Genesis 10:10
Parallel Verses
New International Version
The first centers of his kingdom were Babylon, Uruk, Akkad and Kalneh, in Shinar.

New Living Translation
He built his kingdom in the land of Babylonia, with the cities of Babylon, Erech, Akkad, and Calneh.

English Standard Version
The beginning of his kingdom was Babel, Erech, Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar.

New American Standard Bible
The beginning of his kingdom was Babel and Erech and Accad and Calneh, in the land of Shinar.

King James Bible
And the beginning of his kingdom was Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
His kingdom started with Babylon, Erech, Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar.

International Standard Version
His kingdom began in the region of Shinar with the cities of Babylon, Erech, Akkad, and Calneh.

NET Bible
The primary regions of his kingdom were Babel, Erech, Akkad, and Calneh in the land of Shinar.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
The first [cities] in his kingdom were Babylon, Erech, Accad, and Calneh in Shinar [Babylonia].

Jubilee Bible 2000
And the beginning of his kingdom was Babel and Erech and Accad and Calneh in the land of Shinar.

King James 2000 Bible
And the beginning of his kingdom was Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar.

American King James Version
And the beginning of his kingdom was Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar.

American Standard Version
And the beginning of his kingdom was Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar.

Douay-Rheims Bible
And the beginning of his kingdom was Babylon, and Arach, and Achad, and Chalanne in the land of Sennaar.

Darby Bible Translation
And the beginning of his kingdom was Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar.

English Revised Version
And the beginning of his kingdom was Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar.

Webster's Bible Translation
And the beginning of his kingdom was Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar.

World English Bible
The beginning of his kingdom was Babel, Erech, Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar.

Young's Literal Translation
And the first part of his kingdom is Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar;
Parallel Commentaries
Matthew Henry's Concise Commentary

10:8-14 Nimrod was a great man in his day; he began to be mighty in the earth, Those before him were content to be upon the same level with their neighbours, and though every man bare rule in his own house, yet no man pretended any further. Nimrod was resolved to lord it over his neighbours. The spirit of the giants before the flood, who became mighty men, and men of renown, Ge 6:4, revived in him. Nimrod was a great hunter. Hunting then was the method of preventing the hurtful increase of wild beasts. This required great courage and address, and thus gave an opportunity for Nimrod to command others, and gradually attached a number of men to one leader. From such a beginning, it is likely, that Nimrod began to rule, and to force others to submit. He invaded his neighbours' rights and properties, and persecuted innocent men; endeavouring to make all his own by force and violence. He carried on his oppressions and violence in defiance of God himself. Nimrod was a great ruler. Some way or other, by arts or arms, he got into power, and so founded a monarchy, which was the terror of the mighty, and bid fair to rule all the world. Nimrod was a great builder. Observe in Nimrod the nature of ambition. It is boundless; much would have more, and still cries, Give, give. It is restless; Nimrod, when he had four cities under his command, could not be content till he had four more. It is expensive; Nimrod will rather be at the charge of rearing cities, than not have the honour of ruling them. It is daring, and will stick at nothing. Nimrod's name signifies rebellion; tyrants to men are rebels to God. The days are coming, when conquerors will no longer be spoken of with praise, as in man's partial histories, but be branded with infamy, as in the impartial records of the Bible.

Pulpit Commentary

Verse 10. - And the beginning of his kingdom. Either his first kingdom, as contrasted with his second (Knobel), or the commencement of his sovereignty (Keil, Kalisch), or the principal city of his empire (Rosenmüller); or all three may be legitimately embraced in the term reshith, only it does not necessarily imply that Nimrod built any of the cities mentioned. Was Babel. Babylon, "the land of Nimrod" (Micah 5:6), the origin of which is described in Genesis 11:1, grew to be a great city covering an area of 225 square reties, reached its highest glory under Nebuchadnezzar (Daniel 4:30), and succumbed to the Medo-Persian power under Belshazzar (Daniel 5:31). The remains of this great city have been discovered on the east bank of the Euphrates near Hillah, where there is a square mound called "Babil" by the Arabs (Rawlinson's 'Ancient Monarchies,' vol. 1. Genesis 1). And Erech. The Orchoe of Ptolemy, identified by Rawlinson as Wurka, about eighty miles south of Babylon. And Accad. Ἀρχάδ (LXX.); the city Sittace on the river Argade (Bochart); Sakada, a town planted by Ptolemy below Ninus (Clericus); Accete, north of Babylon (Knobel, Lange); identified with the ruins of Niffer, to the south of Hillah (Keil); with those of Akkerkoof, north of Hillah (Kalisch). Rawlinson does not identify the site; George Smith regards it as "the capital of Sargon, the great city Agadi, near the city of Sippara on the Euphrates, and north of Babylon ('Assyrian Discoveries,' Genesis 12.). And Calneh. Calno (Isaiah 10:9); Canneh (Ezekiel 27:23); Ctesiphon, east of the Tigris, north-east of Babylon (Jerome, Eusebius, Bochart, Michaelis, Kalisch); identified with the ruins of Niffer on the east of the Euphrates (Rawlinson). In the land of Shinar. Babylonia, as distinguished from Assyria (Isaiah 11:11), the lower part of Mesopotamia, or Chaldaea.

Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible

And the beginning of his kingdom was Babel,.... The city of Babel, or Babylon, which was built by his direction; for though Babylon is by some writers said to be built by Semiramis, the wife of Ninus, and others by Ninus himself, yet the truest account is, that it was built by Belus, the same with Nimrod. Curtius (t) says, Semiramis built it; or, as most believe, adds he, Belus, whose royal palace is shown: and Berosus (u), the Chaldean, blames the Greek writers for ascribing it to Semiramis; and Abydenus (w), out of Megasthenes, affirms, that Belus surrounded Babylon with a wall: however, this was the head of the kingdom of Nimrod, as Onkelos renders it, or his chief city, or where he first began to reign. Here he set up his kingdom, which he enlarged and extended afterwards to other places; and from hence it appears, that what is related in this context, concerning Nimrod, is by way of anticipation; for it was not a fact that he was a mighty man, or a powerful prince possessed of a kingdom, until after the building of Babel, and the confusion of languages there; when those that continued on the spot either chose him for their ruler, or he, by power or policy, got the dominion over them. Artapanus (x), an Heathen writer, relates, that the giants which inhabited Babylon being taken away by the gods for their impiety, one of them, Belus, escaped death and dwelt in Babylon, and took up his abode in the tower which he had raised up, and which, from him the founder of it, was called Belus; so that this, as Moses says, was the beginning of his kingdom, together with

Erech, and Accad, and Calneh in the land of Shinar, where the city and tower of Babel were built: for of these four cities, which were all in the same country, did the kingdom of Nimrod consist; they all, either by force or by consent, were brought into subjection to him, and were under one form of government, and is the first kingdom known to be set up in the world. Erech, according to the Targums of Jonathan and Jerusalem, is Hades, or Edessa, a city in Mesopotamia; but it is rather thought to be the name with the Aracca of Ptolemy (y), and the Arecha of Marcellinus (z), placed by them both in Susiana; though one would think it should be that city in Chaldea which took its present Arabic name of Erak from Erech: the Arabic writers say (a), when Irac or Erac is absolutely put, it denotes Babylonia, or Chaldea, in the land of Shinar; and they say that Shinar is in Al-Erac. The next city, Accad, according to the Targums of Jonathan and Jerusalem, is Netzibin, or Nisibis, a city in Mesopotamia; in the Septuagint version it is called Archad; and Ctesias (b) relates, that at the Persian Sittace was a river called Argad, which Bochart (c) thinks carries in it a manifest trace of this name; and observes, from Strabo (d), that that part of Babylon nearest to Susa was called Sitacena. And the other city, Calneh, according to the above Targums, is Ctesiphon, and is generally thought to be the place intended, and was a town upon the Tigris, near to Seleucia in Babylon; it was first called Chalone, and its name was changed to Ctesiphon by Pacorus, king of the Persians. It is in Isaiah 10:9 called Calno, and by the Septuagint version there the Chalane, which adds,"where the tower was built;''and from whence the country called the Chalonitis by Pliny (e) had its name, the chief city of which was Ctesiphon; and who says (f) Chalonitis is joined with Ctesiphon. Thus far goes the account of Nimrod; and, though no mention is made of his death, yet some writers are not silent about it. Abulpharagius (g), an Arabic writer, says he died in the tower of Babel, it being blown down by stormy winds; the Jewish writers say (h) he was killed by Esau for the sake of his coat, which was Adam's, and came to Noah, and from him to Ham, and so to Nimrod. When he began his reign, and how long he reigned, is not certain; we have only some fabulous accounts: according to Berosus (i), he began to reign one hundred and thirty one years after the flood, and reigned fifty six years, and then disappeared, being translated by the gods: and, indeed, the authors of the Universal History place the beginning of his reign in the year of the flood one hundred and thirty one, and thirty years after the dispersion at Babylon (k); and who relate, that the eastern writers speak of his reign as very long: a Persian writer gives his name a Persian derivation, as if it was Nemurd, that is, "immortal", on account of his long reign of above one hundred and fifty years: and some of the Mahometan historians say he reigned in Al-Sowad, that is, the "black country", four hundred years (l).

(t) Hist. l. 5. c. 1.((u) Apud Joseph. contra Apion. l. 1. c. 20. (w) Apud. Euseb. Evangel. Praepar. l. 9. c. 41. p. 457. (x) Apud. Euseb. Evangel. Praepar. l. 9. c. 18. p. 420. (y) Geograph. l. 6. c. 3.((z) Lib. 23. (a) Vid. Hyde in notis ad Peritsol. Itinera Mundi, p. 65. (b) Apud Aelian. Hist. Animal. l. 16. c. 42. (c) Phaleg. l. 4. c. 17. (d) Geograph. l. 15. p. 503. (e) Nat. Hist. l. 6. c. 26. (f) Ibid. c. 27. (g) Hist. Dynast. p. 12. (h) In Pirke Eliezer, c. 24. (i) Antiqu. l. 4. p. 28, 29. (k) Vol. 1. p. 282. and vol. 21. p. 2.((l) Apud Hyde's Hist. Relig. Pers. c. 2. p. 43.

Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary

10. the beginning of his kingdom—This kingdom, of course, though then considered great, would be comparatively limited in extent, and the towns but small forts.

Genesis 10:10 Additional Commentaries
Context
The Hamites
9He was a mighty hunter before the LORD; therefore it is said, "Like Nimrod a mighty hunter before the LORD." 10The beginning of his kingdom was Babel and Erech and Accad and Calneh, in the land of Shinar. 11From that land he went forth into Assyria, and built Nineveh and Rehoboth-Ir and Calah,…
Cross References
Genesis 10:9
He was a mighty hunter before the LORD; that is why it is said, "Like Nimrod, a mighty hunter before the LORD."

Genesis 11:2
As people moved eastward, they found a plain in Shinar and settled there.

Genesis 11:9
That is why it was called Babel --because there the LORD confused the language of the whole world. From there the LORD scattered them over the face of the whole earth.

Genesis 14:1
At the time when Amraphel was king of Shinar, Arioch king of Ellasar, Kedorlaomer king of Elam and Tidal king of Goyim,

Isaiah 10:9
Has not Kalno fared like Carchemish? Is not Hamath like Arpad, and Samaria like Damascus?

Jeremiah 21:2
"Inquire now of the LORD for us because Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon is attacking us. Perhaps the LORD will perform wonders for us as in times past so that he will withdraw from us."

Jeremiah 50:1
This is the word the LORD spoke through Jeremiah the prophet concerning Babylon and the land of the Babylonians:

Daniel 1:2
And the Lord delivered Jehoiakim king of Judah into his hand, along with some of the articles from the temple of God. These he carried off to the temple of his god in Babylonia and put in the treasure house of his god.

Amos 6:2
Go to Kalneh and look at it; go from there to great Hamath, and then go down to Gath in Philistia. Are they better off than your two kingdoms? Is their land larger than yours?

Zechariah 5:11
He replied, "To the country of Babylonia to build a house for it. When the house is ready, the basket will be set there in its place."
Treasury of Scripture

And the beginning of his kingdom was Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar.

A.M.

Jeremiah 50:21 Go up against the land of Merathaim, even against it, and against …

Micah 5:6 And they shall waste the land of Assyria with the sword, and the …

Babel. Gr. Babylon.

Genesis 11:9 Therefore is the name of it called Babel; because the LORD did there …

Isaiah 39:1 At that time Merodachbaladan, the son of Baladan, king of Babylon, …

Micah 4:10 Be in pain, and labor to bring forth, O daughter of Zion, like a …

Calneh.

Isaiah 10:9 Is not Calno as Carchemish? is not Hamath as Arpad? is not Samaria as Damascus?

Amos 6:2 Pass you to Calneh, and see; and from there go you to Hamath the …

Shinar.

Genesis 11:2 And it came to pass, as they journeyed from the east, that they found …

Genesis 14:1 And it came to pass in the days of Amraphel king of Shinar, Arioch …

Isaiah 11:11 And it shall come to pass in that day, that the Lord shall set his …

Daniel 1:2 And the Lord gave Jehoiakim king of Judah into his hand, with part …

Zechariah 5:11 And he said to me, To build it an house in the land of Shinar: and …

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