2 Peter 2:13
And shall receive the reward of unrighteousness, as they that count it pleasure to riot in the day time. Spots they are and blemishes, sporting themselves with their own deceivings while they feast with you;
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(13) And shall receive.—Literally, about to receive (as they are). (Comp. 1Peter 1:9; 1Peter 5:4; see also Epistle of Barnabas, iv. 12.)

As they that count.—We must begin a fresh sentence, and somewhat modify the translation. “To riot” is too strong; the word means “delicate fare, dainty living, luxury,” and if the exact meaning be retained, this will necessitate a change of “in the day time.” For though “rioting in the day time” makes good sense—revelry even among professed pleasure seekers being usually confined to the night (1Thessalonians 5:7)—“dainty fare in the day time” does not seem to have much point. The meaning is, perhaps, “for the day,” without thought for the morrow, counting luxury for the moment a pleasure—the doctrine of the Cyrenaics and the instinct of “brute beasts.” In the Shepherd of Hermas (Sim. VI. iv. 4) there is a passage which may possibly be an echo of this: “The time of luxury and deceit is one hour, but the hours of torment have the power of thirty days; if, then, a man luxuriates for one day,” &c. &c. (See below on 2Peter 2:15; 2Peter 2:20; 2Peter 3:5.)

Sporting themselves.—The word is a compound of the one just translated “luxury”; hence luxuriating. It is worth noting that the words for “spots and blemishes” exactly correspond to the words translated “without blemish and without spot” in 1Peter 1:19. (See below on 2Peter 3:14.)

With their own deceivings.—Better, in their deceits, if this is the right reading. But both here and in Jude 1:12, the reading is uncertain, authorities being divided between agapai, “love-feasts,” and apatai, “deceits.” In Jude the balance on purely critical grounds is decidedly in favour of “love-feasts;” here (though much less decidedly) in favour of “deceits.” In Jude the context confirms the reading “love-feasts;” here the context is neutral, or slightly inclines to “love-feasts,” to which “while they feast with you” must in any case refer. But if “love-feasts” be right in Jude (and this is so probable that we may almost assume it), this in itself is strong support to the same reading here. Whichever writer is prior, so strange a change from “deceits” to “love-feasts” would hardly have been made deliberately; whereas, in copying mechanically, the interchange might easily be made, the words being so similar. The change from “spots” to “rocks,” if such a change has been deliberately made by either writer (see on Jude 1:12), would not be parallel to a change between “deceits” and “love-feasts.” The one is a mere variation of the metaphor, the other an alteration of the meaning. In 2Thessalonians 2:10 there is possibly an intentional play upon the similarity of these two words.

2:10-16 Impure seducers and their abandoned followers, give themselves up to their own fleshly minds. Refusing to bring every thought to the obedience of Christ, they act against God's righteous precepts. They walk after the flesh, they go on in sinful courses, and increase to greater degrees of impurity and wickedness. They also despise those whom God has set in authority over them, and requires them to honour. Outward temporal good things are the wages sinners expect and promise themselves. And none have more cause to tremble, than those who are bold to gratify their sinful lusts, by presuming on the Divine grace and mercy. Many such there have been, and are, who speak lightly of the restraints of God's law, and deem themselves freed from obligations to obey it. Let Christians stand at a distance from such.And shall receive the reward of unrighteousness - The appropriate recompense of their wickedness in the future world. Such people do not always receive the due recompense of their deeds in the present life; and as it is a great and immutable principle that all will be treated, under the government of God, as they deserve, or that justice will be rendered to every rational being, it follows that there must be punishment in the future state.

As they that count it pleasure to riot in the day-time - As especially wicked, shameless, and abandoned men; for only such revel in open day. Compare the Acts 2:15 note; 1 Thessalonians 5:7 note.

Spots they are and blemishes - That is, they are like a dark spot on a pure garment, or like a deformity on an otherwise beautiful person. They are a scandal and disgrace to the Christian profession.

Sporting themselves - The Greek word here means to live delicately or luxuriously; to revel. The idea is not exactly that of sporting, or playing, or amusing themselves; but it is that they take advantage of their views to live in riot and luxury. Under the garb of the Christian profession, they give indulgence to the most corrupt passions.

With their own deceivings - Jude, in the parallel place, Jde 1:12, has, "These are spots in your feasts of charity, when they feast with you." Several versions, and a few manuscripts also, here read "feasts" instead of "deceivings," (ἀγάπαῖς agapais for ἀπάταις apatais.) The common reading, however, is undoubtedly the correct one, (see Wetstein, in loc.); and the meaning is, that they took advantage of their false views to turn even the sacred feasts of charity, or perhaps the Lord's Supper itself, into an occasion of sensual indulgence. Compare the notes at 1 Corinthians 11:20-22. The difference between these persons, and those in the church at Corinth, seems to have been that these did it at design, and for the purpose of leading others into sin; those who were in the church at Corinth erred through ignorance.

While they feast with you - συνευωχούμενοι suneuōchoumenoi. This word means to feast several together; to feast with anyone; and the reference seems to be to some festival which was celebrated by Christians, where men and women were assembled together, 2 Peter 2:14, and where they could convert the festival into a scene of riot and disorder. If the Lord's Supper was celebrated by them as it was at Corinth, that would furnish such an occasion; or if it was preceded by a "feast of charity" (notes, Jde 1:12), that would furnish such an occasion. It would seem to be probable that a festival of some kind was connected with the observance of the Lord's Supper (notes, 1 Corinthians 11:21), and that this was converted by these persons into a scene of riot and disorder.

13. receive—"shall carry off as their due."

reward of—that is, for their "unrighteousness" [Alford]. Perhaps it is implied, unrighteousness shall be its own reward or punishment. "Wages of unrighteousness" (2Pe 2:15) has a different sense, namely, the earthly gain to be gotten by "unrighteousness."

in the daytime—Translate as Greek, "counting the luxury which is in the daytime (not restricted to night, as ordinary revelling. Or as Vulgate and Calvin, "the luxury which is but for a day": so Heb 11:25, "the pleasures of sin for a season"; and Heb 12:16, Esau) to be pleasure," that is, to be their chief good and highest enjoyment.

Spots—in themselves.

blemishes—disgraces: bringing blame (so the Greek) on the Church and on Christianity itself.

sporting themselves—Greek, "luxuriating."

with—Greek, "in."

deceivings—or else passively, "deceits": luxuries gotten by deceit. Compare Mt 13:22, "Deceitfulness of riches"; Eph 4:22, "Deceitful lusts." While deceiving others, they are deceived themselves. Compare with English Version, Php 3:19, "Whose glory is in their shame." "Their own" stands in opposition to "you": "While partaking of the love-feast (compare Jude 12) with you," they are at the same time "luxuriating in their own deceivings," or "deceits" (to which latter clause answers Jude 12, end: Peter presents the positive side, "they luxuriate in their own deceivings"; Jude, the negative, "feeding themselves without fear"). But several of the oldest manuscripts, Vulgate, Syriac, and Sahidic Versions read (as Jude), "In their own love-feasts": "their own" will then imply that they pervert the love-feasts so as to make them subserve their own self-indulgent purposes.

And shall receive the reward of unrighteousness: under this general term, all the several sins they are charged with are comprehended.

As they that count it pleasure to riot in the day time; this is said to aggravate their sin, and signifies either their impudence in it, that they had cast off all shame, and practised their luxury by day light, whereas ordinary sinners are wont to choose the night for such works of darkness, Romans 13:12,13 1 Thessalonians 5:7; or their security, that they spent the day of their life in their pleasures, placing their happiness in present enjoyments, unmindful of a future reckoning and an eternal state.

Spots they are and blemishes; not only altogether polluted themselves, but such as defile others, and are blemishes to the church whereof they profess themselves members.

Sporting themselves with their own deceivings: some read agapaiv instead of apataiv, leaving out the pronoun, rendered their own; and understand this of the love feasts, in which they luxuriously gorged themselves. This might well agree with Judges 1:12, but that the generality of Greek copies read apataiv, which we turn deceivings, i.e. either errors, taking the word passively; q.d. They do but make a sport of sin, and please themselves with it; and this agrees too with Judges 1:12, feeding themselves without fear: or cheatings, or imposings upon others, taking

deceivings actively; q.d. They sport themselves while they so finely deceive you, pretending love in their feasting with you, when they do it only to gratify their appetites; or sporting themselves, and making merry, with what they have cheated you of.

While they feast with you; viz. in your feasts of charity, with the specious pretence of which they covered their naughtiness. And shall receive the reward of unrighteousness,.... Due punishment, both in body and soul, for all their injustice to God and men; which will be a just recompense of reward they shall receive at the righteous judgment of God, who will render to every man according to his works: the justice of which appears by what follows,

as they that count it pleasure to riot in the daytime; who place all their satisfaction and happiness in sensual delight, in rioting and drunkenness, in chambering and wantonness, day after day; putting away the evil day far from them, supposing that tomorrow will be as this day, and that there will be no future judgment nor state; and therefore do not take the night for their revels, as other sinners do, but being without all shame, declare their sin as Sodom, and hide it not:

spots they are, and blemishes; which defile themselves, their minds and consciences, their souls and bodies, with sin, and defile others by their evil communications, and bring dishonour and disgrace upon the ways, doctrines, and interest of Christ:

sporting themselves with their own deceivings; with their sins and lusts, by which they deceive themselves and others, it being a sport to them to commit sin; and in which they take great pleasure and pastime, and not only delight in their own sins, but in those of others, and in them that do them. Some versions, as the Vulgate Latin and Arabic, instead of "deceivings", read love feasts, as in Jde 1:12, and so the Alexandrian copy; in which they behaved in a very scandalous manner, indulging themselves in luxury and intemperance: to which agrees what follows,

while they feast with you; at the above feasts, or at the Lord's table, or at their own houses, which shows that they were of them, and among them, as in 2 Peter 2:1; and carries in it a tacit reproof for the continuance of them, when they were become so bad in their principles, and so scandalous in their lives.

And shall receive the reward of unrighteousness, as they that count it pleasure to riot in the day time. Spots they are and blemishes, sporting themselves with their own deceivings {n} while they feast with you;

(n) When by being among the Christians in the holy banquets which the Church keeps, they would seem by that to be true members of the Church, yet they are indeed but blots on the Church.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
2 Peter 2:13. κομιούμενοι μισθόν ἀδικίας] is subjoined by way of explanation to what precedes.[73]

Cf. 1 Peter 1:9.

μισθὸν ἀδικίας] not equivalent to μισθὸν ἄδικον (Wolf), but: “the reward for unrighteousness.”

ἡδονὴν ἡγούμενοι] This and the following participles, as far as the end of 2 Peter 2:14, are connected with what precedes, as descriptive of the ἀδικία; it is less probable that, as Hofmann assumes, a new period begins with ἡδονὴν ἡγούμενοι and ends with 2 Peter 2:16. The three kinds of ἀδικία here spoken of are: 1, luxurious living; 2, fornication; 3, covetousness. De Wette: “they who count it pleasure.”

τήν ἐν ἡμέρᾳ τρυφήν] ἐν ἡμέρᾳ is by Oecumenius interpreted as equal to καθʼ ἡμέραν, but this is not in accordance with the usage. Several interpreters (Benson, Morus, Fronmüller, Hofmann) take ἡμέρα, here as in contrast to the night. This, however, is inappropriate, for it is not easy to see why they should not regard the τρυφή in the night as a pleasure. Gerhard is better: per τὴν ἡμέραν intelligitur praesentis vitae tempus; Luther, “temporal luxurious living” (de Wette-Brückner, Wiesinger, Schott). It stands by way of contrast to the future, to which the fut. κομιούμενοι refers.

σπῖλοι καὶ μῶμοι] is either to be connected with what follows: “who as σπ. καὶ μῶμοι riot” (de Wette-Brückner, Wiesinger), or they are independent expressions of displeasure, like τολμηταὶ αὐθάδεις formerly in 2 Peter 2:10, and κατάρας τέκνα afterwards (Schott, Fronmüller) subjoined to what precedes by way of apposition (Hofmann); the latter is most in harmony with the animated form of address. Instead of σπῖλοι, Jude has σπιλάδες; σπῖλοι (less commonly σπίλοι) is equivalent to “spots of dirt,” cf. Ephesians 5:27.

μῶμοι: ἅπ. λεγ., commonly: blame, shame; here: “blemishes.”[74]

ἐντρυφῶντες ἐν ταῖς ἀπάταις αὐτῶν] ἐντρυφῶντες points back to τρυφήν, and may not therefore be taken, with Hofmann, in the weakened meaning of, “to take delight in anything,” which it probably has in Isaiah 55:2, LXX.; it is not to be connected with the following ὑμῖν in the sense of: illudere, ludibrio habere, but means, as it commonly does: “to riot;” ὑμῖν belongs to συνευωχούμνοι.

ἐν ταῖς ἀπάταις αὐτῶν is explained from 2 Peter 2:3; 2 Peter 2:14; they practised deceit in this way, that they succeeded in procuring earthly advantage to themselves, by praising their vain wisdom (Wiesinger, Fronmüller); since ἐντρυφᾷυ denotes the actual rioting, ἐν ταῖς ἀπάταις αὐτῶν cannot state the object of their ἐντρυφᾷν, that is, “the lies with which they practise deceit” (Hofmann; or, according to Schott: “their deceiving appearance of wisdom”). The opinion of Wolf and others, that ἀπάται means the love-feasts, inasmuch as they—in opposition to their real nature—are abused by these individuals to their own profit, requires no refutation.

συνευωχούμενοι ὑμῖν] is subordinate to what precedes. They rioted in their deceits, that is to say, by enjoying themselves at the feasts of those among whom they had obtained an entrance by deceit.

Luther’s translation is mistaken: “they make a show of your (ὑμῶν instead of αὐτῶν) alms (incorrect interpretation of ἀγάπαις), they revel with what is yours” (instead of: “with you”).

[73] Hofmann considers the reading ἀδικούμενοι—but little attested, however—instead of κομιούμενοι to be the original, because the more difficult one. Tiseh. 8, on the other hand, says: ἀδικούμενοι, si aptum sensum praebere judicabitur, omnino praeferendum erit. Nescio an “decepti circa μισθὸν ἀδικίας” verti liceat. Hofmann interprets the accus. μισθόν as an accus. of apposition, cf. 2 Corinthians 6:13, and then translates: “evil happens to them as the reward of evil;” but though ἀδικεῖν occurs in this wider signification, as in Luke 10:19 and often in Revelation, still ἀδικία never does.—Buttmann has accepted not ἀδικούμενοι, as in B, but κομιούμενοι.

[74] Hofmann arbitrarily defines these expressions more precisely as: “spots which defile the purity of the church, blemishes which attach to her, to her shame;” they are rather spoken of thus, because both defilement and shame cleave to them.2 Peter 2:13. ἀδικούμενοι μισθὸν ἀδικίας (cf. 2 Peter 2:12). This playing upon words is characteristic of 2 Peter, ἀδικεῖν has usually the sense of “doing harm to” (cf. Acts 25:10; Galatians 4:12). Here it would seem to mean “being defrauded of the wages of fraud,” or “being done out of the wages of wrong-doing”. It has been customary to see in this phrase an illustration of the irresponsible use of words in 2 Peter. “Another example of the author’s love of far-fetched and artificial expressions” (Mayor). In P. Eleph., however 27a24/ (iii. B.C.), the writers ask for a receipt with reference to a certain business transaction. τούτου δὲ γενομένου ἐσόμεθα οὐκ ἠδικημένοι “this having been arranged, we shall not be defrauded”. To this may be added Mayor’s citation of Plut. Cato Mi. 17 (p. 766) εὑρὼν χρέα παλαιὰ τῷ δημοσίῳ πολλοὺς ὀφείλοντας καὶ πολλοῖς τὸ δημόσιον, ἅμα τὴν πόλιν ἔπαυσεν ἀδικουμένην καὶ ἀδικοῦσαν. The accusative rei after ἀδικ. is very unusual. In classical writers it is found only with ἀδίκημα. μισθὸν ἀδικίας suggests the experience of Balaam, of whom the same expression is used in 2 Peter 2:15, who never received his promised hire from Balak (Numbers 24:11). Death deprives the false teachers of all their reward. For significance of the name “Balaam,” in connexion with the false teachers, see Introduction, p. 118. ἡδονὴν in N.T. only in a bad sense, cf. Luke 8:14, Titus 3:3, Jam 4:1-3. τρυφή only in N.T. in Luke 7:25 where it is used of “delicate living,” a luxurious life, but with no special blame attached. The word is also used of gifts of wisdom in Proverbs 4:9, cf. Psalm 36:8, “the river of thy pleasures”. Eden is called παράδεισος τῆς τρυφῆς, Genesis 2:15; Genesis 3:13; Genesis 3:24. ἐν ἡμέρᾳ, “in the day-time”, ‘in broad day-light”. σπίλοι καὶ μῶμοι, cf. Ephesians 5:27, 2 Peter 3:14, 1 Peter 1:19, Judges 1:12. μῶμος “reproach,” “disgrace”. Cf. Hort. on 1 Peter 1:19, where he traces the way in which μῶμος and ἄμωμος, came to be used with superficial meaning of “blemish,” cf. Ephesians 1:4; Ephesians 5:27, Hebrews 9:14. ἐντρυφῶντες: “to be luxurious,” cf. Xen. Hell. 4:1, 30. ἐν ταῖς ἀπάταις αὐτῶν: to be taken with ἐντρυφ. ἀπάτη is a favourite word of Hermas (Mand. viii. 5) and is frequently joined by him with τρυφή (Mand. xi. 12 and throughout Parable 6). According to Deissmann, ἀπάτη in popular Hellenistic has the meaning “pleasure”. Cf. Matthew 13:22 = Mark 4:19 (Luke 8:14), (see his Hellenisierung des semitischen Monothesismus, (Neue Fahrb. f. d. Klass. Altertum, 1903), p. 165, n. 5).13. and shall receive the reward of unrighteousness …] The words, which stand in the Greek as one of a series of participial clauses, are, perhaps, better joined with the last clause of the preceding verse, They shall perish … receiving the reward.…

as they that count it pleasure to riot in the day time] The latter words have been variously rendered; (1) as in the English version, (2) counting delicate living for a day (i.e. but for a little while, laying stress on the transitoriness of all such indulgence) as pleasure: (1) seems, on the whole, preferable, all the more so as it supplies a point of contact at once with St Peter’s own language as to the shamelessness of revel “at the third hour of the day” (Acts 2:15), and with St Paul’s contrast between the works of the day and those of night (Romans 13:13-14; 1 Thessalonians 5:7). It has been urged against this that the Greek word for “riot” means rather the delicate and luxurious living (Luke 7:25) that might be practised both by day and night rather than actual riot, but it is obvious that luxury shews itself chiefly in banquets which belong to night, and to carry the same luxury into the morning meal might well be noted as indicating excess. In the Greek version by Symmachus a cognate noun is applied to the banqueters of Amos 6:7.

Spots they are and blemishes] The former word is found in Ephesians 5:27; the latter is not found elsewhere in the New Testament.

sporting themselves with their own deceivings while they feast with you] The MSS. both here and in the parallel passage of Jude (2 Peter 2:12) vary between ἀπάταις (= deceits) and ἀγάπαις (= feasts of love). The latter gives, on the whole, a preferable meaning, and, even if we adopt the former reading, we are compelled by the context to look on the love-feasts as the scene of the sin referred to. The Agapae were a kind of social club feast, at first, perhaps, connected in time and place with the Lord’s Supper, but afterwards first distinguished and then divided from it. They were a witness of the new brotherhood in which the conventional distinctions of society were suspended, and rich and poor met together. Their existence is recognised in early ecclesiastical writers, in the first century by Ignatius (ad Smyrn. c. 2), in the second by Tertullian (Apol. c. 39), and they survived for three or four hundred years, till the disorders connected with them led to their discontinuance. In 1 Corinthians 11:21 we have traces of such disorders at a very early period, and St Peter’s language here shews that they had found their way into the Asiatic Churches as well as into that of Corinth. The “false teachers” and their followers took their place in the company of the faithful, and instead of being content with their simple food, consisting probably of bread, fish, and vegetables (the fish are always prominent in the representations of the Agapae in the Catacombs of Rome), brought with them, it would seem, the materials for a more luxurious meal (comp. 1 Corinthians 11:21), and, as the context shews, abused the opportunities thus given them for wanton glances and impure dalliance. Taking the first reading (“deceits”), the Apostle lays stress on the fact that in doing so they were in fact practising a fraud on the Christian society into which they thus intruded themselves.2 Peter 2:13. Κομιούμενοι, bearing off [being about to “receive”]) willingly.—ἡδονὴν) that pleasure which man ought chiefly to aim at.[7]—ἩΓΟΎΜΕΝΟΙ, esteeming) A similar phrase occurs, ch. 2 Peter 3:15.—ἐν ἡμέρᾳ) in the day of your love-feasts, whatever that day in each case may be, without any concern, whatever to-morrow may be about to bring with it.—σπῖλοι καὶ μῶμοι) They are spots in themselves; disgraces, which provoke others to blame the Church itself. As spots most shamefully disfigure the brightest objects, so do these men disgrace your love-feasts.—ἐντρυφῶντες) sporting themselves, so that they indulge themselves, and mock at others. The verb has a middle sense. It is used in the Septuagint, followed by ἐν, Isaiah 55:2; Isaiah 57:4.—ἈΠΆΤΑΙς[8]) deceivings. Judges 1:12, ἐν ταῖς ἀγάπαις ὑμῶν, in your feasts: Peter, making an important alteration in the letters, ἐν ταῖς ἀπάταις αὐτῶν, in their deceivings. An anonymous writer in MS. Catena, praised by Mill: οὐ διʼ ΑΓΑΠΗΝ καὶ τὸ μεταλαβεῖν ἁλῶν, φησὶ, συνευωχοῦνται ὑμῖν, ἀλλὰ διὰ τὸ καιρὸν εὑρίσκειν τῆς πρὸς γυναῖκας ΑΠΑΤΗΣ ἐπιτήδειον: It is not, he says, for the sake of LOVE, and of sharing your salt, that they feast with you, but that they may find a convenient opportunity of deceit with regard to your wives. At any rate, it is evident from this, that Peter alludes to the love-feasts; because each of them adds, feasting with you, and the one, sporting themselves, the other, feeding themselves.—συνευωχούμενοι ὑμῖν) feasting with you. Εὐωχία, a splendid feast, especially a sacred one; ἈΠῸ ΤΟῦ Εὖ ἜΧΕΙΝ ΤΟῪς ΣΥΝΙΌΝΤΑς ΕἸς ΕὐΦΡΟΣΎΝΗΝ ΤΙΜῇ ΤΟῦ ΘΕΊΟΥ, ΚΑῚ ΕἸς ἌΝΕΣΙΝ ἙΑΥΤΟῪς ΚΑΘΙΈΝΑΙ: from the fact, that those who assemble at a feast in honour of the god, have good cheer, and give themselves to indulgence. See Eust., fol. 281, ed. Rom.

[7] And which contains all things else in it.—V. g. (Counting luxury the summum bonum.—E.)

[8] Ἀπάταις is supported by A corrected, C, Memph. and later Syr., and so Rec. Text and Tisch.; but ἀγάπαις by A later corrected, B Vulg. Theb. Syr., and so Lachm.—E.Verse 13. - And shall receive the reward of unrighteousness. The two most ancient manuscripts read here, instead of κομιούμενοι ἀδικούμενοι. This reading is adopted by the Revised Version in the translation, "suffering wrong as the hire of wrongdoing." But the other reading is well supported, and gives a better sense, "receiving, as they shall, the reward of unrighteousness." Balaam loved the reward of unrighteousness in this world (verse 15); the false teachers shall receive its final reward in the world to come. Whichever reading is preferred, this clause is best taken with the preceding verse. As they that count it pleasure to riot in the daytime; literally, counting the revel in daytime a pleasure. St. Peter has hitherto spoken of the insubordination and irreverence of the false teachers; he now goes on to condemn their sensuality. The words ἐν ἠμέρα cannot, with some ancient interpreters, be taken as equivalent to μαθ ἡμέραν, daily (Luke 16:19). Many commentators, as Huther and Alford, translate "delicate living for a day" - enjoyment which is temporal and short-lived. But when we compare 1 Thessalonians 5:7, "They that are drunken are drunken in the night," and St. Peter's own words in Acts 2:15, it seems more probable that the apostle means to describe these false teachers as worse than ordinary men of pleasure. They reserve the night for their feasting; these men spend the day in luxury. The word τρυφή means "luxurious or delicate living" rather than "riot." Spots they are and blemishes. (For σπίλοι, spots, St. Jude has σπιλάδες, sunken rocks.) The word for "blemishes" (μῶμοι) occurs nowhere else in the New Testament. But comp. 1 Peter 1:19, where the Lord Jesus is described as "a Lamb without blemish and without spot (ἀμώμου καὶ ἀσπίλου)." The Church should be like her Lord, "not having spot, or wrinkle, or any such thing" (Ephesians 5:27); but these men are spots and blemishes on her beauty. Sporting themselves with their own deceivings; literally, reveling in their deceivings. The word for "reveling" (ἐντρυφῶντες) corresponds with τρυφή, used just above. The manuscripts vary between ἀπάταις, deceivings, and ἀγάπαις, loves, love-feasts. The former reading seems the best-supported here, and the latter in the parallel passage of St. Jude (verse 12). It is possible that the paronomasia may be intentional (compare the σπίλοι of St. Peter and the σπιλάδες of St. Jude). St. Peter will not use the honourable name for the banquets which these men disgrace by their excesses. He calls them ἀπάτας, not ἀγάπας - deceits, not love-feasts. There is no love in the hearts of these men. Their love-feasts are hypocrisies, deceits; they try to deceive men, but they deceive not God. While they feast with you. The Greek word συνευωχούμενοι occurs elsewhere only in Jude 1:12. The false teachers joined in the love-feasts, but made them the occasion of self-indulgence. Compare the similar conduct of the Corinthians (1 Corinthians 11:20-22). And shall receive (κομιούμενοι)

Lit., being about or destined to receive. See on 1 Peter 1:9, and compare 1 Peter 5:4. Some good texts read ἀδικούμενοι, suffering wrong. So Rev., suffering wrong as the hire of wrong-doing.

Reward of unrighteousness (μισθὸν ἀδικίας)

Μισθὸς is hire, and so is rendered in Rev. Compare Matthew 20:8; Luke 10:7; John 4:36. It also has in classical Greek the general sense of reward, and so very often in the New Testament, in passages where hire or wages would be inappropriate. Thus Matthew 5:12; Matthew 6:1; Matthew 10:41. Hire would seem to be better here, because of the reference to Balaam in 2 Peter 2:15, where the word occurs again and requires that rendering. The phrase μισθός ἀδικίας, reward of wages of iniquity, occurs only here and in Peter's speech concerning Judas (Acts 1:18), where the Rev. retains the rendering of the A. V., reward of iniquity. It would have been better to render wages of iniquity in both places. Iniquity and unrighteousness are used in English almost synonymously; though etymologically, iniquity emphasizes the idea of injustice (inaequus), while unrighteousness (non-rightness) is more general, implying all deviation from right, whether involving another's interests or not. This distinction is not, however, observed in the Rev., where the rendering of ἄδικία, and of the kindred adjective ἄδικος, varies unaccountably, if not capriciously, between unrighteous and unjust.

As they that count it pleasure to riot (ἡδονὴν ἡγούμενοι τρυφήν)

The as of the A. V. is needless. The discourse proceeds from 2 Peter 2:13 by a series of participles, as far as following (2 Peter 2:15). Literally the passage runs, counting riot a pleasure.

Riot (τρυφήν)

Meaning rather daintiness, delicacy, luxuriousness. Even the Rev. revel is almost too strong. Compare Luke 7:25, the only other passage where the word occurs, and where the Rev. retains the A. V., live delicately. So, also, Rev. substitutes, in James 5:5, lived delicately for lived in pleasure.

In the daytime

Compare Peter's words Acts 2:15; also, 1 Thessalonians 5:7.

Spots (σπίλοι)

Only here and Ephesians 5:27. Compare the kindred participle spotted (Jde 1:23), and defileth (James 3:6).

Blemishes (μῶμοι)

Only here in New Testament. The negatives of the two terms spots and blemishes occur at 1 Peter 1:19.

continued...

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