1 Corinthians 11:25
After the same manner also he took the cup, when he had supped, saying, This cup is the new testament in my blood: this do ye, as oft as ye drink it, in remembrance of me.
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(25) After the same manner also he took the cup, when he had supped.—We have here an intimation not found in St. Matthew or St. Mark’s narrative, that the blessing of the cup took place “after supper,” which implies that the blessing of the bread took place earlier in the meal.

This cup is the new testament.—Better, This cup is the new covenant. The word “new” is peculiar to this and St. Luke’s narrative; it does not occur in the best MSS. of St. Matthew and St. Mark. The new covenant of grace between God and Humanity was ratified in the blood of Christ. The cup containing the symbol of that blood is therefore the pledge and witness of that covenant. This was a new covenant in blood (Romans 3:25) as contrasted with the old covenant in blood (Exodus 24:8).

As oft as ye drink.—This can scarcely be taken as a command to make all occasions of bodily refreshment virtually a eucharist, but must be regarded as referring definitely (as in the following verse) to this particular rite.

1 Corinthians 11:25-27. He also took the cup when he had supped — Or, after supper. “This circumstance is mentioned to show that the Lord’s supper is not intended for the refreshment of the body, but, as we are told 1 Corinthians 11:26, for perpetuating the memory of Christ’s death, resurrection, and ascension, to the end of the world, and declaring our expectation of his return from heaven to judge all mankind; that by seriously and frequently meditating on these things, the faith, hope, and gratitude of his disciples may be nourished. Now, that these ends may be effectually answered, this service must be performed by the whole members of each particular church, not in separate companies, but together, as making one harmonious society, by whose joint concurrence and communion in the service, the death of their Master is not only remembered, but declared in the most public manner to the world, as a fact known and believed by all Christians from the beginning.” Saying, This cup is the new testament — Or, new covenant, rather, as the word more properly signifies. That is, it is the solemn seal and memorial of the covenant which is established in my blood, by which all its invaluable blessings are procured for you. Our Lord did not mean that the covenant of grace was first made at the time he shed his blood. It was made immediately after the fall, on account of the merit of his obedience unto the death, which God then considered as accomplished, because it was certainly to be accomplished at the time determined. Now this likewise do ye, as oft as ye drink it, in remembrance of me — And in order to maintain the memory of my bleeding, dying love, in the church and in the world. The ancient sacrifices were offered in remembrance of sin; this sacrifice, once offered, is still represented in remembrance of the remission of sin. According to the Papists, the expression, as oft as ye drink it, “implies that the cup, in the Lord’s supper, may sometimes be omitted; and on that pretence they have denied the cup to the laity;” but how justly, may be known by taking notice that the words, as often as, are applied (1 Corinthians 11:26) to the bread as well as to the cup. Besides, Matthew hath told us, that when Christ gave the cup, he said, (Matthew 26:27,) drink ye all of it; which being both an invitation and a command, all Christians are as much entitled to the cup as to the bread.” For as often as ye — The church of God in any age; eat this bread and drink this cup — With proper solemnity and seriousness, faith, love, and gratitude; ye do show forth the Lord’s death — Ye proclaim, as it were, and openly avow it to God and all the world; so the word καταγγελλετε, here used, signifies: till he come — To close the present scene of things, and to receive all his faithful servants to a place where, for ever dwelling with him, they will no more need these memorials of an absent Saviour. Though at the institution of this ordinance our Lord spake nothing of his own second coming, yet in his discourse after the celebration of it, he connected his second coming with his death, John 14:3. The apostle therefore truly expressed his Master’s intention, when he told the Corinthians, that by publishing the Lord’s death, they published also his coming to judgment, and that the service of the supper was intended as a publication of both. Wherefore Ωστε, so that; whosoever shall eat this bread, &c., unworthily — That is, in an unworthy, irreverent manner, without properly regarding him that appointed it, or the design of its appointment; shall be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord — That is, of profaning that which represents his body and blood.

11:23-34 The apostle describes the sacred ordinance, of which he had the knowledge by revelation from Christ. As to the visible signs, these are the bread and wine. What is eaten is called bread, though at the same time it is said to be the body of the Lord, plainly showing that the apostle did not mean that the bread was changed into flesh. St. Matthew tells us, our Lord bid them all drink of the cup, ch. Mt 26:27, as if he would, by this expression, provide against any believer being deprived of the cup. The things signified by these outward signs, are Christ's body and blood, his body broken, his blood shed, together with all the benefits which flow from his death and sacrifice. Our Saviour's actions were, taking the bread and cup, giving thanks, breaking the bread, and giving both the one and the other. The actions of the communicants were, to take the bread and eat, to take the cup and drink, and to do both in remembrance of Christ. But the outward acts are not the whole, or the principal part, of what is to be done at this holy ordinance. Those who partake of it, are to take him as their Lord and Life, yield themselves up to him, and live upon him. Here is an account of the ends of this ordinance. It is to be done in remembrance of Christ, to keep fresh in our minds his dying for us, as well as to remember Christ pleading for us, in virtue of his death, at God's right hand. It is not merely in remembrance of Christ, of what he has done and suffered; but to celebrate his grace in our redemption. We declare his death to be our life, the spring of all our comforts and hopes. And we glory in such a declaration; we show forth his death, and plead it as our accepted sacrifice and ransom. The Lord's supper is not an ordinance to be observed merely for a time, but to be continued. The apostle lays before the Corinthians the danger of receiving it with an unsuitable temper of mind; or keeping up the covenant with sin and death, while professing to renew and confirm the covenant with God. No doubt such incur great guilt, and so render themselves liable to spiritual judgements. But fearful believers should not be discouraged from attending at this holy ordinance. The Holy Spirit never caused this scripture to be written to deter serious Christians from their duty, though the devil has often made this use of it. The apostle was addressing Christians, and warning them to beware of the temporal judgements with which God chastised his offending servants. And in the midst of judgement, God remembers mercy: he many times punishes those whom he loves. It is better to bear trouble in this world, than to be miserable for ever. The apostle points our the duty of those who come to the Lord's table. Self-examination is necessary to right attendance at this holy ordinance. If we would thoroughly search ourselves, to condemn and set right what we find wrong, we should stop Divine judgements. The apostle closes all with a caution against the irregularities of which the Corinthians were guilty at the Lord's table. Let all look to it, that they do not come together to God's worship, so as to provoke him, and bring down vengeance on themselves.After the same manner - In like manner; likewise. With the same circumstances, and ceremonies, and designs. The purpose was the same.

When he had supped - That is, all this occurred after the observance of the usual paschal supper. It could not, therefore, be a part of it, nor could it have been designed to be a festival or feast merely. The apostle introduces this evidently in order to show them that it could not be, as they seemed to have supposed, an occasion of feasting. It was after the supper, and was therefore to be observed in a distinct manner.

Saying, This cup ... - See the note at Matthew 26:27-28.

Is the New Testament - The new covenant which God is about to establish with people. The word "testament" with us properly denotes a "will" - an instrument by which a man disposes of his property after his death. This is also the proper classic meaning of the Greek word used here, διαθήκη (diathēkē). But this is evidently not the sense in which the word is designed to be used in the New Testament. The idea of a "will" or "testament," strictly so called, is not that which the sacred writers intend to convey by the word. The idea is evidently that of a compact, agreement, covenant, to which there is so frequent reference in the Old Testament, and which is expressed by the word בּרית berı̂yth (Berith), a compact, a covenant, Of that word the proper translation in Greek would have been συνθηκη sunthēkē a covenant, agreement. But it is remarkable that that word never is used by the Septuagint to denote the covenant made between God and man.

That translation uniformly employs for this purpose the word διαθήκη diathēkē, a will, or a testament, as a translation of the Hebrew word, where there is a reference to the covenant which God is represented as making with people. The word συνθηκη sunthēkē is used by them but three times Isaiah 28:15; Isaiah 30:1; Daniel 11:6, and in neither instance with any reference to the covenant which God is represented as making with man. The word διαθήκη diathēkē, as the translation of בּרית berı̂yth (Berith), occurs more than two hundred times. (See Trommius' Concord.) Now this must have evidently been of design. What the reason was which induced them to adopt this can only be conjectured. It may have been that as the translation was to be seen by the Gentiles as well as by the Jews (if it were not expressly made, as has been affirmed by Josephus and others, for the use of Ptolemy), they were unwilling to represent the eternal and infinite Yahweh as entering into a "compact, an agreement" with his creature man. They, therefore, adopted a word which would represent him as expressing "his will" to them in a book of revelation. The version by the Septuagint was evidently in use by the apostles, and by the Jews everywhere. The writers of the New Testament, therefore, adopted the word as they found it; and spoke of the new dispensation as a new "testament" which God made with man. The meaning is, that this was the new compact or covenant which God was to make with man in contradistinction from that made through Moses.

In my blood - Through my blood; that is, this new compact is to be sealed with my blood, in illusion to the ancient custom of sealing an agreement by a sacrifice; see the note at Matthew 26:28.

This do ye - Partake of this bread and wine; that is, celebrate this ordinance.

As oft as ye drink it - Not prescribing any time; and not even specifying the frequency with which it was to be done; but leaving it to themselves to determine how often they would partake of it. The time of the Passover had been fixed by positive statute; the more mild and gentle system of Christianity left it to the followers of the Redeemer themselves to determine how often they would celebrate his death. It was commanded them to do it; it was presumed that their love to him would be so strong as to secure a frequent observance; it was permitted to them, as in prayer, to celebrate it on any occasion of affliction, trial, or deep interest when they would feel their need of it, and when they would suppose that its observance would be for the edification of the Church.

In remembrance of me - This expresses the whole design of the ordinance. It is a simple memorial, or remembrancer; designed to recall in a striking and impressive manner the memory of the Redeemer. It does this by a tender appeal to the senses - by the exhibition of the broken bread, and by the wine. The Saviour knew how prone people would be to forget him, and he, therefore, appointed this ordinance as a means by which his memory should be kept up in the world. The ordinance is rightly observed when it recalls the memory of the Saviour; and when its observance is the means of producing a deep, and lively, and vivid impression on the mind, of his death for sin. This expression, at the institution of the supper, is used by Luke Luk 22:19; though it does not occur in Matthew, Mark, or John.

25. when he had supped—Greek, "after the eating of supper," namely, the Passover supper which preceded the Lord's Supper, as the love-feast did subsequently. Therefore, you Corinthians ought to separate common meals from the Lord's Supper [Bengel].

the new testament—or "covenant." The cup is the parchment-deed, as it were, on which My new covenant, or last will is written and sealed, making over to you all blessings here and hereafter.

in my blood—ratified by MY blood: "not by the blood of goats and calves" (Heb 9:12).

as oft as—Greek, "as many times soever": implying that it is an ordinance often to be partaken of.

in remembrance of me—Luke (Lu 22:19) expresses this, which is understood by Matthew and Mark. Paul twice records it (1Co 11:24 and here) as suiting his purpose. The old sacrifices brought sins continually to remembrance (Heb 10:1, 3). The Lord's Supper brings to remembrance Christ and His sacrifice once for all for the full and final remission of sins.

See Poole on "1 Corinthians 11:24"

After the same manner also he took the cup,.... That is, off from the table, or out of the hands of the master of the house, and blessed or gave thanks, as he did before when he took the bread; see Matthew 26:27, "when he had supped"; the Syriac, Arabic, and Ethiopic versions, read, "when they had supped"; which give a true sense, though not a literal translation; for both Christ and his disciples had supped, having both eaten the passover supper, and the bread, the principal part in the Lord's supper, when he took the cup, gave thanks, and gave it to them:

saying, this cup is the New Testament, or covenant,

in my blood; alluding to the old covenant, which was ratified and confirmed by the blood of bulls, and which was called "the blood of the covenant", Exodus 24:8 but the new covenant was established with Christ's own blood, of which the wine in the cup was a sign and symbol; for neither the cup, nor the wine in it, can be thought to be the covenant or testament itself, by which is meant the covenant of grace, as administered under the Gospel dispensation; called new, not because newly made, for it was made from everlasting; or lately revealed, for it was made known to our first parents immediately after the fall, and to other saints in succeeding ages, though more clearly exhibited by Christ under the present dispensation; but it is so called in distinction from the old covenant, or former mode of administration of it, under the Mosaic economy; and it is always new, and will be succeeded by no other; and it provides for and promises new things, and which are famous and excellent, and preferable to all others. Now this is said to be "in the blood" of Christ; that is, it is ratified, and all its blessings and promises are confirmed by his blood: hence his blood is called "the blood of the everlasting covenant", Hebrews 13:20, pardon and righteousness, peace and reconciliation, and entrance into the holiest of all, all come through this blood, and are secured by the same; and to which the faith of the saints is directed in this ordinance, to observe, receive, and enjoy for themselves:

this do ye as oft as ye drink it, in remembrance of me; of his soul's being poured out unto death; of his blood being shed for the remission of sins; and of his great love in giving himself an atoning sacrifice to divine justice, and laying such a foundation for solid peace and joy in the hearts of his people.

After the same manner also he took the cup, when he had supped, saying, This cup is the new testament in my blood: this do ye, as oft as ye drink it, in remembrance of me.
1 Corinthians 11:25. Ὡσαύτ. κ. τ. ποτ.] sc[1858] ἔλαβε καὶ εὐχαριστήσας ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς (this last is to be taken from ἜΚΛΑΣΕ), 1 Corinthians 11:23-24.

ΤῸ ΠΟΤΉΡ.] the cup which stood before Him. It was the cup which closed the meal, although there is no ground to connect ΜΕΤᾺ ΤῸ ΔΕΙΠΝ. here with to ΤῸ ΠΟΤΉΡ., as Pott does.

ἘΣΤΊΝ] in the position which it has here, is decisive against our connecting ἘΝ Τῷ ἘΜῷ ΑἽΜ. with Ἡ Κ. ΔΙΑΘ., as most interpreters do (Erasmus, Beza, Calvin, and many others, including de Wette, Rodatz, Maier, Hofmann), although Luther (in the gr. Bek.) rightly rejects that connection. What Christ says is, that the cup is the new covenant in virtue of His blood, which, namely, is in the cup. For in the wine of the cup the Lord sees nothing else than His blood which was about to be shed. This vividly concrete, direct, but symbolical mode of view at that solemn moment stands out in the sharpest contrast with the strife of the churches on the subject (for the rest, see on Luke 22:19 f.). Christ’s blood became, by its being poured forth, the ἱλαστήριον,[1859] whereby the new covenant[1860] was founded (Romans 3:24 f., 1 Corinthians 5:3), the covenant of grace, in which were established, on man’s side, faith in Christ,—not, as in the old covenant, the fulfilling of the law,—and on God’s side forgiveness by the way of grace, justification, sanctification, and bestowal of eternal Messianic salvation. Comp 2 Corinthians 3:6. And the Lord looks upon the cup as this covenant, because He sees in the wine of the cup His covenant-sealing blood. The cup therefore, in this deeply vivid symbolism of view is, as that which contains the covenant-blood, to Him the covenant.

τοῦτο ποιεῖτε] to be taken so as to harmonize with 1 Corinthians 11:24. Hofmann is wrong in thinking that Paul lays such special emphasis on this statement of the purpose of the Supper, because it appeared incompatible with the Corinthian mode of observing it. The apostle has no intention whatever here of laying emphasis either on one thing or another; he wishes only to report, in their simple objectivity, the sacred words in which the original institution was couched. What he desires to lay stress upon as against the Corinthians, comes in afterwards in 1 Corinthians 11:26 ff.

ὁσάκις ἂν πίν.] peculiar to this account of the ordinance: as often as ever (quotiescunque, see Kühner, II. p. 94; comp Bengel) ye drink it; the context supplies τοῦτο τὸ ποτήρ. as the object of. πίν., without its having to be represented by a pronoun (αὐτό). See Krüger, § 60. 7; Kühner, a[1863] Xen. Mem. i. 3. 4. The will of Jesus, according to this, is that every time, when they drink the concluding cup at the meal of communion, they should, in remembrance of Him, do with it as has now been done. Hofmann would make the words mean: as often as ye are together at a מִשְׁתֶּה. But how can that be conveyed by the simple πίνητε? And it was certainly not a drinking meal, but a regular ΔΕῖΠΝΟΝ (1 Corinthians 11:25).

Note, further, as to the ἌΝ, that it is placed after ὉΣΆΚΙς, “quia in hac voce maximum sententiae pondus positum est,” Kühner, a[1864] Xen. Mem. i. 1. 16.

[1858] c. scilicet.

[1859] The atonement through the death of Jesus is at any rate the necessary premiss of even the symbolical interpretation of the Lord’s Supper. With every attempt to explain away the atoning death, the Supper becomes utterly unintelligible. Comp. Ebrard, Dogma vom Abendm. II. p. 752 ff.

[1860] The word covenant is unquestionably genuine, for it is common to all the narratives; but the designation of the διαθήκη as καινή dates from Paul, being a later more precise definition of the phrase. Καινῆς in Matthew 26:27 and Mark 14:24 is spurious. This applies also in opposition to Baur in the theol. Jahrb. 1857, p. 551.

[1863] d refers to the note of the commentator or editor named on the particular passage.

[1864] d refers to the note of the commentator or editor named on the particular passage.

1 Corinthians 11:25. ὡσαύτως καὶ τὸ πατήριον: “In the same fashion also (He gave) the cup”. The two ritual actions correspond, and form one covenant.—μετὰ τὸ δειπνῆσαι (as in Luke)—“postquam cœnaverunt” (Cv[1756]), or better “cœnatum est” (Rom. Liturgy)—is studiously added to “emphasise the distinction between the Lord’s Supper and an ordinary evening meal; cf. 1 Corinthians 11:20 f.—The eating of the bread originally formed part of the common meal (consider Matthew 26:26, Mark 14:22, ἐσθιόντων αὐτῶν), and may still have so continued, but the cup was certainly afterwards” (El[1757])—a solemn close to the κυριακὸν δεῖπνον.—“This cup is (see note 24: ἐστὶν wanting in Luke) the new covenant, in my blood”; cf. notes on 1 Corinthians 10:16 f. for τὸ ποτ., and the relation of διαθήκη to κοινωνία. The cup, given by the Lord’s hand and tasted by each disciple in turn, is a virtual covenant for all concerned; in His blood it becomes so (ἐν τ. αἴμ. is made by its position a further predicate, not a mere adjunct of διαθ.: cf. Romans 3:25), since that is the ground on which God grants and man accepts the covenant. For διαθήκη, see Cr[1758], s.v.; this term, in distinction from συνθήκη, indicates the initiative of God as Disposer in the great agreement. For P.’s interpretation of ἐν τ. αἴματι, see Romans 3:23 ff., Ephesians 1:7; Ephesians 2:13 ff., Colossians 1:20; also parls. in Ep. to Heb., Revelation 1:5, 1 John 1:7, 1 Peter 1:18 f. For “new covenant,” see parls.: καινός, new in nature, contents, as securing complete forgiveness and spiritual renovation (Jer[1759] 31:31 ff., etc.).“This do … for the commemoration of Me”: see 1 Corinthians 11:24 b; τοῦτο includes, beside the act, the accompanying words, without which the ἀνάμνησις is imperfect. ὁσάκις ἐὰν (late Gr[1760] for ἄν) πίνητε: “so many times as (quotiescunque) you drink (it)”—the cup of the context; not “so often as you drink” (Hf[1761]), sc. at any table where Christians meet. Our Lord prescribed no set times; P. assumes that celebration will be frequent, for he directs that, however frequent, it must be guided by the Lord’s instructions, so as to keep the remembrance of Him unimpaired.

[1756] Calvin’s In Nov. Testamentum Commentarii.

[1757] C. J. Ellicott’s St. Paul’s First Epistle to the Corinthians.

[1758] Cremer’s Biblico-Theological Lexicon of N.T. Greek (Eng. Trans.).

[1759] Jerome, Hieronymus.

[1760] Greek, or Grotius’ Annotationes in N.T.

J. C. K. von Hofmann’s Die heilige Schrift N.T. untersucht, ii. 2 (2te Auflage, 1874).

25. After the same manner also he took the cup, when he had supped] The words in the original, though translated differently, are precisely the same as those of St Luke, and seem to imply (see also St Luke 22:17) that while the bread was administered at supper, the cup was administered after it.

saying] The literal translation of the words is, This cup is the New Covenant in My Blood; this do whensoever ye drink it, in remembrance of Me. St Luke gives us the words as follows: ‘This Cup is the New Covenant in My Blood, which is being poured forth for you;’ St Matthew, ‘Drink ye all of it, for this is My Blood which is of the New Covenant, which is poured forth for many unto the remission of sins;’ St Mark, ‘This is My Blood, which is of the [New] Covenant, which is poured forth for many.’ It is obvious that no one report of these important words can be pressed to the exclusion of the rest.

new testament] This is unquestionably the original meaning of the word thus translated in Classical Greek. It is derived from a word signifying to put thoroughly in order, and is used of that complete arrangement of his worldly affairs which a man is accustomed to make in a will. See perhaps for this meaning Hebrews 9:16 (though the question is much debated). In other places in the N. T. it is used, as in the Septuagint, in place of the Hebrew Berith, a covenant or agreement between two parties, one of which sometimes is God. For an example of this sense see Galatians 3:15. Here it would appear to include both senses, for (1) it was a covenant that Christ entered into with man, and (2) it was His Death which gave that covenant validity.

1 Corinthians 11:25. Μετὰ τὸ δειπνῆσαι, after supper) Therefore you, Corinthians, ought to separate common meals from the Lord’s Supper.—ὁσάκις, as often as) As often as is not a command, but it is implied that we should often eat and drink.—πίνητε, you may drink) this cup, 1 Corinthians 11:26.—εἰς τὴν ἐμὴν ἀνάμνησιν, in remembrance of me) This is presupposed by Matthew and Mark. Luke uses it once, Paul twice, because it is very suitable to his purpose. The old sacrifices were useful in bringing sins to remembrance, Hebrews 10:3; the sacrifice of the body of Christ, accomplished once for all, is revived by the remembrance of forgiveness.

Verse 25 - When he had supped (see Luke 22:27). 'The cup, like the cos haberachah, was given after the meal was ended. The new testament; rather, the new covenant. The Greek word diatheke is indeed a "will," or "testament;" but in the LXX., on which the Greek of the apostles was formed, it always stands for berith, covenant. The Jews knew nothing of the practice of "making wills" till they learnt it from the Romans. The only passage of the New Testament (an expression derived from this very passage through the Vulgate) in which diatheke means a "testament" is Hebrews 9:16, where the writer reverts for a moment only to this signification of the word to introduce a passing illustration. In my blood. The cup was a symbol of the blood of Christ, because the gospel covenant was ratified by the shedding of his blood. The Jews had an absolute horror, at once religious and physical, of tasting blood. This was the reason why the Synod of Jerusalem forbade even to the Gentiles the eating of "things strangled." If the apostles had not fully understood that our Lord was only using the ordinary language of Semitic imagery, and describing only a horror and repulsion. 1 Corinthians 11:25After supper

Only Luke records this detail. It is added to mark the distinction between the Lord's Supper and the ordinary meal.

Testament (διαθήκη)

Rev., correctly, covenant. See on Matthew 26:28. The Hebrew word is derived from a verb meaning to cut. Hence the connection of dividing the victims with the ratification of a covenant. See Genesis 15:9-18. A similar usage appears in the Homeric phrase ὅρκια πιστὰ ταμεῖν, lit., to cut trustworthy oaths, whence the word oaths is used for the victims sacrificed in ratification of a covenant or treaty. See Homer, "Iliad," ii., 124; 3. 73, 93. So the Latin foedus ferire "to kill a league," whence our phrase to strike a compact. In the Septuagint proper, where it occurs nearly three hundred times, διαθήκη, in all but four passages, is the translation of the Hebrew word for covenant (berith). In those four it is used to render brotherhood and words of the covenant. In Philo it has the same sense as in the Septuagint, and covenant is its invariable sense in the New Testament.

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