And Paul, as his manner was, went in to them, and three sabbath days reasoned with them out of the scriptures,
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)Paul, as his manner was . . .—What we read of as occurring in the Pisidian Antioch (Acts 13:14-15), was, we may believe, now reproduced. That he was allowed to preach for three Sabbaths in succession, shows the respect commanded by his character as a Rabbi, and, it may be, by his earnest eloquence. Though he came with the marks of the scourge upon him, he was as fearless as ever, speaking the gospel of God “with much contention,” “not in word only, but also in power, and in the Holy Ghost, and in much assurance” (1Thessalonians 1:5). And with this boldness there was also a winning gentleness, “even as a nurse cherisheth her children” (1Thessalonians 2:7). And not a few Gentiles “turned from idols to serve the living and true God” (1Thessalonians 1:9).Acts 17:2-3. And Paul, as his manner was — Of doing all things, as far as might be, in a regular way; went in unto them — Entered their assembly; and three sabbath days reasoned with them — If any reader wishes to know more particularly the manner of the apostle’s reasoning with the Jews, and the proofs which he brought from their own Scriptures, in support of the facts which he affirmed, he will find an excellent example thereof in the sermon which Paul preached in the synagogue of Antioch in Pisidia, chap. Acts 13:16-41; where see the notes. Opening and alleging — Διανοιγων και παρατιθεμενος, explaining and evidently showing, that is, showing by clear and incontestable arguments: for the word signifies placing a thing before the eyes of spectators; that Christ must needs have suffered — That is, that it was necessary, according to the whole tenor of the prophecies, that the Messiah should suffer, and that no one could be the Messiah who did not suffer; and have risen again from the dead — The Scriptures having also clearly predicted that event; and that this Jesus whom I preach unto you is Christ — Having exactly fulfilled all these predictions of the Scriptures concerning the Messiah, and answered all the characters drawn in them of him.Acts 9:20; Acts 13:5, Acts 13:14.
Reasoned with them - Discoursed to them, or attempted to prove that Jesus was the Messiah. The word used here (διελέγετο dielegeto) often means no more than "to make a public address or discourse." See the notes on Acts 24:25.
Out of the scriptures - By many critics this is connected with the following verse, "Opening and alleging from the scriptures that Christ must needs have suffered, etc." The sense is not varied materially by the change.
went in unto them—In writing to the converts but a few months after this, he reminds them of the courage and superiority to indignity, for the Gospel's sake, which this required after the shameful treatment he had so lately experienced at Philippi (1Th 2:2).As his manner was; who was faithful unto him that had called him, and took all occasions to do his Master’s work.
Out of the Scriptures; the law and the prophets, which they owned to be of Divine authority; and from the Holy Scriptures alone, all knowledge in the things of God and of our salvation must be fetched. If any speak of these matters not according to them,
it is because they have no light in them, Isaiah 8:20. What scriptures St. Paul alleged are not set down; but they were such as our Saviour had made use of, Luke 24:27, for the same purpose. This was customary with Paul, to preach these things unto the Jews first, as Acts 13:46, till they had put the word of God from them by their incredulity.
and three sabbath days reasoned with them out of the Scriptures: that is, out of the Old Testament, concerning the Messiah, the characters of him, the work that he was to do, and how he was to suffer and die for the sins of men; and this he did three weeks running, going to their synagogue every sabbath day, when and where the Jews met for worship; and made use of books, which they allowed of, and of arguments they could not disprove.And Paul, as his manner was, went in unto them, and three sabbath days reasoned with them out of the scriptures,
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)Acts 17:2-4. Κατὰ δὲ τὸ εἰωθ. τῷ Π.] Comp. Luke 4:16. The construction is by way of attraction (κατὰ δὲ τ. εἰωθ. αὐτῷ εἰσῆλθεν ὁ Παῦλος), with anticipation of the subject; Buttmann, neut. Gr. p. 116 [E. T. 133],
διελέγετο αὐτοῖς] he carried on colloquies with them. Thus frequently in and after Plato, with the dative or πρός (Mark 9:34; Acts 17:17), in which combinations it is never the simple facere verba ad aliquem (in opposition to de Wette), not even in Acts 18:19, Acts 20:7, nor even in Hebrews 12:5, where the paternal παράκλησις speaks with the children. Comp. Delitzsch in loc. p. 612. The form of dialogue (Luke 2:46 f.) was not unsuitable even in the synagogue; Jesus Himself thus taught in the synagogue, John 6:25-59; Matthew 12:9 ff.; Luke 4:16 ff.
ἀπὸ τῶν γραφ.] starting from the Scriptures, deriving his doctrinal propositions from them. Comp. Acts 28:23; Winer, p. 349 [E. T. 465]. Is ἀπὸ τῶν γραφ. to be connected with διελ. αὐτοῖς (so Vulg., Luther, and many others, Winer and de Wette) or with διανοίγων κ.τ.λ. (Pricaeus, Grotius, Elsner, Morus, Rosenmüller, Valckenaer, Kuinoel, Ewald)? The latter is, on account of the greater emphasis which thus falls on ἀπὸ τ. γρ., to be preferred.
διανοίγ-g0-. κ-g0-. παρατιθ-g0-.] Upon what Paul laid down as doctrine (thetically) he previously gave information (by analytical development: διανοίγ., Luke 24:32). Bengel well remarks: “Duo gradus, ut si quis nucleum fracto cortice et recludat et exemtum ponat in medio.”
ὅτι τὸν Χριστὸν ἔδει (Luke 24:26) κ.τ.λ. is related to καὶ ὅτι οὗτος κ.τ.λ., as a general proposition of the history of salvation to its concrete realization and manifestation. The latter is to be taken thus: and that this Messiah (no other than He who had to suffer and rise again) Jesus is, whom I preach to you. Accordingly, Ἰησοῦς ὃν ἐ. κατ. ὑμ. is the subject, and οὗτος ὁ Χριστός the predicate. By this arrangement the chief stress falls on Ἰησοῖς κ.τ.λ., and in the predicate οὗτος (which, according to the preceding, represents the only true Scriptural Messiah) has the emphasis, which is further brought out by the interposition of ἐστί between οὗτος and ὁ Χριστός.
ἐγώ] emphatic: I for my part. As to the oratio variata, see on Acts 1:4.
προσεκληρ.] is not to be taken as middle (comp. Ephesians 1:11), but as passive: they were assigned (by God) to them (as belonging to them, as μαθηταί). Only here in the N.T.; but see Plut. Mor. p. 738 D; Lucian. Amor. 3; Loesner, p. 209 f.
τινες … πολὺ πλῆθος] The proselytes were more free from prejudice than the native Jews.Acts 17:2. κατὰ τὸ εἰωθὸς: phrase peculiar to St. Luke, only here and in Luke 4:16. St. Paul follows his usual principle: “to the Jew first”.—ἐπὶ σάββατα τρία: “for three Sabbath days” or “weeks,” R.V., margin, the latter strongly supported by Zahn, Einleitung, i., 152. This may be the exact period of work within the synagogue. For ἐπί cf. Acts 3:1, Acts 4:15, Acts 13:31, Acts 16:18, etc.; Hawkins, Horæ Synopticœ, p. 152, used in the “We” sections, and also predominantly, though not exclusively, in the rest of Acts or Luke or either of them; see on Acts 27:20; Acts 28:6; Klostermann, Vindiciæ Lucanæ, p. 53; see also Blass, Gram., p. 133.—διελέγετο αὐτοῖς: he reasoned, rather than disputed, as the word is sometimes rendered—ten times in Acts, seven times rendered by R.V., “reasoned,” cf. also Hebrews 12:5, and twice “discoursed,” Acts 20:7; Acts 20:9, once only “disputed,” Acts 24:12, cf. Judges 1:9. Here the word may point to a conversational intercourse between St. Paul and his fellow-countryman (cf. Acts 17:17 and Mark 9:34); so Overbeck, Holtzmann, Wendt, on the force of the verb with the dative or πρός. That such interchange of speech could take place in the synagogue we learn from John 6:25; John 6:29, Matthew 12:9. In classical Greek with the dative or πρός the word means to converse with, to argue, and thus in Xen., Mem., i., 6, 1, ii., 10, 1, we have the construction διαλ. π. τινι or πρός τινα to discuss a question with another, so that the word might easily have the meaning of arguing or reasoning about a question, but not of necessity with any hostile intent; even in Hebrews 12:5 it is the fatherly παράκλησις which reasoneth with sons. Blass supports the imperfect as in T.R., Gram., p. 186.—ἀπὸ γραφῶν, i.e., drawing his proofs from them, or if a discussion is meant, starting from them; Winer-Moulton, xlvii., Grotius, so Overbeck, Kuinoel, Weiss, Wendt take the word with διανοίγων.2. as his manner was] See Acts 13:5; Acts 13:14; Acts 14:1, &c.
went in unto them] And was no doubt asked (cf. Acts 13:15) to offer any exhortation to the people which he might feel moved to do.
three sabbath days] Of course the Jews would assemble on that day in greater number, and for the other days of the week be less accessible.Verse 2. - Custom for manner, A.V.; for three for three, A.V.; from for out of, A.V. Reasoned (see note on ver. 17).
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