them hypocrites that flattered him, Matthew 22:16,18.

Envies; grieving at other men’s welfare.

All evil speakings; all kind of detraction.

Wherefore, laying aside all malice,.... Since the persons the apostle writes to were born again, and therefore ought to love one another, he exhorts them to the disuse of such vices as were disagreeable to their character as regenerate men, and contrary brotherly love; he dissuades them from them, and advises to "lay them aside", either as weights and burdens, which it was not fit for new born babes to carry; see Hebrews 12:1 or rather as old worn out clothes, as filthy rags, which should be put off, laid by, and never used more, being what were very unsuitable to their character and profession to wear: the metaphor is the same as in Ephesians 4:22 and the first he mentions is malice; to live in which is a mark of an unregenerate man, and very unbecoming such who are born again; and is not consistent with the relation of brethren, and character of children, or new born babes, who are without malice, and do not bear and retain it: "all" of this is to be laid aside, towards all persons whatever, and in every shape, and in every instance of it:

and all guile; fraud, or deceit, in words or actions; and which should not be found, and appear in any form, in Israelites indeed, in brethren, in the children of God; who ought not to lie one to another, or defraud each other, nor express that with their lips which they have not in their hearts; which babes are free from, and so should babes in Christ:

and hypocrisies; both to God and men: hypocrisy to God is, when persons profess that which they have not, as love to God, faith in Christ, zeal for religion, fervent devotion, and sincerity in the worship of God; and do all they do to be seen of men, and appear outwardly righteous, and yet are full of all manner of iniquity: hypocrisy to men is, pretence of friendship, loving in word and tongue only, speaking peaceably with the mouth, but in heart laying wait; a sin to be abhorred and detested by one that is born from above; and is contrary to that integrity, simplicity, and sincerity of heart, which become regenerate persons, the children of God, and brethren one of another:

and envies; at each other's happiness and prosperity, riches, honours, gifts temporal or spiritual; for such are works of the flesh, show men to be carnal, are unbecoming regenerated persons, and contrary to the exercise of Christian charity, or love, which envieth not the welfare of others, either respecting body, soul, or estate:

and all evil speakings; backbitings, whisperings, detractions, hurting one another's characters by innuendos, false charges, and evil surmises; which is not acting like men that are made new creatures, and are partakers of the divine nature, nor like brethren, or as Christ's little ones, and who are of God, begotten again to be a kind of firstfruits of his creatures.

Wherefore {1} laying aside all malice, and all guile, and hypocrisies, and envies, and all evil speakings,

(1) Having laid for the foundation the Spirit of God effectually working by the word, and having built on it three virtues which are the grounds of all Christian actions, that is, faith, hope, and charity: now he proceeds to a general exhortation the first part being that we flee all show of both secret and open malice.

1 Peter 2:1-2. ἀποθεμενοι οὖνἐπιποθήσατε] The admonition which commences here stands, as οὖν shows, in close connection with what precedes; in 1 Peter 2:22 the apostle had exhorted to unfeigned love one of another, which love he shows to be conditioned by ἁγνίζειν ἐν τῇ ὑπακοῇ τῆς ἀληθείας, and grounded on ἀναγεγεννημένον εἶναι; from this deducing the ἀποτίθεσθαι πᾶσαν κακίαν κ.τ.λ., he now exhorts ἐπιποθεῖν τὸ λογικὸν γάλα. The apostle’s intention, explaining at once the connection of this with the foregoing admonition, and the relation in which the thought of the participial clause ἀποθέμενοι stands to that of the imperative ἐπιποθήσατε, is that the Christians should show themselves τέκνα ὑπακοῆς (1 Peter 1:14), not each for himself, but united together, an οἶκος πνευματικός (1 Peter 2:5), γένος ἐκλεκτόν κ.τ.λ. (1 Peter 2:9). Schott acknowledges this reference (unjustifiably denied by Hofmann) to the unity of the church; it explains why the apostle mentions those sins only which stand in direct antagonism to the φιλαδελφία ἀνυπόκριτος (1 Peter 1:22). The participle ἀποθέμενοι stands to ἐπιποθήσατε in the same relation as ἀναζωσάμενοι to ἐλπίσατε in chap. 1 Peter 1:13; it is therefore then not equal to postquam deposuistis, but expresses the continued purification of the Christian; comp. Ephesians 4:22; Hebrews 12:1; specially also Colossians 3:8; and for the whole passage, Jam 1:21.

πᾶσαν κακίαν κ.τ.λ.] Calvin: non est Integra omnium enumeratio quae deponi a nobis oportet, sed cum de veteri homine disputant Apostoli, quaedam vitia praeponunt in exemplum, quibus illius ingenium designant. κακία means here, as in Colossians 3:8, not generally: “wickedness,” but specially “malice,” nocendi cupiditas (Hemming). πᾶσαν denotes the whole compass of the idea: “every kind of malice.” The same is implied by the plural form in the words following ὑποκρίσεις, etc.; in πάσας καταλαλίας both are combined. The same and similar ideas to those here expressed are to be found conjoined elsewhere in the N. T.; comp. Romans 1:29-30. “The admonitions which follow are in essential connection with this comprehensive exhortation; comp. chap. 1 Peter 2:22 ff.; especially chaps. 1 Peter 3:8 ff., 1 Peter 4:8 ff., 1 Peter 5:2 ff.” (Wiesinger). For the force of the separate terms, comp. Lexicon. Augustin: malitia maculo delectatur alieno; invidia bono cruciatur alieno; dolus duplicat cor; adulatio duplicat linguam; detrectatio vulnerat famam.

καταλαλία occurs only here and in 2 Corinthians 12:20; in the classics the verb is to be found, never the subst.—1 Peter 2:2. ὡς ἀρτιγέννητα βρέφη] is not to be connected with ἀποθέμενοι, but with what follows. It does not mark the childlike nature of the Christians, but, in view of the goal of manhood yet afar off, is meant (referring to 1 Peter 1:23 : ἀναγεγεννημένοι) to designate the readers as those who had but recently been born again.[108] In Bengel’s interpretation: denotatur prima aetas ecclesiae N. T., a false reference is given to the expression. The particle ὡς is not here either used with a comparative force only; comp. chap. 1 Peter 1:14.

ΤῸ ΛΟΓΙΚῸΝ ἌΔΟΛΟΝ ΓΆΛΑ ἘΠΙΠΟΘΉΣΑΤΕ] ΓΆΛΑ is not here contrasted with ΒΡῶΜΑ, as in 1 Corinthians 3:2, or with ΣΤΕΡΕᾺ ΤΡΟΦΉ, as in Hebrews 5:12; but it denotes the word of God, in that it by its indwelling strength nourishes the soul of man. The term ΓΆΛΑ, as applied by the apostle, is to be explained simply from the reference to ἈΡΤΙΓΈΝΝΗΤΑ ΒΡΈΦΗ (Wiesinger, Schott, Hofmann). This view results quite naturally from the comparison with chap. 1 Peter 1:22-23. If Peter had intended to convey any other meaning, he would have indicated it so as to have been understood.[109]

λογικόν] does not state an attribute of evangelical doctrine: “rational;” Gualther: quod tradit rationem vere credendi et vivendi, nor even in the sense that this (with Smaleius in Calov.) might be inferred: nihil credendum esse quod ratione adversetur; but it is added in order to mark the figurative nature of the expression γάλα (to which it stands related similarly as in chap. 1 Peter 1:13 : τῆς διαν. ὑμ. to τὰς ὀσφύας), so that by it this milk is characterized as a spiritual nourishment. Luther: “spiritual, what is drawn in by the soul, what the heart must seek;” thus, too, Wiesinger, Schott, Brückner, Fronmüller, Hofmann. It has here the same signification as in Romans 12:1, where it does not mean “rational” as contrasted with what is external (de Wette). The interpretation on which λογικὸν γάλα is taken as equal to γάλα τοῦ λόγου, lac verbale, is opposed to the usus loquendi (it is supported by Beza, Gerhard, Calov., Hornejus, Bengel, Wolf, and others). Nor less so is the suggestion of Weiss (p. 187), that by “λογικόν is to be understood that which proceeds from the λόγος (i.e. Word);” thus γάλα λογικόν would be the verbal milk of doctrine.[110] The second adjective: ἄδολον (ἍΠ. ΛΕΓ.), strictly “without guile,” then “pure, unadulterated,” is not meant to give prominence to the idea that the Christians should strive to obtain the pure gospel, unadulterated by heretical doctrines of man, but it specifies purity as a quality belonging to the gospel (Wiesinger, Schott).[111] It is, besides, applicable, strictly speaking, not to the figurative ΓΆΛΑ, but only to the word of God thereby denoted (Schott).[112]

ἐπιποθήσατε] expresses a strong, lively desire, Php 2:26. Wolf: Ap. alludit ad infantes, quos sponte sua et impetu quodam naturali in lac maternum ferri constat. The conjecture of Grotius: ἐπιποτίζετε, is quite unnecessary.

ἵνα ἐν αὐτῷ αὐξηθῆτε] ἵνα, not ἐκβατικῶς, but τελικῶς; it states the purpose of the ἐπιποθήσατε. ἐν is more significant than διά, equivalent to “in its power.” The verb αὐξηθῆτε, used in connection with ἀρτιγενν. βρέφη, denotes the ever further development and strengthening of the new life. Although the aim which the apostle has in view in his exhortation is to mark the destination of Christians to be an οἶκος πνευματικός, still it is incorrect to affirm that αὐξηθῆτε has reference, not to the growth of the individual, but (with Schott) only to the transforming of the church as such, “to the conception of a building which is being carried up higher and higher to its completion.” Apart from the fact that αὐξάνεσθαι plainly refers back to ἀρτιγ. βρέφη, and is not equivalent to “to be built up,” it must be remarked that the church can become what it should be only by individual members growing up each of them ever more and more to the ἀνὴρ τέλειος.

εἰς σωτηρίαν] omitted in the Rec., states the final aim of all Christian growth. Schott’s explanation, that by σωτηρία “the final glorious transfiguration of the church” is meant, is only a consequence of his erroneous and one-sided reference of the apostle’s exhortation to the church as such.

[108] It must be observed that the expression was used by the Jews also to designate the proselytes; corroborating passages in Wetstein in loc.

[109] Calvin understands γάλα to mean: vitae ratio quae novam genituram sapiat; Hemming: consentanea simplici infantiae vivendi ratio; Cornelius a Lapide: symbolum candoris, sinceritatis et benevolentiae. All these interpretations are contradicted by the fact that γάλα is not a condition of life, but means of nourishment. It is altogether arbitrary to explain γάλα to be the Lord’s Supper (Estius, Turrianus, Salmeron), or as meaning Christ as the incarnate Logos (Clemens Al. in Paedag. i. c. 6; Augustin in Tract. iii. in 1 Ep. John); Weiss, too, is mistaken when he says: “the nourishment of the new-born child of God is Christ Himself, who is preached and revealed in the word.”

[110] Besides, how does this agree with Weiss’s opinion, that γάλα means Christ Himself? The verbal Christ?!

Wolf: lac ἄδολον ideo appellari puto, ut indicetur, operam dandam esse, ne illud traditionibus humanis per καπηλεύοντας τὸν λόγον, 2 Corinthians 2:17, corruptum hauriatur.

[112] Hofmann rightly observes: “What tends to the Christian’s growth may be compared to the pure milk which makes the child to thrive at its mother’s breast, and therefore it is termed τὸ λογικὸν ἄδολον γάλα.”

1 Peter 2:1-10. Continuation of practical admonition with appeal to additional ground-principles illustrating the thesis of 1 Peter 1:10.

1. Wherefore laying aside] The sequence of thought goes on, as is seen in the “new-born babes” of the next verse, from the thought of the “regeneration” of believers expressed in chap. 1 Peter 1:3; 1 Peter 1:23. As entering on a new and purer life they are to “lay aside” (compare the use of the kindred noun in connexion with baptism in chap. 1 Peter 3:21) the evil that belongs to the old. As far as the list of evils is concerned, they point, especially in the “hypocrisies and evil speakings,” to the besetting sins of the Jewish rather than the Gentile character, as condemned by our Lord (Matthew 23 et al.) and St James (James 3:4), and so confirm the view which has been here taken, that the Epistle was throughout addressed mainly to Jewish converts.

1 Peter 2:1. Πᾶσαν κακίαν, all vice) Πᾶσαν, πάντα, πάσας: he points out three kinds. Κακίαν, a faulty state of mind, as opposed to virtue.—πάντα δόλον καὶ ὑποκρίσεις καὶ φθόνους, all guile, and hypocrisies, and envyings) in actions. Guile wrongs; hypocrisy deceives; envy assails a neighbour: all these things are injurious to love, on which see ch. 1 Peter 1:22.—πάσας καταλαλίας, all detractions) in conversation.

Verse 1. - Wherefore laying aside. Those who would wear the white robe of regeneration must lay aside the filthy garments (Zechariah 3:3) of the old carnal life. So St. Paul bids us put off the old man and put on the new (Ephesians 4:22, 24; Colossians 3:8, 10; comp. also Romans 13:14, "Put ye on the Lord Jesus Christ." The metaphor would be more striking when, at baptism, the old dress was laid aside, and the white chrisom was put on. St. Paul connects the putting on of Christ with baptism in Galatians 3:27, and St. Peter, when speaking of baptism in 1 Peter 3:21, uses the substantive (ἀπόθεσις) corresponding to the word here rendered "laying aside" (ἀποθέμενοι). All malice, and all guile, and hypocrisies, and envies, and all evil-speakings. The sins mentioned here are all offences against that "unfeigned love of the brethren" which formed the subject of St. Peter's exhortation in the latter part of 1 Peter 1. St. Augustine, quoted here by most commentators, says, "Malitia malo delectatur alieno; invidia bone cruciatur alieno; dolus duplicat; adulatio duplicat linguam; detrectatio vulnerat famam" (comp. Ephesians 4:22-31); the close resemblance between the two passages proves St. Peter's knowledge of the Epistle to the Ephesians. 1 Peter 2:1All (πᾶσαν - πάντα)

Lit., every, or all manner of.

Evil-speaking (καταλαλιάς)

Lit., speakings against. A rare word. Only here and 2 Corinthians 12:20.

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