2 Corinthians 1:1
Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God, and Timothy our brother, unto the church of God which is at Corinth, with all the saints which are in all Achaia:
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(1) Timothy our brother.—Literally, Timothy the brother. The word is used obviously in its wider sense as meaning a fellow-Christian. The opening words of the Epistle are nearly identical with those of 1Corinthians 1:1. Timotheus, however, takes the place of Sosthenes, having apparently left Corinth before the arrival of the First Epistle, or, possibly, not having reached it. (See Introduction.) It is natural to think of him as acting in this instance, as in others where the Apostle joins his name with his own (Philippians 1:1; Colossians 1:1), as St. Paul’s amanuensis.

With all the saints.—On the term “saints,” see Note on Acts 9:13. The term Achaia, which does not occur in the opening of 1 Cor., includes the whole of the Roman province, and was probably used to take in the disciples of Cenchreæ (Romans 16:1) as well as those of Corinth, and possibly also those of Athens.

2 Corinthians 1:1-2. Paul, an apostle — Appointed and made such, not by my own will or choice, or those of any man, or any number of men; but by the will of God — Who called me by his grace to that sacred and important office; see Galatians 1:1; Galatians 1:15; and Timothy, our — Or rather a, brother — St. Paul, writing to Timothy, styles him his son; writing of him, his brother. From this it is evident that Timothy was with the apostle when this second epistle to the Corinthians was written; and by joining his name with his own in this epistle, he did him the greatest honour, and highly advanced his credit with the Corinthians, and all other Christians who should read it. To the church of God which is at Corinth — Whom he hath mercifully called out from the world and united to himself. With all the saints which are in all Achaia — “Corinth being the metropolis of the province of Achaia, the brethren in those parts, no doubt, had frequent intercourse with those in Corinth, and by that means had an opportunity of hearing this letter read in the Christian assemblies at Corinth. But as they had equal need, with the Corinthians, of the admonitions and advices contained in this letter, it was addressed to them likewise, that they might be entitled to take copies of it, in order to read it in their public meetings for their own edification.” — Macknight. Grace be to you, &c. — See on Romans 1:7.

1:1-11 We are encouraged to come boldly to the throne of grace, that we may obtain mercy, and find grace to help in time of need. The Lord is able to give peace to the troubled conscience, and to calm the raging passions of the soul. These blessings are given by him, as the Father of his redeemed family. It is our Saviour who says, Let not your heart be troubled. All comforts come from God, and our sweetest comforts are in him. He speaks peace to souls by granting the free remission of sins; and he comforts them by the enlivening influences of the Holy Spirit, and by the rich mercies of his grace. He is able to bind up the broken-hearted, to heal the most painful wounds, and also to give hope and joy under the heaviest sorrows. The favours God bestows on us, are not only to make us cheerful, but also that we may be useful to others. He sends comforts enough to support such as simply trust in and serve him. If we should be brought so low as to despair even of life, yet we may then trust God, who can bring back even from death. Their hope and trust were not in vain; nor shall any be ashamed who trust in the Lord. Past experiences encourage faith and hope, and lay us under obligation to trust in God for time to come. And it is our duty, not only to help one another with prayer, but in praise and thanksgiving, and thereby to make suitable returns for benefits received. Thus both trials and mercies will end in good to ourselves and others.Paul an apostle ... - ; see the Romans 1:1 note, and 1 Corinthians 1:1 note.

By the will of God - Through, or agreeably to the will of God; note, 1 Corinthians 1:1.

And Timothy our brother - Paul was accustomed to associate some other person or persons with him in writing his epistles. Thus, in the First Epistle to the Corinthians, Sosthenes was associated with him. For the reasons of this, see the note on 1 Corinthians 1:1. The name of Timothy is associated with his in the Epistles to the Philippians and Colossians. From the former Epistle to the 1 Corinthians 1 1 Corinthians 16:10, we learn that Paul had sent Timothy to the church at Corinth, or that he expected that he would visit them. Paul had sent him into Macedonia in company with Erastus Acts 19:21-22, intending himself to follow them, and expecting that they would visit Achaia. From the passage before us, it appears that Timothy had returned from this expedition, and was now with Paul. The reason why Paul joined Timothy with him in writing this Epistle may have been the following:

(1) Timothy had been recently with them, and they had become acquainted with him, and it was not only natural that he should express his friendly salutations, but his name and influence among them might serve in some degree to confirm what Paul wished to say to them; compare note, 1 Corinthians 1:1.

(2) Paul may have wished to give as much influence as possible to Timothy. he designed that he should be his fellow-laborer; and as Timothy was much younger than himself, he doubtless expected that he would survive him, and that he would in some sense succeed him in the care of the churches. He was desirous, therefore, of securing for him all the authority which he could, and of letting it be known that he regarded him as abundantly qualified for the great work with which he was entrusted.

(3) the influence and name of Timothy might be supposed to have weight with the party in the church that had slandered Paul, by accusing him of insincerity or instability in regard to his purposed visit to them. Paul had designed to go to them directly from Ephesus, but he had changed his mind, and the testimony of Timothy might be important to prove that it was done from motives purely conscientious. Timothy was doubtless acquainted with the reasons; and his testimony might meet and rebut a part of the charges against him; see 2 Corinthians 1:13-16.

Unto the church of God ... - see the note, 1 Corinthians 1:2.

With all the saints which are in all Achaia - Achaia, in the largest sense, included the whole of Greece. Achaia proper, however, was the district or province of which Corinth was the capital. It comprehended the part of Greece lying between Thessaly and the southern part of the Peloponnesus, embracing the whole western part of the Peloponnesus. It is probable that there were not a few Christians scattered in Achaia, and not improbably some small churches that had been established by the labors of Paul or of others. From Romans 16:1, we know that there was a church at Cenchrea, the eastern port of Corinth, and it is by no means improbable that there were other churches in that region. Paul doubtless designed that copies of this Epistle should be circulated among them.



The following reasons seem to have induced Paul to write this Second Epistle to the Corinthians: (1) That he might explain the reasons for his having deferred to pay them his promised visit, by taking Corinth as his way to Macedonia (1Co 4:19; 2Co 1:15, 16; compare 1Co 16:5); and so that he might set forth to them his apostolic walk in general (2Co 1:12, 24; 6:3-13; 7:2). (2) That he might commend their obedience in reference to the directions in his First Epistle, and at the same time direct them now to forgive the offender, as having been punished sufficiently (2Co 2:1-11; 7:6-16). (3) That he might urge them to collect for the poor saints at Jerusalem (2Co 8:1-9, 15). (4) That he might maintain his apostolic authority and reprove gainsayers.

The external testimonies for its genuineness are Irenæus [Against Heresies, 3,7,1]; Athenagoras [Of the Resurrection of the Dead]; Clement of Alexandria [Miscellanies, 3, p. 94; 4, p. 101]; Tertullian [On Modesty, 13].

The TIME OF WRITING was after Pentecost, A.D. 57, when Paul left Ephesus for Troas. Having stayed in the latter place for some time preaching the Gospel with effect (2Co 2:12), he went on to Macedonia, being eager to meet Titus there, having been disappointed in his not coming to Troas, as had been agreed on between them. Having heard from him the tidings he so much desired of the good effect produced on the Corinthians by his First Epistle, and after having tested the liberality of the Macedonian churches (2Co 8:1), he wrote this Second Epistle, and then went on to Greece, where he abode for three months; and then, after travelling by land, reached Philippi on his return at Passover or Easter, A.D. 58 (Ac 20:1-6). So that this Epistle must have been written about autumn, A.D. 57.

Macedonia was THE PLACE from which it was written (2Co 9:2, where the present tense, "I boast," or "am boasting," implies his presence then in Macedonia). In Asia (Lydian Asia) he had undergone some great peril of his life (2Co 1:8, 9), whether the reference be [Paley] to the tumult at Ephesus (Ac 19:23-41), or, as Alford thinks, to a dangerous illness in which he despaired of life. Thence he passed by Troas to Philippi, the first city which would meet him in entering Macedonia. The importance of the Philippian Church would induce him to stay there some time; as also his desire to collect contributions from the Macedonian churches for the poor saints at Jerusalem. His anxiety of mind is recorded (2Co 7:5) as occurring when he came into Macedonia, and therefore must have been at Philippi, which was the first city of Macedonia in coming from Troas; and here, too, from 2Co 7:6, compared with 2Co 7:5, must have been the scene of his receiving the comforting tidings from Titus. "Macedonia" is used for Philippi in 2Co 11:9, as is proved by comparison with Php 4:15, 16. So it is probably used here (2Co 7:5). Alford argues from 2Co 8:1, where he speaks of the "grace bestowed on the churches (plural) of Macedonia," that Paul must have visited other churches in Macedonia, besides Philippi, when he wrote, for example, Thessalonica, Berea, &c., and that Philippi, the first on his route, is less likely to have been the scene of his writing than the last on his route, whichever it was, perhaps Thessalonica. But Philippi, as being the chief town of the province, was probably the place to which all the collections of the churches were sent. Ancient tradition, too (as appears from the subscription to this Epistle), favors the view that Philippi was the place from which this Epistle was sent by the hands of Titus who received, besides, a charge to prosecute at Corinth the collection which he had begun at his first visit (2Co 8:6).

The STYLE is most varied, and passes rapidly from one phase of feeling to another; now joyous and consolatory, again severe and full of reproof; at one time gentle and affectionate, at another, sternly rebuking opponents and upholding his dignity as an apostle. This variety of style accords with the warm and earnest character of the apostle, which nowhere is manifested more beautifully than in this Epistle. His bodily frailty, and the chronic malady under which he suffered, and which is often alluded to (2Co 4:7; 5:1-4; 12:7-9; compare Note, see on [2299]2Co 1:8), must have been especially trying to one of his ardent temperament. But besides this, was the more pressing anxiety of the "care of all the churches." At Corinth, as elsewhere, Judaizing emissaries wished to bind legal fetters of letter and form (compare 2Co 3:3-18) on the freedom and catholicity of the Church. On the other hand, there were free thinkers who defended their immorality of practice by infidel theories (1Co 15:12, 32-36). These were the "fightings without," and "fears within" (2Co 7:5, 6) which agitated the apostle's mind until Titus brought him comforting tidings from Corinth. Even then, while the majority at Corinth had testified their repentance, and, as Paul had desired, excommunicated the incestuous person, and contributed for the poor Christians of Judea, there was still a minority who, more contemptuously than ever, resisted the apostle. These accused him of crafty and mercenary motives, as if he had personal gain in view in the collection being made; and this, notwithstanding his scrupulous care to be above the possibility of reasonable suspicion, by having others besides himself to take charge of the money. This insinuation was palpably inconsistent with their other charge, that he could be no true apostle, as he did not claim maintenance from the churches which he founded. Another accusation they brought of cowardly weakness; that he was always threatening severe measures without daring to execute them (2Co 10:8-16; 13:2); and that he was vacillating in his teaching and practice, circumcising Timothy, and yet withholding circumcision from Titus; a Jew among the Jews, and a Greek among the Greeks. That most of these opponents were of the Judaizing party in the Church, appears from 2Co 11:22. They seem to have been headed by an emissary from Judea ("he that cometh," 2Co 11:4), who had brought "letters of commendation" (2Co 3:1) from members of the Church at Jerusalem, and who boasted of his purity of Hebrew descent, and his close connection with Christ Himself (2Co 11:13, 23). His partisans contrasted his high pretensions with the timid humility of Paul (1Co 2:3); and his rhetoric with the apostle's plain and unadorned style (2Co 11:6; 10:10, 13). It was this state of things at Corinth, reported by Titus, that caused Paul to send him back forthwith thither with this Second Epistle, which is addressed, not to Corinth only (1Co 1:2), but to all the churches also in Achaia (2Co 1:1), which had in some degree been affected by the same causes as affected the Corinthian Church. The widely different tone in different parts of the Epistle is due to the diversity which existed at Corinth between the penitent majority and the refractory minority. The former he addresses with the warmest affection; the latter with menace and warning. Two deputies, chosen by the churches to take charge of the contribution to be collected at Corinth, accompanied Titus (2Co 8:18, 19, 22).


2Co 1:1-24. The Heading; Paul's Consolations in Recent Trials in Asia; His Sincerity towards the Corinthians; Explanation of His Not Having Visited Them as He Had Purposed.

1. Timothy our brother—When writing to Timothy himself, he calls him "my son" (1Ti 1:18). Writing of him, "brother," and "my beloved son" (1Co 4:17). He had been sent before to Macedonia, and had met Paul at Philippi, when the apostle passed over from Troas to Macedonia (compare 2Co 2:12, 13; see on [2300]1Co 16:10, 11).

in all Achaia—comprising Hellas and the Peloponnese. The Gentiles themselves, and Annæus Gallio, the proconsul (Ac 18:12-16), strongly testified their disapproval of the accusation brought by the Jews against Paul. Hence, the apostle was enabled to labor in the whole province of Achaia with such success as to establish several churches there (1Th 1:8; 2Th 1:4), where, writing from Corinth, he speaks of the "churches," namely, not only the Corinthian, but others also—Athens, Cenchrea, and, perhaps, Sicyon, Argos, &c. He addresses "the Church in Corinth," directly, and all "the saints" in the province, indirectly. In Ga 1:2 all the "churches" are addressed directly in the same circular Epistle. Hence, here he does not say, all the churches, but "all the saints."2Co 1:1,2 Paul saluteth the Corinthians,

2Co 1:3-7 and blesseth God for the comforts and deliverances

given him, not solely for his own sake, but for the

comfort and encouragement of others also.

2Co 1:8-11 He telleth them of a deliverance he had lately had

from a great danger in Asia, and expresseth his trust

in God's protection for the future through their prayers.

2Co 1:12-14 He calleth both his own conscience and theirs to

witness his sincerity in preaching the gospel,

2Co 1:15-22 and excuseth his not coming to them, as not

proceeding from lightness,

2Co 1:23,24 but from lenity towards them.

The will of God here doth not signify the bare permission, but the calling and precept of God; he was called to be an apostle, Rom 1:1 1Co 1:1, making him a minister and a witness, Act 26:16. His joining of Timothy with him, showeth both the great humility of the apostle, and his desire to give him a reputation in the churches, though he was a very young man. The Epistle is not directed only to the church of God which was at Corinth, (the metropolis of Peloponnesus), but also to all those Christians which lived in Achaia: by which name probably he doth not understand all Greece, (though that anciently had that name, from one Achaeus, that was king there, from whom the Grecians had the name of Achivi,) but that region of Peloponnesus which lay in a neck of land between the Aegean and Ionian Seas; which obtained that name in a more special and restrained sense.

Paul an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God,.... The inscription of this epistle is pretty much the same with that of the former; only whereas here he styles himself an apostle of Jesus Christ, there he says he was "called" to be one: for he did not assume that character and office without the call of Christ, and will of God; and which he chooses to mention, in opposition to the false apostles, who had neither. Likewise, in the inscription of the former epistle Sosthenes is joined with him; in this Timothy, whom he calls

our brother, not so much on account of his being a partaker of the same grace, as for his being a minister of the same Gospel: and he the rather mentions him, because he had sent him to them, to know their state, and was now returned to him with an account of it, and who joined and agreed with him in the substance of this epistle. Moreover, the former epistle is directed as "unto the church of God which is at Corinth"; so to all that call upon the name of Christ in every place; and this is directed also to the same church, together

with all the saints which are in all Achaia; which was a very considerable part of Greece, and of which Corinth was the metropolis: and the apostle's intention in directing it in this form was, that copies of this letter might be sent to them, who equally, with this church, stood in need of the reproofs, exhortations, and instructions which are in it.

Paul, {1} an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God, and Timothy our brother, unto the church of God which is at Corinth, with all the saints which are in all Achaia:

(1) See the declaration of such salutations in the former epistles.

2 Corinthians 1:1-2. Address and greetin.

διὰ θελ. Θεοῦ] See on 1 Corinthians 1:1.

καὶ Τιμόθ.] His relation to this Epistle is the same as that of Sosthenes to the first Epistle: he appears, not as amanuensis, but as (subordinate) joint-sender of it. See on 1 Corinthians 1:1.

ὁ ἀδελφ.] as at 1 Corinthians 1:1.

σὺν τοῖς ἁγίοις πᾶσι κ.τ.λ.] Grotius: “Voluit P. exempla hujus epistolae mitti ad alias in Achaia ecclesias.” So also Rosenmüller, Emmerling, and others. But, in that case, would not Paul have rather written σὺν ταῖς ἐκκλησίαις πάσαις? Comp. Galatians 1:2. And are the contents of the Epistle suited for an encyclical destination? No; he means, in agreement with 1 Corinthians 1:2, the Christians living outside of Corinth, scattered through Achaia, who attached themselves to the church-community in Corinth, which must therefore have been the sole seat of a church—the metropolis of the Christians in the province. The state of matters in Galatia was different.

Under Achaia we must, according to the sense then attached to it, understand Hellas and Peloponnesus. This province and that of Macedonia comprehended all Greece. See on Acts 18:12.—2 Corinthians 1:2. See on Romans 1:7.

2 Corinthians 1:1-2— ADDRESS. The usual form of address at the beginning of a Greek letter was A. B. χαίρειν (see Acts 23:26); and this is adopted by St. James in his Epistle (Jam 1:1), and is followed, among other Christian writers, by Ignatius in his letters (πλεῖστα χαίρειν is his ordinary formula). St. Paul, original in this as in all else, struck out a form for himself. He replaces χαίρειν by χάρις καὶ εἰρήνη (1 Thess.), which in subsequent letters is expressed more fully, as here, χάρις καὶ εἰρήνη ἀπὸ Θεοῦ πατρὸς ἡμῶν καὶ Κυρίου Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ. (In 1 and 2 Tim. he adds ἔλεος.) The simple greeting of ordinary courtesy is thus filled with a deep religious meaning. Grace is the keynote of the Gospel; and peace, the traditional and beautiful salutation of the East, on Christian lips signifies not earthly peace merely, but the peace of God (Php 4:7). The first instance of the combination of χάρις with εἰρήνη is noteworthy, viz., they are coupled in the Priestly Benediction at Numbers 6:24.—ἀπόστολος Χρ. Ἰη.: St. Paul’s letters are all semi-official, except perhaps that to Philemon; and thus they usually begin with the assertion of his apostolic office. This it would be especially necessary to emphasise in a letter to Corinth, where his authority had been questioned quite recently (2 Corinthians 10:10 ff.), and where the names of Apollos and Peter had formerly been set in opposition to his (1 Corinthians 1:12).—διὰ θελήματος Θεοῦ: he is ever anxious (see reff.) to explain that his apostleship was not assumed of himself; it is a mission from God; he is a σκεῦος ἐκλογῆς.—καὶ Τιμόθεος ὁ ἀδελφός: Timothy now occupies the place at St. Paul’s side which was filled by Sosthenes when 1 Cor. was written (1 Corinthians 1:1). Timothy had been despatched to Macedonia (Acts 19:22) to go on to Corinth (1 Corinthians 4:17), but St. Paul seems to have had a suspicion that he might be prevented from arriving there (1 Corinthians 16:10). From the facts that we now find him in Macedonia, and that there is no mention of him in chap. 2 Corinthians 12:16-18, it is likely that he was prevented from reaching Corinth by some causes of which we are unaware.—τῆ ἐκκλησίᾳ τοῦ Θεοῦ κ.τ.λ.: the letter is addressed primarily to the Christian congregation at Corinth, and secondarily to the Christians throughout Achaia. It is thus a circular letter, like that to the Galatians or Ephesians, and so at the end we do not find salutations to individuals, as in 1 Cor. and in the other letters addressed to particular Churches. The words τῇ οὔσῃ ἐν Κορίνθῳ suggest the idea of settled establishment; the Church at Corinth had now been for some time in existence.—ἐν ὅλῃ τῇ Ἀχαΐᾳ: the Roman province of Achaia included the whole country which we call Greece (excluding Macedonia), and it is in this large sense that the name is used here (cf. 2 Corinthians 9:2 below).

Ch. 2 Corinthians 1:1-2. Salutation

1. by the will of God] See note on 1 Corinthians 1.

and Timothy our brother] Literally, Timothy the brother. Wiclif, Tyndale, and Cranmer render ‘brother Timotheus.’ He is called sometimes Timothy and sometimes more fully Timotheus in the A. V. So we have Luke and Lucas, Mark and Marcus. He had therefore rejoined the Apostle after his mission to Macedonia, and possibly to Corinth. See Acts 19:22 and 1 Corinthians 4:17; 1 Corinthians 16:10, and notes. Timothy’s name is also found associated with that of the Apostle in the Epistles to the Philippians, Colossians, in both those to the Thessalonians, and in that to Philemon.

with all the saints which are in all Achaia] Chrysostom remarks that it is not St Paul’s custom to address the Churches thus in circular letters, and that the two Epistles to the Corinthians, that to the Galatians (which however was addressed, see chap. 2 Corinthians 1:2, to a region, not to a city), and that to the Hebrews (if it be St Paul’s) were the only exceptions. But this statement is not exactly accurate. If the Epistle to the Ephesians be identical with the Epistle to Laodicæa (and there are many reasons for supposing it to be so—see Colossians 4:16) the Epistles to the Colossians and Ephesians must be added to the list. It is probable that Corinth was the only Christian Church of any note in Achaia, and that the few scattered Christians to be found elsewhere in that province were regarded as a part of that community. See notes on 1 Corinthians 1:2.

Achaia] We are to understand by this Hellas and the Peloponnesus, which, with Macedonia, made up the whole of Greece. Macedonia, however, was scarcely recognized by the Greeks in their best days as forming a part of their land. See Articles Achaia and Hellas in Smith’s Dictionary of Geography,

2 Corinthians 1:1. Παύλος, Paul) While Paul repeats his admonitions, he shows his apostolic love and στοργὴ, fatherly affection to the Corinthians, who had been dutifully [devoutly] affected by the severity of his former epistle; and for the rest, as he had written therein about the affairs of the Corinthians, so he now writes about his own, but with a constant regard to the spiritual benefit of the Corinthians. But the thread and connection of the whole epistle is historical; other topics are introduced as digressions. See the leading points, at 2 Corinthians 1:8; 2 Corinthians 1:15; 2 Corinthians 2:1; 2 Corinthians 2:12-13; 2 Corinthians 7:5; 2 Corinthians 8:1; 2 Corinthians 10:1; 2 Corinthians 13:1, concerning the past, present, and future. Whence we have this connected view [synopsis] of the epistle. There is in it—

I.  The Inscription, 2 Corinthians 1:1-2.

II.  The Discussion [handling of his subject.]

1.  We were greatly pressed in Asia:

but God consoled us:

for we act with sincerity of mind; even in this that I have not already come to you, who are in propriety bound to obey me, 2 Corinthians 3:1 to 2 Corinthians 2:11.

2.  I hastened from Troas to Macedonia, which is near you:

keeping pace with the progress of the Gospel, whose glorious ministry we worthily perform, 2 Corinthians 2:12 to 2 Corinthians 7:1.

3.  In Macedonia I received joyful tidings of you, 2 Corinthians 7:2-16.

4.  In this journey I became acquainted with the liberality of the Macedonians. Wherefore it becomes you to follow that example, 2 Corinthians 8:1 to 2 Corinthians 9:15.

5.  I am on my way to you, armed with the power of Christ. Therefore obey, 2 Corinthians 10:1 to 2 Corinthians 13:10.

III.  The Conclusion, 2 Corinthians 13:11-13.

Τιμόθεος ὁ ἀδελφὸς, Timothy, our brother) When Paul writes to Timothy himself, he calls him son; when writing of him to the Corinthians and others, he calls him brother.—τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ τοῦ Θεοῦ, to the Church of God) This has the force of a synonym with the word saints, which follows.

Verse 1. - By the will of God (see 1 Corinthians 1:1). In the face of Judaizing opponents, it was essential that he should vindicate his independent apostolate (Acts 26:15-18). And Timothy. Timothy had been absent from St. Paul when he wrote the First Epistle, and Sosthenes had taken his place, whether as amanuensis or merely as a sort of joint authenticator. Our brother; literally, the brother, as in 1 Corinthians 1:1. The brotherhood applies both to St. Paul and to the Corinthians; there was a special bond of brotherhood between all members of "the household of faith." The saints. Before the name "Christians" had come into general use, "saints" (Acts 9:13) and "brethren" were common designations or' those who were "faithful in Christ Jesus" (Ephesians 1:1). In all Achaia. In its classical sense Achaia means only the northern strip of the Peloponnesus; as a Roman province the name included both Hellas and the Peloponnesus. Hero St. Paul probably uses it in its narrower sense. The only strictly Achaian Church of which we know is Cenchrea, but doubtless there were little Christian communities along the coasts of the Corinthian gulf. To the Church at Athens St. Paul never directly alludes. This letter was not in any sense an encyclical letter; but even if it were not read in other communities, the Corinthians would convey to them the apostle's greeting. 2 Corinthians 1:1Timothy our brother

Lit., the brother. Compare 1 Corinthians 1:1. Well known in the Christian brotherhood. When Paul writes to Timothy himself he calls him son" (Bengel). Timothy appears, not as amanuensis, nor as joint-author, but as joint-sender of the epistle.


See on 1 Corinthians 16:15.

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