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Hitchcock's Bible Names Dictionary

comforter; penitent

Smith's Bible Dictionary

(consolation). Nahum, called "the Elkoshite," is the seventh in order of the minor prophets. His personal history is quite unknown. The site of Elkosh, his native place, is disputed, some placing it in Galilee, others in Assyria. Those who maintain the latter view assume that the prophet's parents were carried into captivity by Tiglath-pileser and that the prophet was born at the village of Alkush, on the east bank of the Tigris, two miles north of Mosul. On the other hand, the imagery of his prophecy is such lie would be natural to an inhabitant of Palestine, (Nahum 1:4) to whom the rich pastures of Bashan the vineyards of Carmel and the blossoms of Lebanon were emblems of all that was luxuriant and fertile. The language employed in ch. (Nahum 1:15; 2:2) is appropriate to one who wrote for his countrymen in their native land. (McClintock and Strong come to the conclusion that Nahum was a native of Galilee that at the captivity of the ten tribes he escaped into Judah, and prophesied in the reign of Hezekiah, 726-698.--ED.) Prophecy of Nahum . --The date of Nahum a prophecy can be determined with as little precision as his birthplace. It is, however, certain that the prophecy was written before the final downfall of Nineveh and its capture by the Medes and Chaldeans, cir. B.C. 625. The allusions to the Assyrian power imply that it was still unbroken. ch. (Nahum 1:12; 2:8,13; 3:16-17) It is most probable that Nahum flourished in the latter half of the return of Hezekiah, and wrote his prophecy either in Jerusalem or its neighborhood. The subject of the prophecy is, in accordance with the superscription, "the burden of Nineveh," the destruction of which he predicts. As a poet Nahum occupies a high place in the first rank of Hebrew literature. His style is clear and uninvolved, though pregnant and forcible; his diction sonorous and rhythmical, the words re-echoing to the sense. Comp. (Nahum 2:4; 3:3)

ATS Bible Dictionary

Consolation, the seventh of the twelve minor prophets. The circumstances of Nahum's life are unknown, except that he was a native of Elkosh, which probably was a village in Galilee. His prophecy consists of three chapters, which form one discourse, in which he foretells the destruction of Nineveh in so powerful and vivid a manner, that he might seem to have been on the very spot. The native elegance, fire, and sublimity of his style are universally admired.

Opinions are divided as to the time in which Nahum prophesied. The best interpreters adopt Jerome's opinion, that he foretold the destruction of Nineveh in the time of Hezekiah, after the war of Sennacherib in Egypt mentioned by Berosus. Compare Isaiah 20:6 Nahum 3:8. Nahum speaks of the taking of shakeh, and of the defeat of Sennacherib, as things that were past. He implies that the tribe of Judah was still in their own country, and that they there celebrated their festivals. He notices also the captivity and dispersion of the ten tribes.

Easton's Bible Dictionary
Consolation, the seventh of the so-called minor prophets, an Elkoshite. All we know of him is recorded in the book of his prophecies. He was probably a native of Galilee, and after the deportation of the ten tribes took up his residence in Jerusalem. Others think that Elkosh was the name of a place on the east bank of the Tigris, and that Nahum dwelt there.

Nahum, Book of

Nahum prophesied, according to some, in the beginning of the reign of Ahaz (B.C. 743). Others, however, think that his prophecies are to be referred to the latter half of the reign of Hezekiah (about B.C. 709). This is the more probable opinion, internal evidences leading to that conclusion. Probably the book was written in Jerusalem (soon after B.C. 709), where he witnessed the invasion of Sennacherib and the destruction of his host (2 Kings 19:35).

The subject of this prophecy is the approaching complete and final destruction of Nineveh, the capital of the great and at that time flourishing Assyrian empire. Assur-bani-pal was at the height of his glory. Nineveh was a city of vast extent, and was then the centre of the civilzation and commerce of the world, a "bloody city all full of lies and robbery" (Nahum 3:1), for it had robbed and plundered all the neighbouring nations. It was strongly fortified on every side, bidding defiance to every enemy; yet it was to be utterly destroyed as a punishment for the great wickedness of its inhabitants.

Jonah had already uttered his message of warning, and Nahum was followed by Zephaniah, who also predicted (Zephaniah 2:4-15) the destruction of the city, predictions which were remarkably fulfilled (B.C. 625) when Nineveh was destroyed apparently by fire, and the Assyrian empire came to an end, an event which changed the face of Asia. (see NINEVEH.)

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia

na'-hum (Naoum; the King James Version Naum): An ancestor of Jesus in Luke's genealogy, the 9th before Joseph, the husband of Mary (Luke 3:25).




1. The Name

2. Life and Home of Nahum

The Four Traditions

3. Date, as Related to Assyrian History

(1) The Revolt of Shamash-shumukin

(2) The Invasion of 625 B.C.

(3) The Final Attack

(4) Probable Date


1. Contents (Nahum 1-3)

2. Style

3. Integrity


1. The Character of Yahweh

2. Nahum's Glee over the Ruin of Nineveh

3. Universality of Yahweh's Rule

4. The Messianic Outlook


I. Authorship and Date.

1. The Name:

The name Nahum (nachum; Septuagint and New Testament Naoum; Josephus, Naoumos) occurs nowhere else in the Old Testament; in the New Testament it is found in Luke 3:25. It is not uncommon in the Mishna, and it has been discovered in Phoenician inscriptions. It means "consolation," or "consoler," and is therefore, in a sense, symbolical of the message of the book, which is intended to comfort the oppressed and afflicted people of Judah.

2. Life and Home of Nahum:

Of the personal life of Nahum, practically nothing is known. In Nahum 1:1 he is called "the Elkoshite," that is, an inhabitant of Elkosh. Unfortunately, the location of this place is not known.

The Four Traditions

One tradition, which cannot be traced beyond the 16th century A.D., identifies the home of Nahum with a modern village Elkush, or Alkosh, not far from the left bank of the Tigris, two days' journey North of the site of ancient Nineveh. A second tradition, which is at least as old as the days of Jerome, the latter part of the 4th century, locates Elkosh in Galilee, at a place identified by many with the modern El-Kauze, near Ramieh. Others identify the home of the prophet with Capernaum, the name of which means "Village of Nahum." A fourth tradition, which is first found in a collection of traditions entitled "Lives of the Prophets," says "Nahum was from Elkosh, beyond Bet Gabre, of the tribe of Simeon." A place in the South is more in harmony with the interest the prophet takes in the Southern Kingdom, so that the last-mentioned tradition seems to have much in its favor, but absolute certainty is not attainable.

3. Date, as Related to Assyrian History:

The Book of Nahum centers around the fall and destruction of Nineveh. Since the capture of the city is represented as still in the future, it seems evident that the prophecies were delivered some time before 607-606 B.C., the year in which the city was destroyed. Thus the latest possible date of Nahum's activity is fixed. The earliest possible date also is indicated by internal evidence. In 3:8; the prophet speaks of the capture and destruction of No-amon, the Egyptian Thebes, as an accomplished fact. The expedition of Ashurbanipal, king of Assyria, against Egypt, which resulted in the fall of Thebes, occurred about 663 B.C. Hence, the activity of Nahum must be placed somewhere between 663 and 607.

As to the exact period between the two dates there is disagreement among scholars. One thing is made quite clear by the prophecy itself, namely, that at the time the words were spoken or written, Nineveh was passing through some grave crisis. Now we know that during the second half of the 7th century B.C. Assyria was threatened three times:

(1) The Revolt of Shamash-shumukin:

The revolt of Shamash-shumukin of Babylon against his brother, the king of Assyria, 650-648 B.C.

(2) The Invasion of 625 B.C.:

The invasion of Assyria and threatened attack upon Nineveh by some unknown foe, perhaps the Scythians, about 625 B.C.

(3) The Final Attack:

The final attack, which resulted in the fall and destruction of Nineveh in 607-606 B.C. (4) Probable Date:

The first crisis does not offer a suitable occasion for Nahum's prophecy, because at that time the city of Nineveh was not in any danger. Little is known concerning the second crisis, and it is not possible either to prove or to disprove that it gave rise to the book. On the other hand, the years immediately preceding the downfall of Nineveh offer a most suitable occasion. The struggle continued for about 2 years. The united forces of the Chaldeans and Scythians met determined resistance; at last a breach was made in the northeast corner of the wall, the city was taken, pillaged and burned. Judah had suffered much from the proud Assyrian, and it is not difficult to understand how, with the doom of the cruel oppressor imminent, a prophet-patriot might burst into shouts of exultation and triumph over the distress of the cruel foe. "If," says A.B. Davidson, "the distress of Nineveh referred to were the final one, the descriptions of the prophecy would acquire a reality and naturalness which they otherwise want, and the general characteristics of Hebrew prophecy would be more truly conserved." There seems to be good reason, therefore, for assigning Nahum's activity to a date between 610 and 607 B.C.

II. The Book.

1. Contents (Nahum 1-3):

Nahum is the prophet of Nineveh's doom. Nahum 1 (plus 2:2) contains the decree of Nineveh's destruction. Yahweh is a God of vengeance and of mercy (1:2, 3); though He may at times appear slack in punishing iniquity, He will surely punish the sinner. No one can stand before Him in the day of judgment (1:4-6). Yahweh, faithful to those who rely upon Him (1:7), will be terrible toward His enemies and toward the enemies of His people (1:8). Judah need not fear: the present enemy is doomed (1:9-14), which will mean the exaltation of Judah (1:15; 2:2). The army appointed to execute the decree is approaching, ready for battle (2:1-4). All efforts to save the city are in vain; it falls (2:5, 6), the queen and her attendants are captured (2:7), the inhabitants flee (2:8), the city is sacked and left a desolation (2:9-13). The destruction of the bloody city is imminent (3:1-3); the fate is well deserved and no one will bemoan her (3:4-7); natural strength and resources will avail nothing (3:8-11); the soldiers turn cowards and the city will be utterly cut off (3:12-18); the whole earth will rejoice over the downfall of the cruel oppressor (3:19).

2. Style:

Opinions concerning the religious significance of the Book of Nahum may differ, but from the stand-point of language and style all students assign to Nahum an exalted place among the prophet-poets of the ancient Hebrews; for all are impressed with the intense force and picturesqueness of his language and style. "Each prophet," says Kirkpatrick, "has his special gift for his particular work. Nahum bears the palm for poetic power. His short book is a Pindaric ode of triumph over the oppressor's fall." So also G.A. Smith: "His language is strong and brilliant; his rhythm rumbles and rolls, leaps and flashes, like the horsemen and chariots he describes."

3. Integrity:

Until recently no doubts were expressed concerning the integrity of the book, but within recent years scholars have, with growing unanimity, denied the originality of Nahum 1:2-2:2 (Hebrew 2:3), with the exception of 2:1, which is considered the beginning of Nahum's utterances. This change of opinion is closely bound up with the alleged discovery of distorted remnants of an old alphabetic poem in Nahum 1 (HDB, article "Nahum"; The Expositor, 1898, 207;; ZATW, 1901, 225;; Eiselen, Minor Prophets, 422;). Now, it is true that in 1:2-7 traces of alphabetic arrangement may be found, but even here the artistic arrangement is not carried through consistently; in the rest of the chapter the evidence is slight.

The artificial character of acrostic poetry is generally supposed to point to a late date. Hence, those who believe that Nahum 1 was originally an alphabetic poem consider it an exilic or post-exilic production, which was at a still later date prefixed to the genuine prophecies of Nahum. In support of this view it is pointed out further that the prophecy in Nahum 1 is vague, while the utterances in Nahum 2 and 3 are definite and to the point. Some derive support for a late date also from the language and style of the poem.

That difficulties exist in Nahum 1, that in some respects it differs from Nahum 2 and 3, even the students of the English text can see; and that the Hebrew text has suffered in transmission is very probable. On the other hand, the presence of an acrostic poem in Nahum 1 is not beyond doubt. The apparent vagueness is removed, if Nahum 1 is interpreted as a general introduction to the more specific denunciation in Nahum 2 and 3. And a detailed examination shows that in this, as in other cases, the linguistic and stylistic data are indecisive. In view of these facts it may safely be asserted that no convincing argument has been presented against the genuineness of 1:2-2:2. "Therefore," says G.A. Smith, "while it is possible that a later poem has been prefixed to the genuine prophecies of Nahum, and the first chapter supplies many provocations to belief in such a theory, this has not been proved, and the able essays of proof have much against them. The question is open."

III. Teaching.

1. The Character of Yahweh:

The utterances of Nahum center around a single theme, the destruction of Nineveh. His purpose is to point out the hand of God in the impending fall of the city, and the significance of this catastrophe for the oppressed Hebrews. As a result they contain little direct religious teaching; and what there is of it is confined very largely to the opening verses of Nahum 1. These verses emphasize the twofold manifestation of the Divine holiness, the Divine vengeance and the Divine mercy (1:2, 3). The manifestation of the one results in the destruction of the wicked (1:2), the other in the salvation of the oppressed (1:15; 2:2). Faith in Yahweh will secure the Divine favor and protection (1:7).

2. Nahum's Glee over the Ruin of Nineveh:

The fierceness of Nahum, and his glee at the thought of Nineveh's ruin, may not be in accord with the injunction, "Love thine enemy"; but it should be borne in mind that it is not personal hatred that prompts the prophet; he is stirred by a righteous indignation over the outrages committed by Assyria. He considers the sin and overthrow of Nineveh, not merely in their bearing upon the fortunes of Judah, but in their relation to the moral government of the whole world; hence, his voice gives utterance to the outraged conscience of humanity.

3. Universality of Yahweh's Rule:

While Nahum's message, in its direct teaching, appears to be less spiritual and ethical than that of his predecessors, it sets in a clear light Yahweh's sway over the whole universe, and emphasizes the duty of nations as well as of individuals to own His sway and obey His will. This attitude alone will assure permanent peace and prosperity; on the other hand, disobedience to His purpose and disregard of His rule will surely bring calamity and distress. The emphasis of these ethical principles gives to the message of Nahum a unique significance for the present day and generation. "Assyria in his hands," says Kennedy, "becomes an object-lesson to the empires of the modern world, teaching, as an eternal principle of the Divine government of the world, the absolute necessity, for a nation's continued vitality, of that righteousness, personal, civic, and national, which alone exalteth a nation."

4. The Messianic Outlook:

In a broad sense, Nahum 1:15 is of Messianic import. The downfall of Nineveh and Assyria prepares the way for the permanent redemption and exaltation of Zion: "the wicked one shall no more pass through thee."


Comms. on the Minor Prophets by Ewald, Pusey, Keil, Orelli; G.A. Smith (Expositor's Bible); Driver (New Century); B.A. Davidson, commentary on "Nahum," "Habakkuk," "Zephaniah" (Cambridge Bible); A.F. Kirkpatrick, Doctrine of the Prophets; Eiselen, Prophecy and the Prophets; F.W. Farrar, Minor Prophets ("Men of the Bible" series); Driver, Introduction to the Lit. of the Old Testament; HDB, article "Nahum"; EB, article "Nahum."

F. C. Eiselen

3486. Naoum -- Nahum, an Israelite
... Nahum, an Israelite. Part of Speech: Proper Noun, Indeclinable Transliteration:
Naoum Phonetic Spelling: (nah-oom') Short Definition: Nahum Definition: Nahum ...
// - 6k

2069. Hesli -- Hesli, an Israelite
... Speech: Proper Noun, Indeclinable Transliteration: Hesli Phonetic Spelling:
(es-lee') Short Definition: Esli Definition: Esli, son of Naggai and father of Nahum ...
// - 6k

Strong's Hebrew
5151. Nachum -- an Israelite prophet
... Nachum. 5152 . an Israelite prophet. Transliteration: Nachum Phonetic Spelling:
(nakh-oom') Short Definition: Nahum. ... prophet NASB Word Usage Nahum (1). Nahum. ...
/hebrew/5151.htm - 6k

... NAHUM. Poetically the little book of Nahum is one of the finest in the
Old Testament. ... The theological interest of Nahum is great. ...
// to the old testament/nahum.htm

Nahum's Doom of Nineveh
... LYRICS XI NAHUM'S DOOM OF NINEVEH. 1 The LORD is a jealous God and avengeth;
the LORD avengeth and is full of wrath; the LORD taketh ...
/.../select masterpieces of biblical literature/xi nahums doom of nineveh.htm

Divine Wrath and Mercy, Nahum 1, 2 &C.
... Hymns. Book 1. Hymn 1:42. Divine wrath and mercy, Nahum 1, 2 &c. 1 Adore
and tremble, for our God Is a consuming fire;* His jealous ...
/.../watts/hymns and spiritual songs/hymn 1 42 divine wrath and.htm

Of the Predictions Concerning the Salvation of the World in Christ ...
... Book XVIII. Chapter 31."Of the Predictions Concerning the Salvation of the World
in Christ, in Obadiah, Nahum, and Habakkuk. ... [1171] Nahum 1:14; ii. 1. ...
/.../augustine/city of god/chapter 31 of the predictions concerning.htm

Nahum and Habakkuk.
... A MANUAL. For the Outline Study of the Bible by Books. * * * * Chapter XXI. Nahum
and Habakkuk. Chapter XXI. Nahum and Habakkuk. Nahum. The Prophet. ...
/.../the way of salvation in the lutheran church/chapter xxi nahum and habakkuk.htm

Prefaces to the Commentaries on the Minor Prophets.
... Nahum, Micah, Zephaniah, Haggai, [5440] I first addressed to Paula and Eustochium,
her daughter, who are never weary; I next dedicated two books on Habakkuk to ...
/.../jerome/the principal works of st jerome/prefaces to the commentaries on.htm

The Avenging of the Saviour.
... There went forth a certain man from Jud??a, by name Nathan the son of Nahum; for
he was an Ishmaelite who went from land to land, and from sea to sea, and in ...
/.../unknown/the avenging of the saviour/the avenging of the saviour.htm

Jesus' Temporary Residence at Capernaum.
... See page 119. Capernaum means city of Nahum, or village of consolation.
Its modern name, "Tel-Hum," means hill of Nahum. The word ...
/.../mcgarvey/the four-fold gospel/xxix jesus temporary residence at.htm

How Zachariah Shallum, Menahem Pekahiah and Pekah Took the ...
... Israelites. How Jotham, The Son Of Uzziah Reigned Over The Tribe Of Judah;
And What Things Nahum Prophesied Against The Assyrians. ...
/.../josephus/the antiquities of the jews/chapter 11 how zachariah shallum.htm

Reference Table
... Jeremiah XLVI 3 Isaiah 190 IX A Song of Zion Redeemed Isaiah LX 1 Isaiah 49 X Isaiah:
Doom of Babylon Isaiah XIII 2 Minor Prophets 147 XI Nahum: Doom of ...
/.../various/select masterpieces of biblical literature/reference table.htm

Nahum (3 Occurrences)
... Others think that Elkosh was the name of a place on the east bank of the
Tigris, and that Nahum dwelt there. Nahum, Book of. Nahum...
/n/nahum.htm - 21k

Elkoshite (1 Occurrence)
... el'-kosh-it (ha-'elqoshi; Septuagint Elkesaiou, Elkaiseou, Elkeseou): Used with
the article "the Elkoshite" (Nahum 1:1). Probably a gentilic adjective giving ...
/e/elkoshite.htm - 8k

Nin'eveh (18 Occurrences)
... cattle!' (See RSV). Nahum 1:1 Burden of Nineveh. The Book of the Vision of
Nahum the Elkoshite. (See RSV). Nahum 2:8 And Nineveh 'is ...
/n/nin'eveh.htm - 10k

Elkosh (1 Occurrence)
... God my bow, the birth-place of Nahum the prophet (Nahum 1:1). It was probably
situated in Galilee, but nothing definite is known of it. ...
/e/elkosh.htm - 6k

Cankerworm (7 Occurrences)
... "It spoileth and fleeth away" (Nahum 3:16), or as some read the passage, "The
cankerworm putteth off [ie, the envelope of its wings], and fleeth away.". ...
/c/cankerworm.htm - 10k

Infinite (8 Occurrences)
... in'-fin-it, in-fin'-i-tud: 1. Scripture Use: The word "infinite" occurs 3 times
only in the text of the King James Version (Job 22:5 Psalm 147:5 Nahum 3:9) and ...
/i/infinite.htm - 15k

Grasshopper (12 Occurrences)
... Version has "grasshopper," the Revised Version more correctly renders the Hebrew
word (`arbeh) by "locust." This is the case also in Amos 7:1;Nahum 3:17, where ...
/g/grasshopper.htm - 12k

Whelp (4 Occurrences)
... with 'aryeh, "lion" (Genesis 49:9 Deuteronomy 33:22 Jeremiah 51:38 Nahum 2:11);
also benelabhi', literally, "sons of a lioness," translated "the whelps of the ...
/w/whelp.htm - 10k

Canker-worm (7 Occurrences)
... CANKER-WORM. kan'-ker-wurm (yeleq, (Joel 1:4; Joel 2:25 Nahum 3:15, 16)): The name
given to a larval stage of the LOCUST (which see). See also CATERPILLAR. ...
/c/canker-worm.htm - 9k

Torches (18 Occurrences)
... (Nahum 2:3, "torches, " Revised Version, "steel, " probably should be "scythes"
for war-chariots.). ... (KJV WBS YLT). Nahum 2:4 The chariots rage in the streets. ...
/t/torches.htm - 12k

When will the peace of Nahum 1:15 come? |

Summary of the Book of Nahum - Bible Survey |

Why did God judge Nineveh so harshly in the book of Nahum? |

Nahum: Dictionary and Thesaurus |

Bible ConcordanceBible DictionaryBible EncyclopediaTopical BibleBible Thesuarus
Nahum (3 Occurrences)

Luke 3:25
the son of Mattathias, the son of Amos, the son of Nahum, the son of Esli, the son of Naggai,

Daniel 9:19
Lord, hear; Lord, forgive; Lord, listen and do; don't defer, for your own sake, my God, because your city and your people are called by your name. Nahum

Nahum 1:1
An oracle about Nineveh. The book of the vision of Nahum the Elkoshite.



Nahum: Foretells the Destruction of Nineveh

Nahum: Prophesies Against the Assyrians; Declares the Majesty of God and his Care for his People

Related Terms

Elkoshite (1 Occurrence)

Nin'eveh (18 Occurrences)

Elkosh (1 Occurrence)

Cankerworm (7 Occurrences)

Infinite (8 Occurrences)

Grasshopper (12 Occurrences)

Whelp (4 Occurrences)

Canker-worm (7 Occurrences)

Torches (18 Occurrences)

Capernaum (16 Occurrences)

Locusts (33 Occurrences)

Mistress (20 Occurrences)

Locust (25 Occurrences)

Armor (53 Occurrences)

Bloody (19 Occurrences)

Arms (166 Occurrences)

Stripped (62 Occurrences)

No-amon (1 Occurrence)


Out-places (22 Occurrences)

Glitter (3 Occurrences)

Grasshoppers (11 Occurrences)

Flashes (16 Occurrences)

Fortify (6 Occurrences)

Flashing (12 Occurrences)

Endless (10 Occurrences)

Designing (22 Occurrences)

Devastated (20 Occurrences)

Melteth (12 Occurrences)

Marshal (2 Occurrences)

Prophecy (37 Occurrences)

Band (150 Occurrences)

Cubs (11 Occurrences)

Countless (11 Occurrences)

Clap (11 Occurrences)

Ashurbanipal (1 Occurrence)

Allies (13 Occurrences)

Emptied (20 Occurrences)

Swarming (19 Occurrences)

Steel (7 Occurrences)

Lightning (49 Occurrences)

Dash (30 Occurrences)

Flash (19 Occurrences)

Bulwark (29 Occurrences)

Pushing (26 Occurrences)

Doorways (26 Occurrences)

Lions (50 Occurrences)

Foes (95 Occurrences)

War-carriages (76 Occurrences)

Melted (33 Occurrences)

Robbery (18 Occurrences)

Nobles (71 Occurrences)

Discover (28 Occurrences)

Drunken (38 Occurrences)

Furniture (24 Occurrences)

Fortified (79 Occurrences)

Captain (167 Occurrences)

Fort (8 Occurrences)

Fortification (5 Occurrences)

Honourable (72 Occurrences)

Whirlwind (33 Occurrences)

Flaming (40 Occurrences)

Melt (33 Occurrences)

March (41 Occurrences)

Horseman (13 Occurrences)

Fortresses (45 Occurrences)

Nahshon (11 Occurrences)

Lubim (4 Occurrences)

Libyans (6 Occurrences)

Libya (4 Occurrences)

Gazing-stock (2 Occurrences)

Glittering (12 Occurrences)

Gazingstock (2 Occurrences)

Rampart (9 Occurrences)

Phut (7 Occurrences)

Put (13688 Occurrences)

Clay (50 Occurrences)

Wine (282 Occurrences)

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