Exodus 23:28
Verse (Click for Chapter)
New International Version
I will send the hornet ahead of you to drive the Hivites, Canaanites and Hittites out of your way.

New Living Translation
I will send terror ahead of you to drive out the Hivites, Canaanites, and Hittites.

English Standard Version
And I will send hornets before you, which shall drive out the Hivites, the Canaanites, and the Hittites from before you.

New American Standard Bible
"I will send hornets ahead of you so that they will drive out the Hivites, the Canaanites, and the Hittites before you.

King James Bible
And I will send hornets before thee, which shall drive out the Hivite, the Canaanite, and the Hittite, from before thee.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
I will send the hornet in front of you, and it will drive the Hivites, Canaanites, and Hittites away from you.

International Standard Version
I'll send hornets ahead of you and they'll drive out the Hivites, the Canaanites, and the Hittites before you.

NET Bible
I will send hornets before you that will drive out the Hivite, the Canaanite, and the Hittite before you.

New Heart English Bible
I will send the hornet before you, which will drive out the Hivite, the Canaanite, and the Hittite, from before you.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
I will spread panic ahead of you to force the Hivites, Canaanites, and Hittites out of your way.

JPS Tanakh 1917
And I will send the hornet before thee, which shall drive out the Hivite, the Canaanite, and the Hittite, from before thee.

New American Standard 1977
“And I will send hornets ahead of you, that they may drive out the Hivites, the Canaanites, and the Hittites before you.

Jubilee Bible 2000
And I will send hornets before thee, which shall drive out the Hivite, the Canaanite, and the Hittite from before thee.

King James 2000 Bible
And I will send hornets before you, which shall drive out the Hivite, the Canaanite, and the Hittite, from before you.

American King James Version
And I will send hornets before you, which shall drive out the Hivite, the Canaanite, and the Hittite, from before you.

American Standard Version
And I will send the hornet before thee, which shall drive out the Hivite, the Canaanite, and the Hittite, from before thee.

Douay-Rheims Bible
Sending out hornets before, that shall drive away the Hevite, and the Chanaanite, and the Hethite, before thou come in.

Darby Bible Translation
And I will send hornets before thee, which shall drive out the Hivite, the Canaanite, and the Hittite, from before thee.

English Revised Version
And I will send the hornet before thee, which shall drive out the Hivite, the Canaanite, and the Hittite, from before thee.

Webster's Bible Translation
And I will send hornets before thee, which shall drive out the Hivite, the Canaanite, and the Hittite from before thee.

World English Bible
I will send the hornet before you, which will drive out the Hivite, the Canaanite, and the Hittite, from before you.

Young's Literal Translation
'And I have sent the hornet before thee, and it hath cast out the Hivite, the Canaanite, and the Hittite, from before thee;
Study Bible
God's Angel to Lead
27"I will send My terror ahead of you, and throw into confusion all the people among whom you come, and I will make all your enemies turn their backs to you. 28"I will send hornets ahead of you so that they will drive out the Hivites, the Canaanites, and the Hittites before you. 29"I will not drive them out before you in a single year, that the land may not become desolate and the beasts of the field become too numerous for you.…
Cross References
Genesis 15:19
the Kenite and the Kenizzite and the Kadmonite

Exodus 33:2
"I will send an angel before you and I will drive out the Canaanite, the Amorite, the Hittite, the Perizzite, the Hivite and the Jebusite.

Exodus 34:11
"Be sure to observe what I am commanding you this day: behold, I am going to drive out the Amorite before you, and the Canaanite, the Hittite, the Perizzite, the Hivite and the Jebusite.

Deuteronomy 7:20
"Moreover, the LORD your God will send the hornet against them, until those who are left and hide themselves from you perish.

Joshua 24:11
You crossed the Jordan and came to Jericho; and the citizens of Jericho fought against you, and the Amorite and the Perizzite and the Canaanite and the Hittite and the Girgashite, the Hivite and the Jebusite. Thus I gave them into your hand.

Joshua 24:12
Then I sent the hornet before you and it drove out the two kings of the Amorites from before you, but not by your sword or your bow.

Psalm 80:9
You cleared the ground before it, And it took deep root and filled the land.
Treasury of Scripture

And I will send hornets before you, which shall drive out the Hivite, the Canaanite, and the Hittite, from before you.

hornets. The hornet, may be so called from the Arabic zaraa, to lay prostrate, strike down, because of the destruction occasioned by the violence of its sting. The hornet, in natural history, belongs to the species Crabro, of the genus Vespa or Wasp. It is a most voracious insect, and exceedingly strong for its size, which is generally an inch in length.

Deuteronomy 7:20 Moreover the LORD your God will send the hornet among them, until …

Joshua 24:11 And you went over Jordan, and came to Jericho: and the men of Jericho …

(28) I will send hornets.--Heb., the hornet. Comp. Joshua 24:12, where "the hornet" is said to have been sent. No doubt hornets might be so numerous as to become an intolerable plague, and induce a nation to quit its country and seek another (see Bochart, Hierozoic. iv. 13). But as we have no historical account of the kind in connection with the Canaanite races, the expression here used is scarcely to be taken literally. Probably the Egyptians are the hornets intended. It was they who, under Rameses III., broke the power of the Hittites and other nations of Palestine, while the Israelites were sojourners in the wilderness. Possibly the term was chosen in reference to the hieroglyphic sign for "king" in Egypt, which was the figure of a bee or wasp. The author of the Book of Wisdom seems, however, to have understood the expression literally (Wisdom Of Solomon 12:8-9).

Verse 28. - And I will send hornets before thee. This is scarcely to be taken literally, since no actual plague of hornets is mentioned in the historical narrative. "Hornets" here, and in Deuteronomy 7:20; Joshua 24:12, are probably plagues or troubles of any kind, divinely sent to break the power of the heathen nations, and render them an easier prey to the Israelites, when they made their invasion. Possibly, the main "hornets" were the Egyptians, who, under Rameses III., successfully invaded Palestine about the time of Israel's sojourn in the wilderness, and weakened the power of the Hittites (Khita). The Hivite, the Canaanite, and the Hittite. By a common figure of speech, a part is put {or the whole - three nations for seven. The three names seem to be taken at random, but include the two nations of most power - the Canaanites and the Hittites. And I will send hornets before thee,.... Which may be interpreted either figuratively, and so may signify the same as fear before which should fall on the Canaanites upon hearing the Israelites were coming; the stings of their consciences for their sins, terrors of mind, dreading the wrath of the God of Israel, of whom they had heard, and terrible apprehensions of ruin and destruction from the Israelites: Aben Ezra interprets it of some disease of the body, which weakens it, as the leprosy, from the signification of the word, which has some affinity with that used for the leprosy; and so the Arabic version understands it of a disease: or rather, the words are to be taken literally, for hornets, which are a sort of wasps, whose stings are very penetrating and venomous; nor is it any strange or unheard of thing for people to be drove out of their countries by small animals, as mice, flies, bees, &c. and particularly Aelianus (q) relates, that the Phaselites were drove out of their country by wasps: and Bochart (r) has shown that those people were of a Phoenician original, and inhabited the mountains of Solymi; and that this happened to them about the times of Joshua, and so may probably be the very Canaanites here mentioned, as follow: the wasps, in Aristophanes's comedy which bears that name, are introduced speaking of themselves, and say, no creature when provoked is more angry and troublesome than we are (s):

which shall drive out the Hivite, the Canaanite, and the Hittite, from before thee; which three are mentioned instead of the rest, or because they were more especially infested and distressed with the hornets, and drove out of their land by means of them.

(q) Hist. Animal. l. 11. c. 28. (r) Hierozoic. par. 2. l. 4. c. 13. col. 541. (s) Aristoph. Vespae, p. 510. 28. I will send hornets before thee, etc. (See on [22]Jos 24:12)—Some instrument of divine judgment, but variously interpreted: as hornets in a literal sense [Bochart]; as a pestilential disease [Rosenmuller]; as a terror of the Lord, an extraordinary dejection [Junius].23:20-33 It is here promised that they should be guided and kept in their way through the wilderness to the land of promise, Behold, I send an angel before thee, mine angel. The precept joined with this promise is, that they be obedient to this angel whom God would send before them. Christ is the Angel of Jehovah; this is plainly taught by St. Paul, 1Co 10:9. They should have a comfortable settlement in the land of Canaan. How reasonable are the conditions of this promise; that they should serve the only true God; not the gods of the nations, which are no gods at all. How rich are the particulars of this promise! The comfort of their food, the continuance of their health, the increase of their wealth, the prolonging their lives to old age. Thus hath godliness the promise of the life that now is. It is promised that they should subdue their enemies. Hosts of hornets made way for the hosts of Israel; such mean creatures can God use for chastising his people's enemies. In real kindness to the church, its enemies are subdued by little and little; thus we are kept on our guard, and in continual dependence on God. Corruptions are driven out of the hearts of God's people, not all at once, but by little and little. The precept with this promise is, that they should not make friendship with idolaters. Those that would keep from bad courses, must keep from bad company. It is dangerous to live in a bad neighbourhood; others' sins will be our snares. Our greatest danger is from those who would make us sin against God.
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