People's New Testament
For the law having a shadow of good things to come, and not the very image of the things, can never with those sacrifices which they offered year by year continually make the comers thereunto perfect.
10:1 Christ's Sacrifice Offered Once for All
SUMMARY OF HEBREWS 10:
The Imperfection of the Sacrifices of the Law. In Such Sacrifices God Had No Pleasure. Christ's Sacrifice Offered Once for All. The Holiest of All Opened by the Blood of Christ. Exhortation to Faithful Perseverance. If Christ Is Rejected, No More Sacrifice.
The Law. The law of Moses.
Having a shadow of the good things to come. It did not contain the good things, but only the shadow of them. They were typified in the law but exist in the gospel.
Can never... make the comers thereunto perfect. That is, free them from sin, and thus perfect their consciences.
For then would they not have ceased to be offered? because that the worshippers once purged should have had no more conscience of sins.
10:2 For then would they not have ceased to be offered? If the legal sacrifices secured complete forgiveness, they would not have been offered over and over.
Should have had no more conscience of sins. The fact that it was done showed that there was still a consciousness of sin.
But in those sacrifices there is a remembrance again made of sins every year.
10:3 But in those sacrifices there is a remembrance again made of sins every year. Besides the daily sacrifices, and the individual sacrifices, there was repeated every year the atonement for the whole nation. There were daily, monthly, and yearly sacrifices.
For it is not possible that the blood of bulls and of goats should take away sins.
10:4 For it is not possible that the blood of bulls and of goats should take away sins. The blood of bulls and goats, the animals offered in the sacrifices, had no power to cleanse from sin. In their essence the only real efficacy of the bloody sacrifices of the altar was the moral effect upon the people and the fact that they pointed forward to the Lamb of God.
Wherefore when he cometh into the world, he saith, Sacrifice and offering thou wouldest not, but a body hast thou prepared me:
10:5 When he cometh into the world, he saith. Since the Levitical sacrifices could not cleanse from sin, Christ, the Redeemer from sin, said when he entered upon his mission, quoting from Ps 40:6-8,
Sacrifice and offering thou wouldest not. Ps 40:6. Since the sacrifices and offerings of the Jewish altar did not meet God's will.
But a body hast thou prepared me for an offering. This is Christ's offering.
In burnt offerings and sacrifices for sin thou hast had no pleasure.
10:6 In burnt offerings. Quoted from Ps 40:6. Burnt offerings were wholly consumed. See Le 1:17.
And sacrifices for sin. See Le 4:1-5:13. They were so called because of their special reference to sin.
Thou hast no pleasure. In neither burnt offerings nor sacrifices had God pleasure; that is, they did not fully meet his will.
Then said I, Lo, I come (in the volume of the book it is written of me,) to do thy will, O God.
10:7 Then said I, Lo, I come... to do thy will, O God. The Psalmist (Ps 40:7,8) represents Christ, who comes simply to do the will of God, completely surrendered to his will.
In the volume of the book it is written of me. In the roll of the law it is written of me; that is, there I am predicted.
Above when he said, Sacrifice and offering and burnt offerings and offering for sin thou wouldest not, neither hadst pleasure therein; which are offered by the law;
Then said he, Lo, I come to do thy will, O God. He taketh away the first, that he may establish the second.
10:9 Then said he. He said, first, The Levitical sacrifices do not please God (Heb 10:8); then he said, second,
Lo, I come to do thy will, O God. This is pleasing to God. Hence he
taketh away the first, the old covenant with its sacrifices.
That he may establish the second, the new covenant inaugurated by complete submission to the will of God.
By the which will we are sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all.
10:10 By which will we are sanctified. By this complete submission our sins are removed from us and we are made holy. The meaning of sanctified here is remission of sin.
Through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ. In Christ's surrender his body was offered on the cross,
once for all for sin, and by that offering our sins are remitted.
And every priest standeth daily ministering and offering oftentimes the same sacrifices, which can never take away sins:
10:11 And every priest standeth daily ministering. Christ offered his sacrifice once for all (Heb 10:10), but Levitical priests offer daily their sacrifices which can never take way sins.
But this man, after he had offered one sacrifice for sins for ever, sat down on the right hand of God;
10:12 But this man. Jesus,
after he had offered one sacrifice, himself on the cross,
sat down, which implies that he needeth to make no more offering.
On the right hand of God. Honored forever.
From henceforth expecting till his enemies be made his footstool.
10:13 From henceforth expecting till his enemies be made his footstool. Waiting until every enemy is conquered. See PNT Heb 1:13.
For by one offering he hath perfected for ever them that are sanctified.
10:14 For by one offering, that of the cross,
he hath perfected for ever. Given them perfect consciences free from a sense of the guilt of sin.
Them that are sanctified. All Christ's brethren are sanctified (Heb 2:11); so are all whose sins are forgiven (Heb 10:10,29); all saints are sanctified (1Co 1:2); hence all Christians are called the sanctified.
Whereof the Holy Ghost also is a witness to us: for after that he had said before,
10:15 Whereof the Holy Ghost is also a witness to us. He testifies that Christ perfects the sanctified.
He had said before. See, too, that the Holy Spirit bears witness in words. He spoke in Jeremiah the prophet (Jer 31:33,34).
This is the covenant that I will make with them after those days, saith the Lord, I will put my laws into their hearts, and in their minds will I write them;
10:16 This is the covenant, etc. See Jer 31:33,34; also see PNT Heb 8:10.
And their sins and iniquities will I remember no more.
10:17 And their sins and iniquities will I remember no more. See Jer 31:34. It is thus God perfects the sanctified, by forgiving all their sins. Also see PNT Heb 10:14.
Now where remission of these is, there is no more offering for sin.
10:18 Where remission of these is, there is no more offering for sin. Hence, since there is complete remission, no more offering for sin is required.
Having therefore, brethren, boldness to enter into the holiest by the blood of Jesus,
10:19 Having therefore, brethren, boldness into the holiest. It has now been shown that Christ has, as our high priest, opened the way into the holiest of all, the heavens, for us. Hence we may follow with boldness. We have the assurance of heaven.
By a new and living way, which he hath consecrated for us, through the veil, that is to say, his flesh;
10:20 By a new and living way. Christ is the way (Joh 14:6). The way for us is not only pointed out but opened through his flesh.
Which he hath consecrated for us, through the veil, that is to say, his flesh. His rent body poured out the redeeming blood, and thus the veil before the holiest of all was rent open that we might enter in. For us the rent veil is the body of Christ.
And having an high priest over the house of God;
10:21 And having an high priest. Our high priest hath opened the way by rending the veil. He is priest
over the House of God, the church on earth, and our high priest in the Holiest of all above.
Let us draw near with a true heart in full assurance of faith, having our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience, and our bodies washed with pure water.
10:22 Let us draw near, the altar of incense, the open veil, and to God who dwelleth in the Holiest of all.
With a true heart. Sincere and pure heart.
In full assurance of faith. Filled with trust in our high priest.
Having our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience. By the blood of Christ through which we realize that our sins are forgiven.
And our bodies washed with pure water. See Titus 3:5 Ac 22:16. Alford, Prof. Stuart, Delitzch, Moll, Meyer and most commentators refer the passage to baptism. That is undoubtedly the thought of the sacred writer; the heart and spirit are cleansed by the blood of Christ and the body sanctified by washing in pure water, effecting the purification of the whole man.
Let us hold fast the profession of our faith without wavering; (for he is faithful that promised;)
10:23 Let us hold fast the profession of our faith without wavering. The thought is, cling to the faith professed and the hope in the soul without wavering.
And let us consider one another to provoke unto love and to good works:
10:24 Let us consider one another to provoke unto love and to good works. Let each care for others and exhort others to love and to do good works both by word and example.
Not forsaking the assembling of ourselves together, as the manner of some is; but exhorting one another: and so much the more, as ye see the day approaching.
10:25 Not forsaking the assembling of ourselves. In times of persecution there was a great temptation to stay away from the church assemblies, and some had fallen into dangerous neglect.
As ye see the day approaching. There were signs that the Hebrew Christians could see that the day was near at hand. They probably thought that Christ would come in person at that day. He did come in judgment on the Jewish nation. As that awful time of trial seemed near at hand they should be zealous in exhorting each other. Macknight, Stuart, Milligan, Meyer and many others refer day to the destruction of the Jewish nation.
For if we sin wilfully after that we have received the knowledge of the truth, there remaineth no more sacrifice for sins,
10:26 For if we sin wilfully after that we have received the knowledge of the truth. Deliberately trample under foot Christ's will; apostasize from the faith in life.
There remaineth no more sacrifice for sins. We have, in that case, rejected Christ, the only sacrifice for sin.
But a certain fearful looking for of judgment and fiery indignation, which shall devour the adversaries.
10:27 But. There remains instead a
Certain fearful looking for of judgment, and fiery judgment. Cut off from hope of salvation by rejecting Christ, one has only judgment and punishment to look forward to.
He that despised Moses' law died without mercy under two or three witnesses:
10:28 He that despised Moses' law. He who wilfully rebelled against the law of Moses had no remission.
Died without mercy under two or three witnesses. When proved guilty by two or three witnesses his fate was death. See Nu 15:30-36 De 13:6-10. There was mercy for the ignorant, the mistaken, those overtaken (Ga 6:1), but not for the deliberate despiser.
Of how much sorer punishment, suppose ye, shall he be thought worthy, who hath trodden under foot the Son of God, and hath counted the blood of the covenant, wherewith he was sanctified, an unholy thing, and hath done despite unto the Spirit of grace?
10:29 Of how much sorer punishment. Where much is given much is required. How great the sin of the apostate!
Who hath trodden under foot the Son of God. Despised him instead of Moses.
And hath counted the blood of the covenant. the blood of Christ, the blood by which he was sanctified.
Wherewith he was sanctified. Cleansed from the guilt of sin,
An unholy thing. Treated this blood as if it was unholy.
And hath done despite unto the Spirit of grace. Rejected all the work, the words, the preaching, the pleadings of the Holy Spirit.
For we know him that hath said, Vengeance belongeth unto me, I will recompense, saith the Lord. And again, The Lord shall judge his people.
10:30 We know him that hath said. We know what God hath said. He promises vengeance and judgment upon sinners.
Vengeance belongeth unto me. See De 32:35.
The Lord shall judge his people. See De 32:36.
It is a fearful thing to fall into the hands of the living God.
10:31 It is a fearful thing to fall into the hands of the living God. A fearful thing for the sinner who has despised God's mercy; for the apostate who has trampled it under foot.
But call to remembrance the former days, in which, after ye were illuminated, ye endured a great fight of afflictions;
10:32 Call to remembrance the former days. Some former day of persecution, after they
were illuminated, were enlightened (Revised Version) by the gospel. Possibly the great persecution at the death of Stephen (Ac 8:1) is referred to, or that of Ac 12:1-3.
Partly, whilst ye were made a gazingstock both by reproaches and afflictions; and partly, whilst ye became companions of them that were so used.
10:33 Partly, whilst ye were made a gazingstock both by reproaches and afflictions. Looked upon with reproach, abused and afflicted personally.
And partly, whilst ye became companions of them that were so used. Sharing the suffering of those who were persecuted.
For ye had compassion of me in my bonds, and took joyfully the spoiling of your goods, knowing in yourselves that ye have in heaven a better and an enduring substance.
10:34 For ye had compassion of me in my bonds. For ye had compassion on them in bonds (Revised Version). Actively showed their sympathy.
And took joyfully the spoiling of your goods. The losses made necessary by becoming Christians.
Knowing in yourselves that ye have in heaven a better and an enduring substance. Knowing that if they lost on earth they would gain in heaven.
Cast not away therefore your confidence, which hath great recompence of reward.
10:35 Cast not away therefore your confidence. Inasmuch as formerly ye endured so well, be faithful now. Some great period of trial was evidently being endured.
For ye have need of patience, that, after ye have done the will of God, ye might receive the promise.
10:36 For ye have need of patience. Patience is an essential element of patient endurance. See Ro 5:3-5.
For yet a little while, and he that shall come will come, and will not tarry.
10:37 For yet a little while. Quoted from Hab 2:3 and applied to Christ.
And he that shall come will come, and will not tarry. Soon Christ will come, either in person or by his providence, in such a way as to bring relief. He did thus come very soon after and ended Jewish persecution by the overthrow of the nation. This is a frequent sense of oft-repeated allusions to the coming of the Lord found both in the Old Testament and New Testament. See Hab 2:5-20. The passage there quoted refers to the destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar, and is here applied to the destruction by the Romans.
Now the just shall live by faith: but if any man draw back, my soul shall have no pleasure in him.
10:38 Now the just shall live by faith. See Hab 2:4. Those who continued to walk in the full assurance of faith shall live by faith (Heb 10:22).
But if any man draw back, my soul shall have no pleasure in him. He who draws back through fear, or because of trial, in him God hath no pleasure. See Ps 5:4.
But we are not of them who draw back unto perdition; but of them that believe to the saving of the soul.
10:39 But we are not of them. The apostle has confidence that the Hebrew saints are of those who shall live by faith (Hab 2:4 Ro 1:17 Heb 10:38) rather than those
who draw back unato perdition. He that draweth back is lost.