Esther 9:19
Therefore the Jews of the villages, that dwelled in the unwalled towns, made the fourteenth day of the month Adar a day of gladness and feasting, and a good day, and of sending portions one to another.
Jump to: BarnesBensonBICambridgeClarkeDarbyEllicottExpositor'sExp DctGaebeleinGSBGillGrayHaydockHastingsHomileticsJFBKDKellyKJTLangeMacLarenMHCMHCWParkerPoolePulpitSermonSCOTTBWESTSK
EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(19) The Jews of the villages . . . the unwalled towns.—Virtually the same Hebrew word is used in both these cases (perazim, perazoth). The meaning is that of country towns, undefended by bulwarks, or, at any rate, not in the sense in which the capital would be. We find the word used in contrast with “fenced cities” in Deuteronomy 3:5.

Esther 9:19. The Jews of the villages, that dwelt in the unwalled towns — Hebrew, in the cities of the villages; that is, in the lesser cities and villages, which are here opposed to the great city Shushan, and those who dwelt in it. Made the fourteenth day a day of gladness, &c. — Namely, because they did their whole work upon the thirteenth day, as was observed Esther 9:17, to which this manifestly relates, the 18th verse coming in by way of parenthesis. And a good day, and of sending portions one to another — A day of thanksgiving and praise to God, as well as of feasting one with another, and of sending meat from their tables to their neighbours, that the meaner sort might feast and rejoice also. Hence the Jews have a rule, that they should make a collection of money, at this time of the year, to send to the poor, to enable them to provide for themselves things necessary to make a feast; which money they judge it unlawful to apply to any other use.9:1-19 The enemies of the Jews hoped to have power over them by the former edict. If they had attempted nothing against the people of God, they would not themselves have suffered. The Jews, acting together, strengthened one another. Let us learn to stand fast in one spirit, and with one mind, striving together against the enemies of our souls, who endeavour to rob us of our faith, which is more precious than our lives. The Jews, to the honour of their religion, showed contempt of wordly wealth, that they might make it appear they desired nothing except their own preservation. In every case the people of God should manifest humanity and disinterestedness, frequently refusing advantages which might lawfully be obtained. The Jews celebrated their festival the day after they had finished their work. When we have received great mercies from God, we ought to be speedy in making thankful returns to him.The Jews of the villages ... - Rather, "the Jews of the country districts, that dwelt in the country towns," as distinguished from those who dwelt in the metropolis. 19. a day of … feasting … of sending portions one to another—The princes and people of the East not only invite their friends to feasts, but it is their custom to send a portion of the banquet to those who cannot well come to it, especially their relations, and those who are detained at home in a state of sorrow or distress. Therefore, to wit, because they did their whole work upon the thirteenth day, as was noted Esther 9:17, to which this manifestly relates, the 18th verse coming in as it were by way of parenthesis.

In the unwalled towns, Heb. in the cities of the villages, i.e. in the lesser cities and villages, which are here opposed to the great city Shushan, and those who dwelt in it. Therefore the Jews of the villages, that dwelt in the unwalled towns, made the fourteenth day of the month Adar a day of gladness and feasting,.... Jarchi observes that those in the villages, who are they that do not dwell in walled towns, observed the fourteenth, and they in towns surrounded with walls the fifteenth, as Shushan; and this circumvallation, he says, must be what was from the days of Joshua; according to the Jewish canons, every place that was walled from the days of Joshua the son of Nun, whether in the land of Israel or out of it, though not now walled they read (i.e. the book of Esther) on the fifteenth of Adar, and this is called a walled town; but a place which was not walled in the days of Joshua, though now walled, they read in the fourteenth, and this is called a city; but the city Shushan, though it was not walled in the days of Joshua, they read on the fifteenth, because in it was done a miracle (m) and each of these was kept as a day of public rejoicing for their great deliverance and freedom from their enemies:

and a good day: as the Jews usually call the several days of the passover, pentecost, and tabernacles:

and of sending portions one to another: expressive of mutual joy, and congratulating one another upon the happiness they shared in; see Revelation 11:10, and particularly this may respect sending gifts to the poor, who had not that to rejoice and make merry with others had; see Nehemiah 8:10, though these seem to be distinct from them, Esther 9:22.

(m) Maimon. Hilchot. Megillah, c. 1. sect. 4. 5. T. Bab. Megillah, fol. 2. 2.

Therefore the Jews of the villages, that dwelt in the unwalled towns, {k} made the fourteenth day of the month Adar a day of gladness and feasting, and a good day, and of sending portions one to another.

(k) As the Jews do even to this day, calling it in the Persian language Purim, that is, the day of lots.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
19. the Jews of the villages, that dwell in the unwalled towns, make etc.] not ‘dwelt’ and ‘made’ as in the A.V. The writer is describing the custom of his own day as arising out of the circumstances here recounted. He implies that in his time the Jews who did not come under the above description followed the date at which those in Shushan celebrated their deliverance. The LXX., however, inserts a clause to this effect, viz. ‘But those who dwell in the chief cities keep the fifteenth day of Adar as a day of glad feasting, and of sending portions likewise to their neighbours.’

and of sending portions one to another] i.e. that the poor might share in the happiness of the occasion. The same procedure was enjoined by Nehemiah (Nehemiah 8:10; Nehemiah 8:12) at the proclamation of the Law in his time. It was in accordance with the ordinance (Deuteronomy 16:11; Deuteronomy 16:14) that the enjoyment of the Feast of Weeks should be extended to ‘the stranger, the fatherless, and the widow.’ The custom of sending gifts (usually sweetmeats) is still preserved at Purim.Verse 19. - The Jews of the villages, that dwelt in the unwalled towns. Rather, "the Jews of the country, who dwelt in the country towns." There are places where the word translated "unwalled" connotes that idea - e.g. Ezekiel 38:11; Zechariah 2:8; but the main notion which it expresses is always that of a "country region." Here walls are not at all in the thought of the writer, who intends a contrast between the Jews of the metropolis and those of the provinces. Ecbatana and Babylon are "country towns" to a Jew of Susa, such as the writer. A good day. Compare Esther 8:17, with the comment. Sending portions one to another. Compare Nehemiah 8:10; and for the precept on which the practice was founded see Deuteronomy 16:14. In modern times the Jews keep up the practice, and on the 15th of Adar both interchange gifts, chiefly sweetmeats, and make liberal offerings for the poor (comp. ver. 22, ad fin.). Esther requested: "let it be granted to the Jews which are in Susa to do to-morrow also according to the decree of to-day (i.e., exactly as to-day), and let the ten sons of Haman be hanged upon the tree," i.e., their dead bodies nailed on crosses - majoris infamiae causa, according to Hebrew and Persian custom; comp. Deuteronomy 21:22 and the explanation of Ezra 6:11. On the motive for this request, see above, p. 194.
Links
Esther 9:19 Interlinear
Esther 9:19 Parallel Texts


Esther 9:19 NIV
Esther 9:19 NLT
Esther 9:19 ESV
Esther 9:19 NASB
Esther 9:19 KJV

Esther 9:19 Bible Apps
Esther 9:19 Parallel
Esther 9:19 Biblia Paralela
Esther 9:19 Chinese Bible
Esther 9:19 French Bible
Esther 9:19 German Bible

Bible Hub






Esther 9:18
Top of Page
Top of Page