Exodus 9:31
Verse (Click for Chapter)
New International Version
(The flax and barley were destroyed, since the barley had headed and the flax was in bloom.

New Living Translation
(All the flax and barley were ruined by the hail, because the barley had formed heads and the flax was budding.

English Standard Version
(The flax and the barley were struck down, for the barley was in the ear and the flax was in bud.

New American Standard Bible
(Now the flax and the barley were ruined, for the barley was in the ear and the flax was in bud.

King James Bible
And the flax and the barley was smitten: for the barley was in the ear, and the flax was bolled.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
The flax and the barley were destroyed because the barley was ripe and the flax was budding,

International Standard Version
(Now the flax and the barley were ruined because the barley was in ear and the flax was in bud.

NET Bible
(Now the flax and the barley were struck by the hail, for the barley had ripened and the flax was in bud.

New Heart English Bible
The flax and the barley were struck, for the barley was in the ear, and the flax was in bloom.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
(The flax and the barley were ruined, because the barley had formed heads and the flax was in bloom.

JPS Tanakh 1917
And the flax and the barley were smitten; for the barley was in the ear, and the flax was in bloom.

New American Standard 1977
(Now the flax and the barley were ruined, for the barley was in the ear and the flax was in bud.

Jubilee Bible 2000
The flax, therefore, and the barley were smitten, for the barley was headed out, and the flax was in stalk.

King James 2000 Bible
And the flax and the barley was smitten: for the barley was in the ear, and the flax was in bud.

American King James Version
And the flax and the barley was smitten: for the barley was in the ear, and the flax was in bloom.

American Standard Version
And the flax and the barley were smitten: for the barley was in the ear, and the flax was in bloom.

Douay-Rheims Bible
The flax therefore and the barley were hurt, because the barley was green, and the flax was now boiled:

Darby Bible Translation
And the flax and the barley were smitten; for the barley was in the ear, and the flax was bolled.

English Revised Version
And the flax and the barley were smitten: for the barley was in the ear, and the flax was bolled.

Webster's Bible Translation
And the flax and the barley were smitten: for the barley was in the ear, and the flax was bolled.

World English Bible
The flax and the barley were struck, for the barley was in the ear, and the flax was in bloom.

Young's Literal Translation
And the flax and the barley have been smitten, for the barley is budding, and the flax forming flowers,
Study Bible
The Seventh Plague: Hail
30"But as for you and your servants, I know that you do not yet fear the LORD God." 31(Now the flax and the barley were ruined, for the barley was in the ear and the flax was in bud. 32But the wheat and the spelt were not ruined, for they ripen late.)…
Cross References
Exodus 9:32
But the wheat and the spelt were not ruined, for they ripen late.)

Ruth 1:22
So Naomi returned, and with her Ruth the Moabitess, her daughter-in-law, who returned from the land of Moab. And they came to Bethlehem at the beginning of barley harvest.

Ruth 2:23
So she stayed close by the maids of Boaz in order to glean until the end of the barley harvest and the wheat harvest. And she lived with her mother-in-law.

2 Samuel 21:9
Then he gave them into the hands of the Gibeonites, and they hanged them in the mountain before the LORD, so that the seven of them fell together; and they were put to death in the first days of harvest at the beginning of barley harvest.
Treasury of Scripture

And the flax and the barley was smitten: for the barley was in the ear, and the flax was in bloom.

flax. The word pishteh, flax, Mr. Parkhurst thinks may be derived from pashat, to strip, because the substance which we call flax is properly the filaments of the bark or rind of the vegetable, stripped off the stalks. From time immemorial, Egypt was celebrated for the production and manufacture of flax; and hence the linen and fine linen of Egypt, so often spoken of in scripture and ancient authors. The barley. The Hebrew seorah, barley, in Arabic shair, and shairat, is so called from its rough, bristly beard, with which the ears are covered and defended; from saar, to stand on end as the hair of the head; hence sear, the hair of the head. So its Latin name hordeum is from horeo, to stand on end as the hair. Dr. Pococke has observed that there is a double seed time and harvest in Egypt; rice, India wheat, and a grain called the corn of Damascus, are sown and reaped at a very different time from wheat, barley, and flax. The first are sown in March, before the overflowing of the Nile, and reaped about October; whereas the wheat and barley are sown in November and December, as soon as the Nile has gone off, and reaped before May.

Ruth 1:22 So Naomi returned, and Ruth the Moabitess, her daughter in law, with …

Ruth 2:23 So she kept fast by the maidens of Boaz to glean to the end of barley …

Amos 4:9 I have smitten you with blasting and mildew: when your gardens and …

Habakkuk 3:17 Although the fig tree shall not blossom, neither shall fruit be in …

(31) The flax and the barley was smitten.--Flax was grown largely in Egypt, since linen garments were very generally worn by the people, and were the necessary attire of the priests (Herod. ii. 37). Mummies also were swathed in linen bandages (Herod. ii. 86); and soldiers wore linen corselets (Herod. ii. 182, 3:47). Barley was grown as food for horses, as an element in the manufacture of beer, and as a material for an inferior kind of bread. The flax is "bolled"--i.e., forms its seed-vessel--towards the end of January or beginning of February, and the barley comes into ear about the same time. These facts fix the date of this plague, and help to fix the dates both of the earlier and the later ones.

Verse 31. - The flax and the barley was smitten. Flax was largely cultivated by the Egyptians, who preferred linen garments to any other (Herod. 2:37), and allowed the priests to wear nothing but linen. Several kinds of flax are mentioned as grown in Egypt (Plin. H. N. 19:1); and the neighbourhood of Tanis is expressly said to have been one of the places where the flax was produced. The flax is boiled, i.e. blossoms towards the end of January or beginning of February, and the barley comes into ear about the same time, being commonly cut in March. Barley was employed largely as the food of horses, and was used also for the manufacture of beer, which was a common Egyptian beverage. A certain quantity was made by the poorer classes into bread. And the flax and the barley was smitten,.... With the hail, thunder, and lightning, and were beat down, bruised, broken, and blasted, and destroyed; of the former there were great quantities produced in Egypt, which was famous for linen, much was made there, and there were many that wrought in fine flax, see Isaiah 19:9 and the latter were used not only to feed their cattle, but to make a drink of, as we do, ale and strong beer; and so the Egyptians use it to this day, as Dr. Shaw (p) says, both to feed their cattle, and after it is dried and parched, to make a fermented, intoxicating liquor, called "bonzah"; probably the same with the barley wine of the ancients, and a species of the "sicar", or strong drink of the Scriptures:

for the barley was in the ear, and the flax was bolled; or in the stalk, quite grown up, and so the ears of the one were beat off, and the stalks of the other battered with the hail, and broken and destroyed.

(p) Travels, tom. 2. c. 2. sect. 5. p. 407. Ed. 2.31, 32. the flax and the barley was smitten, etc.—The peculiarities that are mentioned in these cereal products arise from the climate and physical constitution of Egypt. In that country flax and barley are almost ripe when wheat and rye (spelt) are green. And hence the flax must have been "bolled"—that is, risen in stalk or podded in February, thus fixing the particular month when the event took place. Barley ripens about a month earlier than wheat. Flax and barley are generally ripe in March, wheat and rye (properly, spelt) in April. 9:22-35 Woful havoc this hail made: it killed both men and cattle; the corn above ground was destroyed, and that only preserved which as yet was not come up. The land of Goshen was preserved. God causes rain or hail on one city and not on another, either in mercy or in judgment. Pharaoh humbled himself to Moses. No man could have spoken better: he owns himself wrong; he owns that the Lord is righteous; and God must be justified when he speaks, though he speaks in thunder and lightning. Yet his heart was hardened all this while. Moses pleads with God: though he had reason to think Pharaoh would repent of his repentance, and he told him so, yet he promises to be his friend. Moses went out of the city, notwithstanding the hail and lightning which kept Pharaoh and his servants within doors. Peace with God makes men thunder-proof. Pharaoh was frightened by the tremendous judgment; but when that was over, his fair promises were forgotten. Those that are not bettered by judgments and mercies, commonly become worse.
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