The Book Of
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International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
The Book Of




1. The Name

2. Life and Home of Nahum

The Four Traditions

3. Date, as Related to Assyrian History

(1) The Revolt of Shamash-shumukin

(2) The Invasion of 625 B.C.

(3) The Final Attack

(4) Probable Date


1. Contents (Nahum 1-3)

2. Style

3. Integrity


1. The Character of Yahweh

2. Nahum's Glee over the Ruin of Nineveh

3. Universality of Yahweh's Rule

4. The Messianic Outlook


I. Authorship and Date.

1. The Name:

The name Nahum (nachum; Septuagint and New Testament Naoum; Josephus, Naoumos) occurs nowhere else in the Old Testament; in the New Testament it is found in Luke 3:25. It is not uncommon in the Mishna, and it has been discovered in Phoenician inscriptions. It means "consolation," or "consoler," and is therefore, in a sense, symbolical of the message of the book, which is intended to comfort the oppressed and afflicted people of Judah.

2. Life and Home of Nahum:

Of the personal life of Nahum, practically nothing is known. In Nahum 1:1 he is called "the Elkoshite," that is, an inhabitant of Elkosh. Unfortunately, the location of this place is not known.

The Four Traditions

One tradition, which cannot be traced beyond the 16th century A.D., identifies the home of Nahum with a modern village Elkush, or Alkosh, not far from the left bank of the Tigris, two days' journey North of the site of ancient Nineveh. A second tradition, which is at least as old as the days of Jerome, the latter part of the 4th century, locates Elkosh in Galilee, at a place identified by many with the modern El-Kauze, near Ramieh. Others identify the home of the prophet with Capernaum, the name of which means "Village of Nahum." A fourth tradition, which is first found in a collection of traditions entitled "Lives of the Prophets," says "Nahum was from Elkosh, beyond Bet Gabre, of the tribe of Simeon." A place in the South is more in harmony with the interest the prophet takes in the Southern Kingdom, so that the last-mentioned tradition seems to have much in its favor, but absolute certainty is not attainable.

3. Date, as Related to Assyrian History:

The Book of Nahum centers around the fall and destruction of Nineveh. Since the capture of the city is represented as still in the future, it seems evident that the prophecies were delivered some time before 607-606 B.C., the year in which the city was destroyed. Thus the latest possible date of Nahum's activity is fixed. The earliest possible date also is indicated by internal evidence. In 3:8; the prophet speaks of the capture and destruction of No-amon, the Egyptian Thebes, as an accomplished fact. The expedition of Ashurbanipal, king of Assyria, against Egypt, which resulted in the fall of Thebes, occurred about 663 B.C. Hence, the activity of Nahum must be placed somewhere between 663 and 607.

As to the exact period between the two dates there is disagreement among scholars. One thing is made quite clear by the prophecy itself, namely, that at the time the words were spoken or written, Nineveh was passing through some grave crisis. Now we know that during the second half of the 7th century B.C. Assyria was threatened three times:

(1) The Revolt of Shamash-shumukin:

The revolt of Shamash-shumukin of Babylon against his brother, the king of Assyria, 650-648 B.C.

(2) The Invasion of 625 B.C.:

The invasion of Assyria and threatened attack upon Nineveh by some unknown foe, perhaps the Scythians, about 625 B.C.

(3) The Final Attack:

The final attack, which resulted in the fall and destruction of Nineveh in 607-606 B.C. (4) Probable Date:

The first crisis does not offer a suitable occasion for Nahum's prophecy, because at that time the city of Nineveh was not in any danger. Little is known concerning the second crisis, and it is not possible either to prove or to disprove that it gave rise to the book. On the other hand, the years immediately preceding the downfall of Nineveh offer a most suitable occasion. The struggle continued for about 2 years. The united forces of the Chaldeans and Scythians met determined resistance; at last a breach was made in the northeast corner of the wall, the city was taken, pillaged and burned. Judah had suffered much from the proud Assyrian, and it is not difficult to understand how, with the doom of the cruel oppressor imminent, a prophet-patriot might burst into shouts of exultation and triumph over the distress of the cruel foe. "If," says A.B. Davidson, "the distress of Nineveh referred to were the final one, the descriptions of the prophecy would acquire a reality and naturalness which they otherwise want, and the general characteristics of Hebrew prophecy would be more truly conserved." There seems to be good reason, therefore, for assigning Nahum's activity to a date between 610 and 607 B.C.

II. The Book.

1. Contents (Nahum 1-3):

Nahum is the prophet of Nineveh's doom. Nahum 1 (plus 2:2) contains the decree of Nineveh's destruction. Yahweh is a God of vengeance and of mercy (1:2, 3); though He may at times appear slack in punishing iniquity, He will surely punish the sinner. No one can stand before Him in the day of judgment (1:4-6). Yahweh, faithful to those who rely upon Him (1:7), will be terrible toward His enemies and toward the enemies of His people (1:8). Judah need not fear: the present enemy is doomed (1:9-14), which will mean the exaltation of Judah (1:15; 2:2). The army appointed to execute the decree is approaching, ready for battle (2:1-4). All efforts to save the city are in vain; it falls (2:5, 6), the queen and her attendants are captured (2:7), the inhabitants flee (2:8), the city is sacked and left a desolation (2:9-13). The destruction of the bloody city is imminent (3:1-3); the fate is well deserved and no one will bemoan her (3:4-7); natural strength and resources will avail nothing (3:8-11); the soldiers turn cowards and the city will be utterly cut off (3:12-18); the whole earth will rejoice over the downfall of the cruel oppressor (3:19).

2. Style:

Opinions concerning the religious significance of the Book of Nahum may differ, but from the stand-point of language and style all students assign to Nahum an exalted place among the prophet-poets of the ancient Hebrews; for all are impressed with the intense force and picturesqueness of his language and style. "Each prophet," says Kirkpatrick, "has his special gift for his particular work. Nahum bears the palm for poetic power. His short book is a Pindaric ode of triumph over the oppressor's fall." So also G.A. Smith: "His language is strong and brilliant; his rhythm rumbles and rolls, leaps and flashes, like the horsemen and chariots he describes."

3. Integrity:

Until recently no doubts were expressed concerning the integrity of the book, but within recent years scholars have, with growing unanimity, denied the originality of Nahum 1:2-2:2 (Hebrew 2:3), with the exception of 2:1, which is considered the beginning of Nahum's utterances. This change of opinion is closely bound up with the alleged discovery of distorted remnants of an old alphabetic poem in Nahum 1 (HDB, article "Nahum"; The Expositor, 1898, 207;; ZATW, 1901, 225;; Eiselen, Minor Prophets, 422;). Now, it is true that in 1:2-7 traces of alphabetic arrangement may be found, but even here the artistic arrangement is not carried through consistently; in the rest of the chapter the evidence is slight.

The artificial character of acrostic poetry is generally supposed to point to a late date. Hence, those who believe that Nahum 1 was originally an alphabetic poem consider it an exilic or post-exilic production, which was at a still later date prefixed to the genuine prophecies of Nahum. In support of this view it is pointed out further that the prophecy in Nahum 1 is vague, while the utterances in Nahum 2 and 3 are definite and to the point. Some derive support for a late date also from the language and style of the poem.

That difficulties exist in Nahum 1, that in some respects it differs from Nahum 2 and 3, even the students of the English text can see; and that the Hebrew text has suffered in transmission is very probable. On the other hand, the presence of an acrostic poem in Nahum 1 is not beyond doubt. The apparent vagueness is removed, if Nahum 1 is interpreted as a general introduction to the more specific denunciation in Nahum 2 and 3. And a detailed examination shows that in this, as in other cases, the linguistic and stylistic data are indecisive. In view of these facts it may safely be asserted that no convincing argument has been presented against the genuineness of 1:2-2:2. "Therefore," says G.A. Smith, "while it is possible that a later poem has been prefixed to the genuine prophecies of Nahum, and the first chapter supplies many provocations to belief in such a theory, this has not been proved, and the able essays of proof have much against them. The question is open."

III. Teaching.

1. The Character of Yahweh:

The utterances of Nahum center around a single theme, the destruction of Nineveh. His purpose is to point out the hand of God in the impending fall of the city, and the significance of this catastrophe for the oppressed Hebrews. As a result they contain little direct religious teaching; and what there is of it is confined very largely to the opening verses of Nahum 1. These verses emphasize the twofold manifestation of the Divine holiness, the Divine vengeance and the Divine mercy (1:2, 3). The manifestation of the one results in the destruction of the wicked (1:2), the other in the salvation of the oppressed (1:15; 2:2). Faith in Yahweh will secure the Divine favor and protection (1:7).

2. Nahum's Glee over the Ruin of Nineveh:

The fierceness of Nahum, and his glee at the thought of Nineveh's ruin, may not be in accord with the injunction, "Love thine enemy"; but it should be borne in mind that it is not personal hatred that prompts the prophet; he is stirred by a righteous indignation over the outrages committed by Assyria. He considers the sin and overthrow of Nineveh, not merely in their bearing upon the fortunes of Judah, but in their relation to the moral government of the whole world; hence, his voice gives utterance to the outraged conscience of humanity.

3. Universality of Yahweh's Rule:

While Nahum's message, in its direct teaching, appears to be less spiritual and ethical than that of his predecessors, it sets in a clear light Yahweh's sway over the whole universe, and emphasizes the duty of nations as well as of individuals to own His sway and obey His will. This attitude alone will assure permanent peace and prosperity; on the other hand, disobedience to His purpose and disregard of His rule will surely bring calamity and distress. The emphasis of these ethical principles gives to the message of Nahum a unique significance for the present day and generation. "Assyria in his hands," says Kennedy, "becomes an object-lesson to the empires of the modern world, teaching, as an eternal principle of the Divine government of the world, the absolute necessity, for a nation's continued vitality, of that righteousness, personal, civic, and national, which alone exalteth a nation."

4. The Messianic Outlook:

In a broad sense, Nahum 1:15 is of Messianic import. The downfall of Nineveh and Assyria prepares the way for the permanent redemption and exaltation of Zion: "the wicked one shall no more pass through thee."


Comms. on the Minor Prophets by Ewald, Pusey, Keil, Orelli; G.A. Smith (Expositor's Bible); Driver (New Century); B.A. Davidson, commentary on "Nahum," "Habakkuk," "Zephaniah" (Cambridge Bible); A.F. Kirkpatrick, Doctrine of the Prophets; Eiselen, Prophecy and the Prophets; F.W. Farrar, Minor Prophets ("Men of the Bible" series); Driver, Introduction to the Lit. of the Old Testament; HDB, article "Nahum"; EB, article "Nahum."

F. C. Eiselen

976. biblos -- (the inner) bark (of a papyrus plant), hence a ...
... a book. Part of Speech: Noun, Feminine Transliteration: biblos Phonetic Spelling:
(bib'-los) Short Definition: a written book, roll, or volume Definition: a ...
// - 6k

975. biblion -- a paper, book
... a paper, book. Part of Speech: Noun, Neuter Transliteration: biblion Phonetic Spelling:
(bib-lee'-on) Short Definition: a papyrus roll Definition: a papyrus roll ...
// - 6k

974. biblaridion -- a little book
... a little book. Part of Speech: Noun, Neuter Transliteration: biblaridion Phonetic
Spelling: (bib-lee-ar-id'-ee-on) Short Definition: a little papyrus roll ...
// - 6k

2777. kephalis -- a little head, a roll
... a roll, volume Definition: (lit: little head, then: the knob at the end of the wooden
core of a roll of papyrus, then) a roll, volume, division (of a book). ...
// - 6k

511. anoteros -- higher
... honorable place, previously, above Definition: higher, to a more honorable place
(at the dinner table); previously, in an earlier passage (or a book), above. ...
// - 6k

5568. psalmos -- a striking (of musical strings), a psalm
... Noun, Masculine Transliteration: psalmos Phonetic Spelling: (psal-mos') Short
Definition: a psalm Definition: a psalm, song of praise, the Hebrew book of Psalms ...
// - 7k

1121. gramma -- that which is drawn or written, ie a letter
... From grapho; a writing, ie A letter, note, epistle, book, etc.; plural learning --
bill, learning, letter, scripture, writing, written. see GREEK grapho. ...
// - 6k

4023. periecho -- to surround
... Verb Transliteration: periecho Phonetic Spelling: (per-ee-ekh'-o) Short Definition:
I contain, seize Definition: (a) I contain (of a book containing subject ...
// - 7k

5273. hupokrites -- one who answers, an actor, a hypocrite
... above-board. They should be themselves. Their lives should be like an open
book, easily read" (K. Wuest,, 50,51).]. Word Origin from ...
// - 7k

2492. Iob -- Job, a patriarch
... Proper Noun, Indeclinable Transliteration: Iob Phonetic Spelling: (ee-obe') Short
Definition: Job Definition: (Hebrew), Job, the hero of the book of that name ...
// - 5k

Strong's Hebrew
5612. sepher -- a missive, document, writing, book
... 5611, 5612. sepher. 5613 . a missive, document, writing, book. Transliteration:
sepher Phonetic Spelling: (say'-fer) Short Definition: book. ...
/hebrew/5612.htm - 6k

5609. sephar -- a book
... 5608, 5609. sephar. 5610 . a book. Transliteration: sephar Phonetic Spelling:
(sef-ar') Short Definition: books. Word ... 3). book, roll. ...
/hebrew/5609.htm - 6k

5613c. siphrah -- a book
... siphrah. 5614 . a book. Transliteration: siphrah Short Definition: book. Word
Origin from the same as sepher Definition a book NASB Word Usage book (1). ...
/hebrew/5613c.htm - 5k

1697. dabar -- speech, word
... required (1). act, advice, affair, answer, any such thing, because of, book,
business,. From dabar; a word; by implication, a matter ...
/hebrew/1697.htm - 8k

5802. Azbuq -- an Israelite
... 5801, 5802. Azbuq. 5803 . an Israelite. Transliteration: Azbuq Phonetic
Spelling: (az-book') Short Definition: Azbuk. Word Origin ...
/hebrew/5802.htm - 6k

2264. chibbuq -- a clasping, folding (of the hands)
... 2263, 2264. chibbuq. 2265 . a clasping, folding (of the hands). Transliteration:
chibbuq Phonetic Spelling: (khib-book') Short Definition: folding. ...
/hebrew/2264.htm - 6k

1229. Baqbuqyah -- "emptying of Yah," a Levite
... 1228, 1229. Baqbuqyah. 1230 . "emptying of Yah," a Levite. Transliteration:
Baqbuqyah Phonetic Spelling: (bak-book-yaw') Short Definition: Bakbukiah. ...
/hebrew/1229.htm - 6k

1231. Buqqi -- two Israelites
... 1230, 1231. Buqqi. 1232 . two Israelites. Transliteration: Buqqi Phonetic Spelling:
(book-kee') Short Definition: Bukki. Word Origin short. ...
/hebrew/1231.htm - 6k

1227. Baqbuq -- one of the Nethinim
... 1226, 1227. Baqbuq. 1228 . one of the Nethinim. Transliteration: Baqbuq
Phonetic Spelling: (bak-book') Short Definition: Bakbuk. ...
/hebrew/1227.htm - 6k

1232. Buqqiyyahu -- "proved of Yah," a Levite
... 1231, 1232. Buqqiyyahu. 1233 . "proved of Yah," a Levite. Transliteration:
Buqqiyyahu Phonetic Spelling: (book-kee-yaw') Short Definition: Bukkiah. ...
/hebrew/1232.htm - 6k


Indian Methodist Hymn-book
Indian Methodist Hymn-book. <. Indian Methodist Hymn-book Various.
Produced by Stephen Hutcheson and the Online Distributed ...
// methodist hymn-book/

The Book of Religions
The Book of Religions. <. The Book of Religions John Hayward.
Table of Contents. Title Page. PREFACE. INDEX. LUTHERANS ...
// book of religions/

Exposition on the Book of Psalms
Exposition on the Book of Psalms. <. Exposition on the Book of Psalms St.
Augustine. Schaff, Philip (Editor) Table of Contents. Title Page. ...
// on the book of psalms/

The St. Gregory Hymnal and Catholic Choir Book
The St. Gregory Hymnal and Catholic Choir Book. <. The St. Gregory Hymnal
and Catholic Choir Book Various. Produced by Don Kostuch Table of Contents. ...
// st gregory hymnal and catholic choir book/

Book of Hymns for Public and Private Devotion
Book of Hymns for Public and Private Devotion. <. Book of Hymns
for Public and Private Devotion Various. Produced by ...
// of hymns for public and private devotion/

A Little Book of Eternal Wisdom
A Little Book of Eternal Wisdom. <. A Little Book of Eternal Wisdom Henry
Suso. Table of Contents. Title Page. A Little Book of Eternal Wisdom. ...
// little book of eternal wisdom/

Luther's Little Instruction Book
Luther's Little Instruction Book. <. Luther's Little Instruction Book Martin
Luther. Smith, Robert Ernest (Translator) Table of Contents. Title Page. ...
// little instruction book/

The Wonder Book of Bible Stories
The Wonder Book of Bible Stories. <. The Wonder Book of Bible Stories
Logan Marshall. Produced by Charles Aldarondo, Thomas ...
// wonder book of bible stories/

The Sealed Book.
... The Sealed Book. "And I saw in the right hand of Him seated on the throne,
a book written within and without, sealed with seven seals. ...
/.../bliss/a brief commentary on the apocalypse/the sealed book.htm

Book 2
... Book 2. ... The present book deals only with unknown signs, the ambiguities
of language being reserved for treatment in the next book. ...
/.../augustine/on christian doctrine in four books/book 2 .htm

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The After Life

The Age of Accountability

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The Alabaster Box

the Amorites Amorite

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The Anointing

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The Apocalypse

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The Book Of

the Book Of Daniel

the Book Of Enoch

the Book Of Esther

the Book Of Jeremiah

the Book Of Judith

the Book Of Micah

the Book Of Nehemiah

the Book Of Numbers

the Book Of Proverb

the Book Of Psalms

The Book of the Secrets Of

the Book Of Zechariah

The Bride of Christ

the Brook Besor

the Brook Cherith

the Brook of The Willows

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The Canon of Scripture

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the Epistle To The Colossians

the Epistle To The Ephesians

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the Rock Etam

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the Second Book Of Esdras

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