Ezra 7:12
Verse (Click for Chapter)
New International Version
Artaxerxes, king of kings, To Ezra the priest, teacher of the Law of the God of heaven: Greetings.

New Living Translation
"From Artaxerxes, the king of kings, to Ezra the priest, the teacher of the law of the God of heaven. Greetings.

English Standard Version
“Artaxerxes, king of kings, to Ezra the priest, the scribe of the Law of the God of heaven. Peace. And now

New American Standard Bible
"Artaxerxes, king of kings, to Ezra the priest, the scribe of the law of the God of heaven, perfect peace. And now

King James Bible
Artaxerxes, king of kings, unto Ezra the priest, a scribe of the law of the God of heaven, perfect peace, and at such a time.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
Artaxerxes, king of kings, to Ezra the priest, an expert in the law of the God of heaven: Greetings.

International Standard Version
From: Artaxerxes, King of Kings To: Ezra, the Priest, a scholar in matters concerning the laws of the God of Heaven Greetings!

NET Bible
"Artaxerxes, king of kings, to Ezra the priest, a scribe of the perfect law of the God of heaven:

New Heart English Bible
Artaxerxes, king of kings, to Ezra the priest, the scribe of the law of the God of heaven, perfect and so forth.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
From: Artaxerxes, king of kings To: Ezra the priest, a scribe for the Teachings of the God of Heaven: I wish you peace and prosperity!

JPS Tanakh 1917
Artaxerxes, king of kings, unto Ezra the priest, the scribe of the Law of the God of heaven, and so forth. And now

New American Standard 1977
“Artaxerxes, king of kings, to Ezra the priest, the scribe of the law of the God of heaven, perfect peace. And now

Jubilee Bible 2000
Artaxerxes, king of kings, unto Ezra, the priest, perfect scribe of the law of the God of heaven, perfect peace, and to Cheenet.

King James 2000 Bible
Artaxerxes, king of kings, unto Ezra the priest, a scribe of the law of the God of heaven, perfect peace, and so forth.

American King James Version
Artaxerxes, king of kings, to Ezra the priest, a scribe of the law of the God of heaven, perfect peace, and at such a time.

American Standard Version
Artaxerxes, king of kings, unto Ezra the priest, the scribe of the law of the God of heaven, perfect and so forth.

Douay-Rheims Bible
Artaxerxes king of kings to Esdras the priest, the most learned scribe of the law of the God of heaven, greeting.

Darby Bible Translation
Artaxerxes, king of kings, to Ezra the priest, an accomplished scribe of the law of the God of the heavens, and so forth.

English Revised Version
Artaxerxes, king of kings, unto Ezra the priest, the scribe of the law of the God of heaven, perfect and so forth,

Webster's Bible Translation
Artaxerxes, king of kings, To Ezra the priest, a scribe of the law of the God of heaven, perfect peace, and at such a time.

World English Bible
Artaxerxes, king of kings, to Ezra the priest, the scribe of the law of the God of heaven, perfect and so forth.

Young's Literal Translation
'Artaxerxes, king of kings, to Ezra the priest, a perfect scribe of the law of the God of heaven, and at such a time:
Study Bible
Artaxerxes' Letter to Ezra
11Now this is the copy of the decree which King Artaxerxes gave to Ezra the priest, the scribe, learned in the words of the commandments of the LORD and His statutes to Israel: 12"Artaxerxes, king of kings, to Ezra the priest, the scribe of the law of the God of heaven, perfect peace. And now 13I have issued a decree that any of the people of Israel and their priests and the Levites in my kingdom who are willing to go to Jerusalem, may go with you.…
Cross References
Ezra 4:10
and the rest of the nations which the great and honorable Osnappar deported and settled in the city of Samaria, and in the rest of the region beyond the River. Now

Ezra 7:1
Now after these things, in the reign of Artaxerxes king of Persia, there went up Ezra son of Seraiah, son of Azariah, son of Hilkiah,

Ezra 7:6
This Ezra went up from Babylon, and he was a scribe skilled in the law of Moses, which the LORD God of Israel had given; and the king granted him all he requested because the hand of the LORD his God was upon him.

Ezra 7:11
Now this is the copy of the decree which King Artaxerxes gave to Ezra the priest, the scribe, learned in the words of the commandments of the LORD and His statutes to Israel:

Ezekiel 26:7
For thus says the Lord GOD, "Behold, I will bring upon Tyre from the north Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, king of kings, with horses, chariots, cavalry and a great army.

Daniel 2:37
"You, O king, are the king of kings, to whom the God of heaven has given the kingdom, the power, the strength and the glory;
Treasury of Scripture

Artaxerxes, king of kings, to Ezra the priest, a scribe of the law of the God of heaven, perfect peace, and at such a time.

Artaxerxes (The title of the king would, in Persian, run thus: Ardsheer shahinshah, or padshah, 'Ardsheer, king of kings,' i.e. great or supreme king or emperor.)

1 Kings 4:24 For he had dominion over all the region on this side the river, from …

1 Kings 20:1 And Benhadad the king of Syria gathered all his host together: and …

Isaiah 10:8 For he said, Are not my princes altogether kings?

Ezekiel 26:7 For thus said the Lord GOD; Behold, I will bring on Tyrus Nebuchadrezzar …

Daniel 2:37,47 You, O king, are a king of kings: for the God of heaven has given …

1 Timothy 6:15 Which in his times he shall show, who is the blessed and only Potentate, …

Revelation 17:14 These shall make war with the Lamb, and the Lamb shall overcome them: …

Revelation 19:16 And he has on his clothing and on his thigh a name written, KING …

unto Ezra, etc. or, to Ezra the priest, a perfect scribe of the law of the God of heaven, peace, etc. and at such a time

Ezra 4:10,11,17 And the rest of the nations whom the great and noble Asnapper brought …

(12) Artaxerxes, king of kings.--Artachshatra in Persian, Artachshasta in Hebrew. The Persian monarchs inherited the title here given from the Babylonians (Daniel 2:37). It is not used by the historian, only by the king himself.

Perfect peace, and at such a time.--Literally, perfect, and so forth. The expression occurs only here, and is a difficult one. Our translation follows the apocryphal Esdras, and is on the whole to be accepted, a salutation being implied.

Verse 12. - Artaxerxes, king of kings. "King of kings, kkshayathiya khshaya-thiyanam," an equivalent of the modern shahinshah, was a recognised title of the Persian monarchs, and is found in every Persian inscription of any considerable length (Rawlinson, 'Cuneiform Inscriptions of Persis,' vol. 1 pp. 195, 271, 279, 287, 292, etc.). It was a title that had been used occasionally, though not at all frequently, by the Assyrian monarchs ('Records of the Past,' vol. 3. p. 41; vol. 5. p. 8), and naturally expressed the fact that those monarchs for the most part maintained the native princes on the thrones of the countries which they conquered (see Isaiah 10:8). It was less appropriate to the Persians, whose empire was in the main satrapial, but still had a basis of truth to rest upon, since the Persian monarch had always a certain number of tributary kings under him ( cf. 'Herod.,' 5:104, 118; 8:142; Xen., 'Anab.,' 1:2, §12; 'Hellen.,' 4:1,§§ 3,4,etc.). The Parthian kings took the title from the time of Mithridates I.; and from them it passed to the Sassanians, who style themselves malkan malka, from first to last, upon their coins. The God of heaven. On this favourite Persian expression see comment on Ezra 1:2. Perfect peace. There is nothing in the Chaldee original in any way corresponding to "peace;" and the participle passage being translated as in the margin of the A. V. - "to Ezra the priest, a perfect scribe of the law of the God of heaven." And at such a time. Rather, "and so forth," as in Ezra 4:10, 11, 17. Artaxerxes, king of kings,.... Having many kings and kingdoms subject and tributary to him; for this was not merely a proud haughty title which the eastern kings (p) assumed, particularly the Persians; for after Cyrus they were so in fact, who took this title also, and had it put on his sepulchral monument,"Here I lie, Cyrus, king of kings (q);''this title was given to Grecian kings, particularly Agamemnon is called king of kings (r), he being general at the siege of Troy, under whom the rest of the kings fought; if this was Darius Hystaspis, of him Cyrus dreamed that he had wings on his shoulders, with one he covered Asia, and with the other Europe (s):

unto Ezra the priest, a scribe of the law of the God of heaven; of which titles see Ezra 7:11,

perfect peace, and at such a time; the word "perfect" belongs to Ezra's title as a scribe, signifying that he was a most learned and complete scribe or teacher of the law of God; "peace" is not in the text, and the phrase "at such a time" respects the date of the letter, though not expressed, or is only an "et cetera"; see Gill on Ezra 4:10.

(p) See the Universal History, vol. 5. p. 16, 137. & vol. 11. p. 7, 8. margin, & p. 66. (q) Strabo, Geograph. l. 15. p. 502. (r) Vell. Patercul. Hist. Roman. l. 1. in initio. (s) Herodot. Clio, sive, l. 1. c. 209. 12. Artaxerxes, king of kings—That title might have been assumed as, with literal truth, applicable to him, since many of the tributary princes of his empire still retained the name and authority of kings. But it was a probably a mere Orientalism, denoting a great and powerful prince, as the heaven of heavens signified the highest heaven, and vanity of vanities, the greatest vanity. This vainglorious title was assumed by the kings of Assyria, from whom it passed to the sovereigns of Persia.

unto Ezra the priest, a scribe of the law of the God of heaven—The appointment of Ezra to this influential mission was of the highest importance to the Hebrew people, as a large proportion of them were become, in a great measure, strangers both to the language and the institutions of their forefathers.7:11-26 The liberality of heathen kings to support the worship of God, reproached the conduct of many kings of Judah, and will rise up in judgment against the covetousness of wealthy professed Christians, who will not promote the cause of God. But the weapons of Christian ministers are not carnal. Faithful preaching, holy lives, fervent prayers, and patient suffering when called to it, are the means to bring men into obedience to Christ.
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