Matthew 22:43
Verse (Click for Chapter)
New International Version
He said to them, "How is it then that David, speaking by the Spirit, calls him 'Lord'? For he says,

New Living Translation
Jesus responded, "Then why does David, speaking under the inspiration of the Spirit, call the Messiah 'my Lord'? For David said,

English Standard Version
He said to them, “How is it then that David, in the Spirit, calls him Lord, saying,

Berean Study Bible
Jesus said to them, "How then does David in the Spirit call Him Lord? For he says:

Berean Literal Bible
He says to them, "How then does David in spirit call Him Lord, saying:

New American Standard Bible
He said to them, "Then how does David in the Spirit call Him 'Lord,' saying,

King James Bible
He saith unto them, How then doth David in spirit call him Lord, saying,

Holman Christian Standard Bible
He asked them, "How is it then that David, inspired by the Spirit, calls Him 'Lord:

International Standard Version
He asked them, "Then how can David by the Spirit call him 'Lord' when he says,

NET Bible
He said to them, "How then does David by the Spirit call him 'Lord,' saying,

New Heart English Bible
He said to them, "How then does David in the Spirit call him Lord, saying,

Aramaic Bible in Plain English
He said to them, “And how did David by The Spirit call him THE LORD JEHOVAH, for he said:”

GOD'S WORD® Translation
He said to them, "Then how can David, guided by the Spirit, call him Lord? David says,

New American Standard 1977
He said to them, “Then how does David in the Spirit call Him ‘Lord,’ saying,

Jubilee Bible 2000
He said unto them, How then does David in Spirit call him Lord, saying,

King James 2000 Bible
He said unto them, How then does David in the Spirit call him Lord, saying,

American King James Version
He said to them, How then does David in spirit call him Lord, saying,

American Standard Version
He saith unto them, How then doth David in the Spirit call him Lord, saying,

Douay-Rheims Bible
He saith to them: How then doth David in spirit call him Lord, saying:

Darby Bible Translation
He says to them, How then does David in Spirit call him Lord, saying,

English Revised Version
He saith unto them, How then doth David in the Spirit call him Lord, saying,

Webster's Bible Translation
He saith to them, How then doth David in spirit call him Lord, saying,

Weymouth New Testament
"How then," He asked, "does David, taught by the Spirit, call Him Lord, when he says,

World English Bible
He said to them, "How then does David in the Spirit call him Lord, saying,

Young's Literal Translation
He saith to them, 'How then doth David in the Spirit call him lord, saying,
Study Bible
Whose Son is the Christ?
42“What do you think about the Christ? Whose son is He?” “David’s,” they answered. 43Jesus said to them, “How then does David in the Spirit call Him Lord? For he says: 44‘The Lord said to my Lord, “Sit at My right hand, until I put Your enemies under Your feet.”’…
Cross References
2 Samuel 23:2
"The Spirit of the LORD spoke by me, And His word was on my tongue.

Acts 2:30
But he was a prophet and knew that God had promised him on oath that He would place one of his descendants on his throne.

1 Corinthians 12:3
Therefore I inform you that no one who is speaking by the Spirit of God says, "Jesus be cursed," and no one can say, "Jesus is Lord," except by the Holy Spirit.

Revelation 1:10
On the Lord's day I was in the Spirit, and I heard behind me a loud voice like a trumpet,

Revelation 4:2
At once I was in the Spirit, and I saw a throne standing in heaven, with someone seated on it.
Treasury of Scripture

He said to them, How then does David in spirit call him Lord, saying,

in the spirit.

2 Samuel 23:2 The Spirit of the LORD spoke by me, and his word was in my tongue.

Mark 12:36 For David himself said by the Holy Ghost, The LORD said to my Lord, …

Luke 2:26,27 And it was revealed to him by the Holy Ghost, that he should not …

Acts 1:16 Men and brothers, this scripture must needs have been fulfilled…

Acts 2:30,31 Therefore being a prophet, and knowing that God had sworn with an …

Hebrews 3:7 Why (as the Holy Ghost said, To day if you will hear his voice,

2 Peter 1:21 For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man: but holy …

Revelation 4:2 And immediately I was in the spirit: and, behold, a throne was set …

(43) Doth David in spirit call him Lord?--The words assume (1) that David was the writer of Psalms 110; (2) that in writing it, he was guided by a Spirit higher than his own; (3) that the subject of it was no earthly king of the house of David, but the far off Christ. On this point there was an undisturbed consensus among the schools of Judaism, as represented by the Targums and the Talmud. It was a received tradition that the Christ should sit on the right hand of Jehovah and Abraham on His left. Its application to the Christ is emphatically recognised by St. Peter (Acts 2:34), and by St. Paul, though indirectly (Colossians 3:1). In the argument of the Epistle to the Hebrews, it occupies well-nigh the chief place of all (Hebrews 1:3; Hebrews 5:6). The only hypothesis on which any other meaning can be assigned to it is, that it was written, not by David, but of him. Here it will be enough to accept our Lord's interpretation, and to track the sequence of thought in His question. The words represent the LORD (Jehovah) as speaking to David's Lord (Adonai), as the true king, the anointed of Jehovah. But if so, what was the meaning of that lofty title? Must not He who bore it be something more than the son of David by mere natural descent? If the scribes had never even asked themselves that question, were they not self-convicted of incompetency as religious teachers?

Verse 43. - He saith. They had answered glibly enough, not knowing what was to come of their natural admission; now Christ puts a difficulty before them which might have led them to pause and reflect upon what that assertion might connote. How then? Πῶς οϋν; If Christ is David's Son, how is it then, in what sense can it be said, etc.? Doth David in spirit can him Lord. "In spirit" means speaking under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit - an argument surely for the Divine authority of the Old Testament, when "holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost" (2 Peter 1:21). Christ proceeds to quote a passage from Psalm 110, acknowledged by the Jews to be Davidic and Messianic. Both these positions have been called in question in modern days, and sceptical critics have hence presumed to infer ignorance or deceit on the part of Christ; i.e. either that he did not know that the authorship was wrongly attributed to David, and that the psalm really referred to Maccabean times, or that, knowing these facts, he deliberately ignored them and endorsed a popular error in order to give colour to his argument. The statement of such a charge against our Lord is a sufficient refutation. Universal tradition, extending to this very time, which gave to the psalm a Messianic interpretation, is surely more worthy of credit than a theory elaborated in the present century, which in no respect regards the natural signification of the language, and can be made to support the novel idea only by forced and unreal accommodations. By speaking of David as having uttered the quoted words, Christ does not formally state that this king wrote the psalm; he merely gives the accepted view which classed it as Davidic. The authorship did not matter in his application; his argument was equally sound, whoever was the writer. He saith unto them,.... Not denying it to be a truth they affirmed; but rather granting and allowing it: he argues upon it, though he tacitly refuses their sense and meaning of the phrase, thus,

how then doth David in spirit call him Lord? that is, if he is a mere man, if he is only the son of David, according to the flesh, if he has no other, or higher descent than from him, how comes it to pass, that David, under the inspiration of the Spirit of God, by which he wrote his book of Psalms, see 2 Samuel 23:1 where the passage, after cited, stands, to call him Lord; which supposes him to be more than barely his son, and to be a greater person than himself, one superior in nature and dignity to him? for the phrase "in spirit", is not to be connected with the word Lord; as if the design of it was to show, that the Messiah was Lord, or God, in spirit, or with respect to his divine nature, but, with the word "call", expressing the influence of the Spirit of God, under which David wrote; otherwise the Pharisees would have had a direction how to have answered the question, which much puzzled them:

saying, as in Psalm 110:1. 22:41-46 When Christ baffled his enemies, he asked what thoughts they had of the promised Messiah? How he could be the Son of David and yet his Lord? He quotes Ps 110:1. If the Christ was to be a mere man, who would not exist till many ages after David's death, how could his forefather call him Lord? The Pharisees could not answer it. Nor can any solve the difficulty except he allows the Messiah to be the Son of God, and David's Lord equally with the Father. He took upon him human nature, and so became God manifested in the flesh; in this sense he is the Son of man and the Son of David. It behoves us above all things seriously to inquire, What think we of Christ? Is he altogether glorious in our eyes, and precious to our hearts? May Christ be our joy, our confidence, our all. May we daily be made more like to him, and more devoted to his service.
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