Titus 1:5
For this cause left I you in Crete, that you should set in order the things that are wanting, and ordain elders in every city, as I had appointed you:
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(5) For this cause left I thee in Crete.—The “cause” is discussed below. Crete—over whose Christian population Titus had been placed by St. Paul—was a well-known large and populous island in the Mediterranean. It lies geographically further south than any of the European islands, and, roughly speaking, almost at an equal distance from each of the three Old World continents—Europe, Asia, Africa. We identify it with the Caphtor of the Old Testament (Deuteronomy 2:23; Jeremiah 47:4; Amos 9:7). In modern times it is known by us as Candia. Very early it was the scene of an advanced civilisation. In the Odyssey it is mentioned as possessing ninety cities; in the Iliad as many as one hundred. Metellus added it, B.C. 69, to the Roman dominion. In the days of Augustus it was united into one province with Cyrene. It abounded with Jews of wealth and influence; this we learn from the testimony of Philo and of Josephus. It probably received the gospel from some of those of “Crete” who we are expressly told were present when the Spirit was poured on the Apostles on the first Pentecost after the Resurrection (Acts 2:11). The apparently flourishing state of Christianity on the island at this time was in great measure, no doubt, owing to the residence and labours among them of the Apostle St. Paul, whose work appears to have been mainly directed to preaching the gospel and to increasing the number of the converts, which, from the wording of Titus 1:5, was evidently very great, elders (presbyters) being required in every city.

The task of organising the Church had been left for a season. We are ignorant of the circumstance which summoned the old Apostle from the scene of what seems to have been most successful labours. He left behind him one of the ablest of his disciples, Titus—a tried and well-known Christian leader of the second half of the first century—to organise the church life and to regulate the teaching of the powerful and numerous Christian community of Crete.

The Epistle addressed to Titus contains the formal credentials of his high office, stamping all his acts with the great name and authority of St. Paul; hence the careful and elaborate phraseology of the first four verses. Though addressed to one, they would have to be referred to and read often among the elders (presbyters) and deacons in the various churches. St. Paul wrote the Letter, we are told, when on his way to Nicopolis to winter; we believe, soon after his arrival there he was arrested and sent to Rome to die. The date of this Letter, then, would be A.D. 65 or 66, and was probably written from some place in Asia Minor—perhaps Ephesus.

That thou shouldest set in order the things that are wanting.—These words explain the “cause” of Titus’ appointment in Crete. The “things that are wanting” were what St. Paul meant, no doubt, to have done himself, but was prevented by being hurried away—for him the end was nigh at hand. These “things” were want of church officials, lack of church government, want of cohesion between the churches of the island—in a word, there was plenty of Christian life, but no Christian organisation as yet in Crete. It was rather a number of Christian brotherhoods than one.

And ordain elders in every city.—The number of presbyters in each town or city is not specified, but is left to Titus’ judgment. We know that in some churches there were certainly several of these presbyters (see Acts 14:23; Acts 15:22). The words “in every city” point to the wide extension of Christianity at that early period in Crete.

As I had appointed thee.—Or better, as I gave thee directions. These presbyters were to be most carefully selected, according to the special instructions Titus must remember St. Paul giving him in this important matter on some previous occasion. The more urgent of these qualifications for the presbyteral rank the Apostle now repeats for Titus’ guidance.

Titus 1:5. For this cause left I thee in Crete — Crete is one of the largest islands in the Mediterranean, being in length, from east to west, about 250 miles, in breadth about 50, and in circuit about 600; and anciently it must have been very populous, being famous for its 100 cities. It is now called Candia, from its chief city, which bears that name. In the year 1204 the Venetians took Canea, the second greatest city in Crete, and with it the whole island. That city they held till the year 1645, when the Turks conquered it, and almost entirely expelled the Venetians from Crete; and they have kept possession of it ever since. After the gospel was planted in Crete by the apostle and his assistant Titus, it took such deep root, and spread itself so widely through the island, that it has subsisted there ever since; and is at present the religion of the natives, who are in general of the Greek Church. These, on payment of a stated tribute to the Turks, are allowed the exercise of their religion without molestation. That thou shouldest set in order the things that are wanting — That is, that thou shouldest perfect what was left unfinished at my departure, or mightest settle the affairs which I had not time to settle myself; and ordain elders — Pastors or teachers, the same with bishops, Titus 1:7; in every city — Where there are churches; as I had appointed — Or commanded thee. The apostle proceeds, in the four next verses, to show what ought to be the character and qualifications of the persons fit to be ordained.1:5-9 The character and qualification of pastors, here called elders and bishops, agree with what the apostle wrote to Timothy. Being such bishops and overseers of the flock, to be examples to them, and God's stewards to take care of the affairs of his household, there is great reason that they should be blameless. What they are not to be, is plainly shown, as well as what they are to be, as servants of Christ, and able ministers of the letter and practice of the gospel. And here are described the spirit and practice becoming such as should be examples of good works.For this cause left I thee in Crete - Compare the notes, 1 Timothy 1:3. On the situation of Crete, see the Introduction, Section 2.

That thou shouldest set in order the things that are wanting - Margin, "left undone." The Greek is: "the things that are left;" that is, those which were left unfinished; referring, doubtless, to arrangements which had been commenced, but which for some cause had been left incomplete. Whether this had occurred because he had been driven away by persecution, or called away by important duties demanding his attention elsewhere, cannot now be determined. The word rendered "set in order", ἐπιδιορθώσῃ epidiorthōsē, occurs nowhere else in the New Testament. It means, properly, "to make straight upon, and then to put further to rights, to arrange further." Robinson, Lexicon - There were things left unfinished which he was to complete. One of these things, and perhaps the principal, was to appoint elders in the various cities where the gospel had been preached.

And ordain - The word "ordain" has now acquired a technical signification which it cannot be shown that it has in the New Testament. It means, in common usage, to "invest with a ministerial function or sacerdotal power; to introduce, and establish, and settle in the pastoral office with the customary forms and solemnities" (Webster); and it may be added, with the idea always connected with it, of the imposition of hands. But the word used here does not necessarily convey this meaning, or imply that Titus was to go through what would now be called an ordination service. It means to set, place, or constitute; then, to set over anything, as a steward or other officer (see Matthew 24:45; Luke 12:42; Acts 6:3), though without reference to any particular mode of investment with an office; see the word, "ordain," explained in the notes at Acts 1:22; Acts 14:23. Titus was to appoint or set them over the churches, though with what ceremony is now unknown. There is no reason to suppose that he did this except as the result of the choice of the people; compare the notes at Acts 6:3.

Elders - Greek: Presbyters; see the word explained in the notes at Acts 14:23. These "elders," or "Presbyters," were also called "bishops" (compare the notes at 1 Timothy 3:1), for Paul immediately, in describing their qualifications, calls them bishops: - "ordain elders in every city - if any be blameless - for a bishop must be blameless," etc. If the elders and bishops in the times of the apostles were of different ranks, this direction would be wholly unmeaningful. It would be the same as if the following direction were given to one who was authorized to appoint officers over an army: "Appoint captains over each company, who shall be of good character, and acquainted with military tactics, for a Brigadier General must be of good character, and acquainted with the rules of war." - That the same rank is denoted also by the terms Presbyter and Bishop here, is further apparent because the qualifications which Paul states as requisite for the "bishop" are not those which pertain to a prelate or a diocesan bishop, but to one who was a pastor of a church, or an evangelist. It is clear, from Titus 1:7, that those whom Titus was to appoint were "bishops," and yet it is absurd to suppose that the apostle meant prelatical bishops, for no one can believe that such bishops were to be appointed in "every city" of the island. According to all modern notions of Episcopacy, one such bishop would have been enough for such an island as Crete, and indeed it has been not infrequently maintained that Titus himself was in fact the Bishop of that Diocese. But if these were not prelates who were to be ordained by Titus, then it is clear that the term "bishop" in the New Testament is given to the Presbyters or elders; that is, to all ministers of the gospel. That usage should never have been departed from.

In every city - Crete was anciently celebrated for the number of its cities. In one passage Homer ascribes to the island 100 cities (Iliad ii. 649), in another, 90 cities (Odyssey xix. 174). It may be presumed that many of these cities were towns of not very considerable size, and yet it would seem probable that each one was large enough to have a church, and to maintain the gospel. Paul, doubtless, expected that Titus would travel over the whole island, and endeavor to introduce the gospel in every important place.

As I had appointed thee - As I commanded thee, or gave thee direction - διεταξάμην dietaxamēn - This is a different word from the one used in the former part of the verse - and rendered "ordain" - καθίστημι kathistēmi. It does not mean that Titus was to ordain elders in the same manner as Paul had ordained him, but that he was to set them over the cities as he had directed him to do. He had, doubtless, given him oral instructions, when he left him, as to the way in which it was to be done.

5. I left thee—"I left thee behind" [Alford] when I left the island: not implying permanence of commission (compare 1Ti 1:3).

in Crete—now Candia.

set in order—rather as Greek, "that thou mightest follow up (the work begun by me), setting right the things that are wanting," which I was unable to complete by reason of the shortness of my stay in Crete. Christianity, doubtless, had long existed in Crete: there were some Cretans among those who heard Peter's preaching on Pentecost (Ac 2:11). The number of Jews in Crete was large (Tit 1:10), and it is likely that those scattered in the persecution of Stephen (Ac 11:19) preached to them, as they did to the Jews of Cyprus, &c. Paul also was there on his voyage to Rome (Ac 27:7-12). By all these instrumentalities the Gospel was sure to reach Crete. But until Paul's later visit, after his first imprisonment at Rome, the Cretan Christians were without Church organization. This Paul began, and had commissioned (before leaving Crete) Titus to go on with, and now reminds him of that commission.

ordain—rather, "appoint," "constitute."

in every city—"from city to city."

as I … appointed thee—that is, as I directed thee; prescribing as well the act of constituting elders, as also the manner of doing so, which latter includes the qualifications required in a presbyter presently stated. Those called "elders" here are called "bishops" in Tit 1:7. Elder is the term of dignity in relation to the college of presbyters; bishop points to the duties of his office in relation to the flock. From the unsound state of the Cretan Christians described here, we see the danger of the want of Church government. The appointment of presbyters was designed to check idle talk and speculation, by setting forth the "faithful word."

In Crete; in Candia, as it is now called: see the Argument to this Epistle.

Set in order the things that are wanting; set to rights things which I left undone, being hastened away to other places.

And ordain elders in every city, as I had appointed thee: in this island we are told there were a hundred cities, in how many of them the gospel had taken place we are not told. Paul left Titus in this place for this end, to regulate the churches, and constitute officers for the holy ministry, to execute the office of an evangelist; doing what the apostle should have done there could he have stayed. For this cause left I thee in Crete,.... Not in his voyage to Rome, Acts 27:7 but rather when he came from Macedonia into Greece, Acts 20:2. Crete is an island in the Mediterranean sea, now called Candy; See Gill on Acts 2:11. Here Paul preached the Gospel to the conversion of many; but not having time to finish what he begun, left Titus here for that purpose:

that thou shouldest set in order the things that are wanting; that is, form the young converts into Gospel order, into a regular Gospel church state; settle a proper discipline among them; instruct them more largely into the doctrines of the Gospel; and correct their manners, and direct them in everything, both with respect to faith and practice:

and ordain elders in every city: for this island, though it was not above fifty miles in breadth, and two hundred and seventy in length, yet had an hundred cities in it (d); and it seems as if the Gospel had been preached in most, if not all of them, and churches were formed: however, in as many of them as there were churches, the apostle would have Titus see to it, and take care that they had proper officers fixed in them, particularly elders, pastors, or overseers, to preach the Gospel, and administer the ordinances to them, to watch over them in the Lord, and put the laws of Christ's house in execution, and keep up a strict discipline in it, according to the will of God. What Titus was to do in this affair, was to put the churches upon looking out, and choosing from among themselves proper persons for such service, and to direct, assist, and preside at the elections and ordinations of them: for we are not to suppose, that the ordination of elders was the sole act of Titus, or alone resided in him; but in like manner as Paul and Barnabas ordained elders in every church, by the suffrages of the people, signified by the stretching out of their hands; in which they directed, presided, and also assisted in prayer, with fasting, Acts 14:23

as I had appointed thee; when he left him at Crete; when he gave him orders and instructions, both with respect to the persons, and their qualifications, whom he would have ordained, and with respect to the manner in which it should be done: the former of these he repeats in the following verses. From all which it clearly appears, that there were churches in Crete, and pastors placed over those churches; very probably the Cretes, who were at Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost, Acts 2:11, and heard Peter's sermon, and were converted by him, some of them returning to their own country, might first bring the Gospel to this island, and lay the foundation of a Gospel church state here. It seems by what is said in this text, that the Apostle Paul was in this island himself, and preached the Gospel, and after him Titus, whom he left behind; and if any credit is to be given to the subscription of this epistle, he was the first bishop of the church in it: and it is certain, that in the "second" century there were churches in this island, particularly at Gortyna, and other places, to whom Dionysius (e), bishop of Corinth, wrote letters, in which he greatly extols Philip their bishop; and in another letter of his to the Gnossians, or to the church at Gnossus, another city in Crete, he makes mention of Pinytus as their bishop, and whom he commends for his orthodox faith, great knowledge of divine things, and care of his flock; and both these lived in the times of the Emperors Antoninus Verus and Commodus (f); which churches, no doubt, continued in the "third" century, since in the "fourth" we read of bishops sent from Crete to the synod at Sardica: and in the "fifth" century, a bishop of Gortyna in Crete is reckoned among the bishops in the council of Chalcedon: and in the "sixth" century, Theodorus, bishop of the same place, subscribed in the fifth synod at Constantinople: and in the "seventh" century, Paul archbishop of Crete, Basil bishop of Gortyna, with several other bishops of churches in the island, were present at the sixth synod at Constantinople: and in the "eighth" century, as appears from the acts of the Nicene synod, Helias was bishop of Crete, Anastasius bishop of Gnossus, a city in it, and Melito, Leontins, and Galatas, bishops of other places in the same island: and in the "ninth" century, a bishop of Gortyna, in defence of the cause of Christ, became a martyr (g); so far churches, and bishops, bearing the Christian name, are to be traced in this island.

(d) Plin. l. 4. c. 12. Mela, l. 2. c. 14. Solin, c. 16. (e) Apud Euseb. Eccl. Hist. l. 3. c. 24. (f) Sophronius in Hieron. Catalog. Script. Eccl. c. 38. 40. (g) Hist. Eccl. Magdeburg. cent. 4. c. 2. p. 5. c. 9. p. 425. cent. 5. c. 2. p. 6. cent. 6. c. 2. p. 6. cent. 7. c. 2. p. 4. c. 10. p. 255. cent. 8. c. 2. p. 6. cent. 9. c. 2. p. 4.

{6} For this cause left I thee in Crete, that thou shouldest set in order the things that are wanting, and ordain elders in every city, as I had appointed thee:

(6) The first admonition: to ordain elders in every church.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
Titus 1:5. The epistle begins by the apostle reminding Titus of the commission already given him by word of mouth.

τούτου χάριν ἀπέλιπόν σε ἐν Κρήτῃ] Regarding the time when this happened, see the Introduction; as to the reading, see the critical remarks.

ἵνα τὰ λείποντα ἐπιδιορθώσῃς] τὰ λείποντα: quae ego per temporis brevitatem non potui coram expedire (Bengel).

ἐπιδιορθώσῃς] The preposition ἐπί does not serve here to strengthen the meaning (= omni cura corrigere, Wahl), but conveys the notion of something additional: “still further bring into order.”

τὰ λείποντα] means “that which is wanting,” i.e. here that which was wanting for the complete organization of the church. The apostle himself had already done something, but in many respects the churches were not organized as they ought to be; presbyters had still to be appointed to gather single believers into a firmly-established church. This Titus was now to do, as the next words say: ΚΑῚ ΚΑΤΑΣΤΉΣῌς ΚΑΤᾺ ΠΌΛΙΝ ΠΡΕΣΒΥΤΈΡΟΥς.

ΚΑΤᾺ ΠΌΛΙΝ
] For the expression, comp. Luke 8:1; Acts 15:21; Acts 20:23; and for the fact, Acts 14:23. Baur wrongly assumes that each ΠΌΛΙς was to receive only one presbyter, see Meyer on Acts 14:23.

ὡς ἐγώ σοι διεταξάμην] “relates both to the fact and to the manner of it, the latter being set forth more fully in mentioning the qualities of those to be chosen” (de Wette). Hofmann, without sufficient ground, wishes ΠΡΣΒΥΤΈΡΟΥς to be regarded not as the object proper, but as something predicated of the object, which object is found by the words ΕἼ ΤΙς Κ.Τ.Λ. This view is refuted by the addition of ΚΑΤᾺ ΠΌΛΙΝ.Titus 1:5-9. As I left you in Crete to carry out completely the arrangements for the organisation of the Church there, which I set before you in detail, let me remind you of the necessary qualifications of presbyters [since the presbyter is the basal element in the Church Society].5–9. Commission of Titus, generally, and in regard to Bishops or Presbyters

5. The salutation, which has laid down emphatically the principle of apostolical authority, is followed at once by an uncompromising assertion of the authority delegated to Titus, and its chief exercise by him in ordination. Notice how this is strengthened (1) by the right reading, I left thee behind, (2) by the compound that thou mightest further set in order, (3) by the using of the pronoun ego, as I myself gave thee chargeI began it all; let none thwart you in continuing my work as my delegate.’

As to the occasion of St Paul’s visit to Crete here referred to, see Introduction, pp. 73–75.

the things that are wanting] Jerome paraphrases ‘rudimenta nascentis Ecclesiae.’ Cf. ‘dispensatio erga credentes ita ut et ad consensum instituerentur per ordinationes ecclesiasticas.’ Theod. Mops. Lat.

ordain elders in every city] On the word ‘elders’ see notes on 1 Timothy 3:1; ‘in every city,’ i.e. from town to town, in no way implying any direction as to there being one or more than one. R.V. alters ‘ordain’ into ‘appoint’ as the simple meaning of the Greek, without the modern special sense now attaching to ordain. The meaning of ‘ordain’ in English of A.V. date is seen in 1 Kings 12:32; Psalm 7:13; Daniel 2:24, where the O.T. revisers give respectively ‘ordain,’ ‘prepare,’ ‘appoint.’ Cf. Hakluyt, Voyages, ii. 455, ‘He ordeined a boat made of one tree’ (Bible Word-Book, p. 440).

as I had appointed thee] Is misleading, being open to the interpretation ‘do you appoint others as I have appointed you,’ whereas the sense intended was of course, as in the similar use of the same word Acts 7:44, ‘as he had appointed speaking unto Moses,’ i.e. ‘appointed for thee to do.’ Cf. also Acts 24:23, A.V. ‘he commanded a centurion,’ R.V. ‘he gave order to the centurion.’ In N.T. usage there is little if anything of the sense wished for by Bp Ellicott (after the Vulg. ‘disposui’), ‘not only bid but taught him how to do it.’

The verbs ‘further set in order,’ and ‘gave thee charge,’ are in the middle voice, because the ‘ordering’ and ‘arranging’ is not literal and primary, as of chairs and tables, but secondary and transferred to mental thought, to moral action. Winer distinguishes these meanings as ‘physical’ and ‘metaphysical,’ Gr. Pt. iii. § 38, 2, b. Cf. note on 1 Timothy 1:7.Titus 1:5. Τούτου χάριν, for this cause) The divisions of the epistle are four.

  I.  The Inscription, Titus 1:1-2.

  II.  The Instructions given to Titus, to this effect:

1)  Ordain good presbyters, Titus 1:5-6.

2)  Such are needful among the wicked Cretans, Titus 1:10-11.

3)  Rebuke them sharply and admonish them, Titus 1:13-14.

4)  Teach old men and women, and young men, showing thyself an example of good works, Titus 2:1-2; and also teach servants, Titus 2:9-10; where an excellent motive from the very marrow of the Gospel is introduced, Titus 2:11-15.

5)  Admonish them to obey magistrates, and to show gentleness to all men; wherein the same motive is repeated, Titus 3:1-7.

6)  Good works should be performed, foolish questions avoided; one that is a heretic should without hesitation be left to himself, Titus 3:8-11.

  III.  An Invitation to Titus to come to Nicopolis; and an admonition to attend to some necessary directions, Titus 3:12-13.

  IV.  Conclusion, Titus 3:15.

[2]—ΤᾺ ΛΕΊΠΟΝΤΑ, the things that are wanting) the things which I could not accomplish when I was there, in consequence of the shortness of my time.—ἐπιδιορθώσῃ) Paul ΔΙΟΡΘΏΣΑΤΟ (set in order), Titus ἘΠΙΔΙΟΡΘΟῦΤΑΙ (completes the setting in order).—ὡς, as) Paul had stated the qualifications which the presbyters ought to have; he now repeats them.

[2] Ἐν Κρήτῃ, in Crete) which is now called Candia, a populous island.—V.g.Verse 5. - Were for are, A.V.; appoint for ordain, A.V.; gave thee charge for had appointed thee, A.V. Left I thee in Crete. We have no account of St. Paul's visit to Crete, nor do we know how the gospel was first brought to Crete. It may have been by some of those "Cretes" who were at Jerusalem on the Day of Pentecost, and heard the apostles speak in their tongue "the wonderful works of God" (Acts 2:11), or by other Christian Jews visiting the Jewish community in Crete (note to ver. 1). If St. Paul was returning from Spain, and travelling by ship eastward, Crete would be on his way. The importance of the island, with which he made some acquaintance on his voyage from Caesarea to Rome (Acts 27:7, 8), and the large Jewish colony there, may naturally have inclined him to visit it. How long he remained there we do not know, but he did not stay long enough to organize the Church there completely. There were still things "wanting" (τὰ λείποντα), as it follows. This mention of Crete is an important chronological mark. The order of St. Paul's progress, as gathered from the three pastoral Epistles, is very distinct - Crete, Miletus, Troas, Macedonia, Corinth, Nicopolis, Rome. He dropped Titus at Crete, and left Timothy behind at Ephesus. The Epistle to Titus, therefore, is the first of the three pastoral Epistles, and this is borne out by another circumstance. When he wrote to Titus he had not made up his mind whether he should send Artemas or Tychicus to take his place in Crete when he rejoined the apostle (Titus 3:12). But when he wrote 2 Timothy he had sent Tychicus to Ephesus to replace Timothy (2 Timothy 4:12), and Titus had already joined him, and been sent on by him to Dalmatia, presumably from Nicopolis. Set in order (ἐπιδιορθώσῃ); only here in the New Testament, and not found in the LXX. nor in classical Greek, except as a technical word in the art of rhetoric. But διορθόω is very common in classical Greek (see ἐπανόρθωσις, 2 Timothy 3:16). The force of ἐπί in the compound here is "further," or "in addition." St. Paul had set the Church in order up to a certain point. But there were still certain things wanting, τὰ λείποντα (see Titus 3:13; Luke 18:22); and these Titus was to supply and give the finishing touch to. Appoint (καταστήσῃς). This is a better rendering than the A.V. "ordain," because it is a general word for "to appoint, make." Probably the A.V. "ordain" was not intended to be taken in a strictly technical sense, but is used as in Hebrews 5:1; Hebrews 8:3. The technical word was usually "to order." "The Ordering of Deacons," or "of Priests," is the title of the service in the Book of Common Prayer. "Meet to be ordered," "shall surcease from ordering," occur repeatedly in the rubrics, Elders (πρεσβυτέρους); i.e. presbyters, or priests (comp. Acts 14:23; and see Acts 11:30, note). In every city (κατὰ πόλιν); city by city. The phrase has a peculiar significance in Crete, which used to be famous for its hundred cities. It shows, too, that Christianity was widely spread among the cities of the island. The germ of the episcopal office, one bishop and many presbyters, is here very conspicuous. In Crete

Crete is one of the largest islands in the Mediterranean. By the mythological writers it was called Aeria, Doliche, Idaea, Telchinia. According to tradition, Minos first gave laws to the Cretans, conquered the Aegean pirates, and established a navy. After the Trojan war the principal cities of the island formed themselves into several republics, mostly independent. The chief cities were Cnossus, Cydonia, Gortyna, and Lyctus. Crete was annexed to the Romans Empire b.c. 67. About Paul's visiting the island we have no information whatever beyond the hints in this Epistle. There is no absolute proof that Paul was ever there before the voyage to Rome. Although on that voyage some time appears to have been spent at Crete, there is no notice of Paul having received any greeting from the members of the Christian churches there. According to this Epistle, Paul and Titus had worked there together. Paul went away, and left Titus to organize the churches founded by himself. He sent this letter by Zenas and Apollos (Titus 3:13), and announced in it the coming of Artemas or of Tychicus. On their arrival Titus was to join Paul at Nicopolis, where Paul was proposing to winter.

Shouldst set in order (ἐπιδιορθώσῃ)

N.T.o. Lit. to set straight besides or farther; that is, should arrange what remained to be set in order after Paul's departure. Used by medical writers of setting broken limbs or straightening crooked ones. Διόρθωσις reformation, Hebrews 9:10 : διόρθωμα correction, Acts 24:3.

Ordain elders (καταστήσῃς πρεσβυτέρους)

Καθιστάναι appoint or constitute. In Paul only Romans 5:19. For the sense here comp. Matthew 24:45, Matthew 24:47; Luke 12:14; Acts 6:3. The meaning of the injunction is, that Titus should appoint, out of the number of elderly men of approved Christian reputation, certain ones to be overseers (ἐπίσκοποι) of the churches in the several cities. The eldership was not a distinct church office. See on 1 Timothy 5:1.

I had appointed (διεταξάμην)

Better, I gave thee charge. Mostly in Luke and Acts.

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