1 Peter 5:10
But the God of all grace, who has called us to his eternal glory by Christ Jesus, after that you have suffered a while, make you perfect, establish, strengthen, settle you.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(10) Who hath called us unto his eternal glory.—The true reading is, who called you, not “us.” The moment of the call was that when St. Paul and the others first preached there. (See 1Peter 1:12; 1Peter 1:25, and Notes.) The God who now bestows all grace, by the giving of that grace calls us into glory.

“The men of grace have found

Glory begun below.”

By Christ Jesus.—On the whole it seems best, with Tischendorf, to drop the name of Jesus out of the text: the title “Christ” will then stand between “the eternal glory,” which we possess “in Him” (not “by Christ Jesus,” as our version has it, but by virtue of our union with the Christ), and the immediate mention of suffering. In Him the two are drawn inseparably together.

Suffered a while.—The Greek says distinctly, “a little while,” as in 1Peter 1:6. All time is short in comparison of what comes after. The original looks as if St. Peter meant not only “after that ye have suffered,” but also “by the fact of your having suffered.”

Make you perfect.—Strictly these are futures, “shall (or, will) make you perfect” &c. This verb occurs again in 1Thessalonians 3:10, and elsewhere. It implies the reduction to order and fitness for work of what is disordered or broken. The others, which are all very similar in meaning, are heaped up after St. Peter’s manner. Bengel thus explains them: “Make you perfect, that there remain no defect in you. Stablish, that nothing shake you. Strengthen, that you may overcome all force brought against you.” The word for “to settle” means “to found,” to give a solid foundation. All this is to take place at the close of the short spell of suffering which is the means to it. St. Peter seems, therefore, to contemplate the passing off of the persecution before the end of the world; for these verbs could hardly be so naturally used to express our education in the world to come.

1 Peter 5:10. The God of all grace — Of all mercy, compassion, and free, unmerited goodness; and the source of all those influences of the Holy Spirit, by which alone true spiritual light and life, peace, purity, and consolation, can be attained; who hath called — Invited; us unto his eternal glory — And not merely to behold, but to possess it; and hath sent us the invitation by Christ Jesus — His Word made flesh; that is, not only through him, as Mediator, who hath procured the inestimable blessing for us by his obedience unto death, but by him as a Divine Messenger, the greatest that ever appeared among men, confirming and enforcing his message by a most holy life, by extreme sufferings, by mighty miracles, by an ignominious, painful death, and a most glorious resurrection. After that ye have suffered a while — Such trials as his infinite wisdom shall see fit to appoint. Observe, reader, sufferings must precede glory! See 1 Peter 2:19; 1 Peter 2:23; 1 Peter 3:14; 1 Peter 4:12; Romans 8:17; Romans 8:35; 2 Timothy 2:12. But it is only a while the disciples of Christ are called to suffer; a very short while compared with eternity. Or St. Peter may use the word ολιγον, here rendered a while, and which means a little, in respect of the degree as well as of the duration of suffering; for, compared with the joys of heaven, the sufferings of this life are light as well as momentary, 2 Corinthians 4:17. Make you perfect — That no defect may remain in your Christian knowledge, experience, or practice. See on Hebrews 13:21. Stablish — That nothing may overthrow your faith or hope, damp the flame of your love, or interrupt the constancy of your obedience; strengthen — That ye may conquer all your enemies, and may do, be conformed to, and suffer the will of God to the end; and settle you — As a house upon a rock. Or, inverting the order of the words, and taking the last particular first, as preparatory to the others, (which the sense of the several expressions seems to require, according to the usual progress of the work of grace in the hearts of believers,) the meaning will be, 1st, May he place you on your foundation, (so the word θεμελιωσαι, here rendered settle you, properly signifies,) even on the foundation which God hath laid in Zion, (1 Corinthians 3:11,) Christ Jesus, or on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, (Ephesians 2:20,) namely, the fundamental doctrines attested by them. 2d, May he strengthen you, that no power of earth or hell may move you from that foundation. In consequence of this, 3d, May he establish you in his truth and grace, in faith, hope, love, and new obedience, that you may be steadfast and immoveable in your adherence to the doctrines, your possession of the graces and privileges, and your performance of the duties of your holy calling. And in this way, 4th, May he make you perfect, or complete Christians, lacking nothing, destitute of no grace or virtue, and possessing every one in a mature state, a state of meetness for the inheritance of the saints in light. Thus the apostle, being converted, does now strengthen his brethren.5:10-14 In conclusion, the apostle prays to God for them, as the God of all grace. Perfect implies their progress towards perfection. Stablish imports the curing of our natural lightness and inconstancy. Strengthen has respect to the growth of graces, especially where weakest and lowest. Settle signifies to fix upon a sure foundation, and may refer to Him who is the Foundation and Strength of believers. These expressions show that perseverance and progress in grace are first to be sought after by every Christian. The power of these doctrines on the hearts, and the fruits in the lives, showed who are partakers of the grace of God. The cherishing and increase of Christian love, and of affection one to another, is no matter of empty compliment, but the stamp and badge of Jesus Christ on his followers. Others may have a false peace for a time, and wicked men may wish for it to themselves and to one another; but theirs is a vain hope, and will come to nought. All solid peace is founded on Christ, and flows from him.But the God of all grace - The God who imparts all needful grace. It was proper in their anticipated trials to direct them to God, and to breathe forth in their behalf an earnest and affectionate prayer that they might be supported. A prayer of this kind by an apostle would also be to them a sort of pledge or assurance that the needed grace would be granted them.

Who hath called us unto his eternal glory - And who means, therefore, that we shall be saved. As he has called us to his glory, we need not apprehend that he will leave or forsake us. On the meaning of the word called, see the notes at Ephesians 4:1.

After that ye have suffered a while - After you have suffered as long as he shall appoint. The Greek is, "having suffered a little," and may refer either to time or degree. In both respects the declaration concerning afflictions is true. They are short, compared with eternity; they are light, compared with the exceeding and eternal weight of glory. See the notes at 2 Corinthians 4:16-18.

Make you perfect - By means of your trials. The tendency of affliction is to make us perfect.

Stablish - The Greek word means "to set fast; to fix firmly; to render immovable," Luke 16:26; Luke 9:51; Luke 22:32; Romans 1:11; Romans 16:25; 1 Thessalonians 3:2, 1 Thessalonians 3:13, et al.

Strengthen - Give you strength to bear all this.

Settle you - Literally, found you, or establish you on a firm foundation - θεμελιώσες themeliōses. The allusion is to a house which is so firmly fixed on a foundation that it will not be moved by winds or floods. Compare the notes at Matthew 7:24 ff.

10. Comforting assurance that God will finally "perfect" His work of "grace" in them, after they have undergone the necessary previous suffering.

But—Only do you watch and resist the foe: God will perform the rest [Bengel].

of all grace—(Compare 1Pe 4:10). The God to whom as its source all grace is to be referred; who in grace completes what in grace He began. He from the first "called (so the oldest manuscripts read for "us") unto (with a view to) glory." He will not let His purpose fall short of completion. If He does so in punishing, much more in grace. The three are fitly conjoined: the call, the glory to which we are called, and the way (suffering); the fourth is the ground of the calling, namely, the grace of God in Christ.

by—Greek, "in." Christ is He in virtue of whom, and in union with whom, believers are called to glory. The opposite is "in the world" (1Pe 5:9; Joh 16:33).

after that ye have suffered—Join to "called you": suffering, as a necessary preliminary to glory, was contemplated in God's calling.

a while—short and inconsiderable, as compared with the glory.

perfect, &c.—The two oldest manuscripts, and Vulgate and Coptic versions, read, "shall perfect (so that there shall be nothing defective in you), stablish, strengthen," and omit "settle," literally, "ground," or "fix on a foundation." Alford reads it in spite of the oldest manuscripts The authority of the latter I prefer; moreover the climax seems to require rather a verb of completing the work of grace, than, as the Greek means, founding it. The Greek has, "shall HIMSELF perfect you": though you are called on to watch and resist the foe, God Himself must really do all in and through you. The same God who begins must Himself complete the work. The Greek for "stablish" (so as to be "steadfast in the faith," 1Pe 5:9) is the same as "strengthen," Lu 22:32. Peter has in mind Christ's charge, "When thou art converted, strengthen thy brethren." His exhortation accords with his name Peter, "Thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build My Church." "Stablish," so as not to waver. "Strengthen" with might in the inner man by His Spirit, against the foe.

But the God of all grace; i.e. the author and giver of all grace, from whom ye have received what you have, and expect what you want.

Who hath called us unto his eternal glory; that eternal glory whereof believers at the last day shall be made partakers, which is called God’s glory, because it is that which he hath promised to them, and will at last put them in possession of: see 1 Peter 5:1 Romans 5:2; and because they shall after a sort partake of the Divine glory which they behold.

By Christ Jesus; for Christ’s sake, as the meritorious cause of our effectual calling, and by him as the great Apostle of our profession, Hebrews 3:1. Or, by Christ Jesus may refer to glory, Christ being the cause of their glorification as well as calling.

After that ye have suffered a while; this he adds for their encouragement, that whatsoever they suffered would be but short, as 1 Peter 1:6 2 Corinthians 4:17.

Make you perfect, stablish, strengthen, settle you; either:

1. Perfect that which is begun, Hebrews 13:20,21, stablish that which is right, 2 Thessalonians 2:16, strengthen that which is weak, settle or found (by a firm union and conjunction unto Christ) that which is already built, Ephesians 3:17,18 Col 1:23: or:

2. These four words may be but different expressions whereby the apostle sets forth the same thing, viz. God’s confirming and establishing those saints unto their final perseverance; and his using so much variety of expressions may imply, that it is a matter of very great difficulty to hold on our Christian course, without failing or coming short of the goal, and therefore we need singular assistance from God to enable us to it. But the God of all grace,.... Who has riches of grace, an immense plenty of it in himself, has treasured up a fulness of grace in his Son; is the author of all the blessings of grace, of electing, adopting, justifying, pardoning, and regenerating grace; and is the giver of the several graces of the Spirit, as faith, hope, love, repentance, &c. and of all the supplies of grace; and by this character is God the Father described as the object of prayer, to encourage souls to come to the throne of his grace, and pray, and hope for, and expect a sufficiency of his grace in every time of need; as well as to show that the sufferings of the saints here are but for a while; that they are in love and kindness; and that they shall certainly enjoy the glory they are called unto by him; and which is the next thing by which he stands described,

who hath called us unto his eternal glory by Jesus Christ. This "call" is not a mere external one by the ministry of the word, which is not always effectual and unto salvation; but an internal, special, and efficacious one, and which is high, holy, heavenly, and unchangeable. The persons who are the subjects of it are us, whom God has chosen in Christ, and are preserved in him, and redeemed by him; and who are a select people, and distinguished from others, and yet in themselves no better than others; nay, often the vilest, meanest, and most contemptible. Some ancient copies read "you", and so do the Arabic and Ethiopic versions: what they are called to is "his eternal glory"; that which is glorious in itself, and is signified by what is the most glorious in this world, as a kingdom, crown, throne, inheritance, &c. and lies in constant and uninterrupted communion with Father, Son, and Spirit; in a complete vision of the glory of Christ, and in perfect conformity to him; in a freedom from all evil, and in a full enjoyment of all happiness: and this is "his", God the Father's; which he has prepared and provided for his people of his own grace, and which he freely gives unto them, and makes them meet for: and it is "eternal"; it will last for ever, and never pass away, as does the glory of this world; it is a continuing city, a never fading inheritance, an eternal weight of glory: and to this the saints are called "by", or "in Jesus Christ"; the glory they are called to is in his hands; and they themselves, by being called unto it, appear to be in him, and as such to belong unto him, or are the called of Christ Jesus; and besides, they are called by him, by his Spirit and grace, and into communion with him, and to the obtaining of his glory.

After that ye have suffered awhile, make you perfect, stablish, strengthen, settle you; some copies, and also the Vulgate Latin and Ethiopic versions, read these words in the future tense, not as a prayer, but as a promise, "shall make you perfect", &c. the sense is the same; for if it is a prayer, it is a prayer in faith, for what shall be done; for God will make his people "perfect": and which respects not their justification; for in that sense they are perfect already in Christ, their head, who has perfectly fulfilled the law for them, and fully expiated their sins; has completely redeemed them, and procured for them the pardon of all their trespasses; and has justified them from all their iniquities: but their sanctification; for though all grace is implanted in them at once, yet it is gradually brought to perfection; there is a perfection of parts, of all the parts of the new man, or creature, but not of degrees; and there is a comparative perfection with respect to themselves, before conversion, or with respect to hypocrites; for perfection oftentimes means no other than integrity and sincerity; or with respect to other Christians, who are weaker in knowledge and experience: and there is a perfection of holiness in Christ, who is their sanctification, but not in themselves; for every part of the work of grace is imperfect, as faith, love, knowledge, &c. and sin dwells in them, and they stand in need of fresh supplies of grace; and even the best of them disclaim perfection, though they greatly desire it, as here the apostle prays for it; and which shows that, as yet, they had it not, though they will have it hereafter in heaven, where there will be perfect knowledge, and perfect holiness, and perfect happiness. He also prays that God would "stablish" them, or believes and promises that he would. The people of God are in a safe and established state and condition already; they are in the arms of everlasting love, and in the hands of Christ, and in a sure and inviolable covenant of grace, and are built on the rock of ages; and are in a state of grace, of justifying, adopting, and sanctifying grace, from whence they can never finally and totally fall; and yet they are very often unstable in their hearts and frames, and in the exercise of grace, and discharge of duty, and in their adherence to the doctrines of the Gospel; and need to be established, and to have a more firm persuasion of their interest in the love of God, and a more steady view of their standing in Christ, and the covenant of his grace, and a more lively and comfortable exercise grace on him, and a more constant discharge of duty, and a more firm and closer adherence to the truths and ordinances of the Gospel; and they will have a consummate stability in heaven, where are sure dwelling places. Another petition, or promise, is, that God would "strengthen" them; which supposes them to be weak and feeble, not as to their state and condition, for their place of defence is the munition of rocks; nor in the same sense as natural men are, or as they themselves were before conversion; nor are they all alike weak, some are weaker in faith and knowledge, and of a more weak and scrupulous conscience than others, and are more easily drawn aside by corruptions and temptations, and are in greater afflictions: and this is to be understood, not of bodily, but spiritual strength; that God would strengthen their souls, and the work of his grace in them, their faith, hope, and love; and strengthen them to perform their duties, to withstand temptations, oppose their own corruptions, bear the cross, reproaches, and persecutions, and do their generation work: and he further adds, and "settle" you, or "found" you; not that God would now lay the foundation, Christ, for he had been laid by him ready in his counsels and decrees, and in the covenant of his grace, in the mission of him into this world, and by his Spirit in their hearts; nor that he would afresh lay them on Christ, the foundation, for they were there laid already, and were safe; but that he would build them up, and settle their faith on this foundation, that they might be rooted and grounded in the love of God, have a lively sense and firm persuasion of their interest in it, and be grounded and settled in the faith of the Gospel; be settled under a Gospel ministry, have a fixed abode in the house of God, enjoy the spiritual provisions of it, and have fellowship with Christ, and his people here; and at last enter and dwell in the city which has foundations, where they will be never more subject to wavering, instability, and inconstancy, and from whence they will never be removed; this will be their last and eternal settlement: and this will be "after" they have "suffered awhile"; in their bodies, characters, and estates, through the malice and wickedness of men; and in their souls, from their own corruptions, the temptations of Satan, and the hidings of God's face; which will be but for a very little while, for a moment, as it were; these are only the sufferings of this present time, and in the present evil world; nor are they inconsistent with God being the God of all grace unto them, or with their being called to eternal glory, the way to which lies through them; and they are the means of perfecting, establishing, strengthening, and settling them.

{13} But the God of all grace, who hath called us unto his eternal glory by Christ Jesus, after that ye have suffered a while, make you perfect, stablish, strengthen, settle you.

(13) He seals up as with a seal the former exhortation with a solemn prayer, again willing them to ask increase of strength at his hands, of whom they had the beginning, and hope to have the accomplishment: that is, of God the Father in Christ Jesus, in whom we are sure of the glory of eternal life.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
1 Peter 5:10-11. Promise of blessing and doxology.

ὁ δὲ Θεός, placed by way of emphasis at the beginning. That which has gone before has told the readers what they should do; in contrast to this (δέ), the apostle now says what God will do (Schott); with the expression: Θεὸς πάσης χάριτος, cf. 2 Corinthians 1:3 : Θεὸς πάσης παρακλήσεως. God as the author of all grace; χάρις conceived as a possession. Like the whole promise of blessing, this very designation of God serves to comfort and strengthen the readers in their afflictions.

ὁ καλέσας ὑμᾶς, κ.τ.λ.] cf. 1 Thessalonians 2:12 (2 Thessalonians 2:14); that is: to participation in His (God’s) own δόξα. The participation is here thought of as future, although for believing Christians it is even now present in its beginning (2 Peter 1:4). In this calling there is already contained the pledge of the promises that follow: καταρτίσει κ.τ.λ.

ἐν Χριστῷ belongs to καλέσας, more nearly defined by ὑμᾶς εἰς etc. (de Wette, Wiesinger, Schott), not to δόξαν (Hofmann). God possesses the glory not first in Christ, as Hofmann says, but He has had it from all eternity, although in Christ it is first revealed. Gerhard interprets incorrectly: propter meritum Christi. ἐν is by several interpreters inaccurately taken as equivalent to διά; but though ἐν denote instrumentality, this is of a more inward nature than that expressed by διά. The sense is: by God having brought you into union with Christ (thus also de Wette, Wiesinger, Schott). The connection of ἐν Χρ. with ὀλίγ. παθόντας following (Glossa interl.: sicut membra in illo patientes; Nicol de Lyra) has nothing to commend it.

ὀλίγον παθόντας] ὀλίγον, as in chap. 1 Peter 1:6 : “a little while.”

παθόντας is to be joined with καλέσας κ.τ.λ. (Steiger, de Wette, Wiesinger), but in such a way that in sense it does not apply so much to καλέσας, as to the obtaining of the δόξα of God, since the aorist must not arbitrarily be interpreted as a present. Hofmann rightly observes: “Peter subjoins this aorist participle as if it had been preceded by εἰς τὸ δοξάζεσθαι.”[281] Lachmann and Tischendorf (om. ὙΜᾶς after ΚΑΤΑΡΤΊΣΕΙ) have connected these words with what follows, as also the Vulg. translates: modicum passos ipse perficiet (so also Wichelhaus). Many, particularly among the older commentators, even retaining the ὙΜᾶς, have adopted this construction; Luther: “The same will make you, that suffer a little while, fully prepared,” etc. Opposed to this, however, is as much the fact that the ΚΑΤΑΡΤΊΖΕΙΝ does not take place after the afflictions only, but during them, as that the present affliction and the future glory belong closely together; cf. 1 Peter 5:1.

If, as is highly probable, the ὑμᾶς after ΚΑΤΑΡΤΊΣΕΙ be spurious, it must be supplied out of the ὙΜᾶς that precedes.

ΑὐΤΌς] is placed emphatically: the God …, who hath called you, He will, etc., the same God; the calling already contains the guarantee for the καταρτίζειν, κ.τ.λ.

καταρτίσει, κ.τ.λ.] ΚΑΤΑΡΤΊΖΕΙΝ, Luke 6:40; 1 Corinthians 1:10; Hebrews 13:21; Luther rightly translates: “fully prepare;” Bengel: ne remaneat in vobis defectus.

στηρίζειν, 2 Thessalonians 2:17; 2 Thessalonians 3:3, and other passages. Bengel: ne quid vos labefactet.

ΣΘΕΝΟῦΝ, ἍΠ. ΛΕΓ. Bengel: ut superetis vim omnem adversam.

ΘΕΜΕΛΙΟῦΝ (see the critical notes); in its proper sense, Matthew 7:25; Luke 6:48; figuratively: Ephesians 3:18 (ΤΕΘΕΜΕΛΙΩΜΈΝΟΙ synonymous with ἘῤῬΙΖΩΜΈΝΟΙ); Colossians 1:23 (synonymous with ἙΔΡΑῖΟΙ).

The future expresses the sure expectation that, as the apostle wishes, God will perfect, etc., the believers.

If ΚΑΤΑΡΤΊΣΑΙ be read, this form must not be taken as the infinitive (Pott), but as the optative.[282]

The heaping up of expressions connected by asyndeton is rhetorical, and arises from the natural impulse of an agitated heart to find full expression for its feelings.—1 Peter 5:11. The same doxology as in chap. 1 Peter 4:11. It sets the seal on the hope just expressed.

[281] Schott’s explanation, that “to the apostle as he looks from the present, in so far as it already contains their completion, back on the present of actual reality, the sufferings appear as past,” is inappropriate.

[282] Erasmus, by first reading καταρτίσαι and then στηρίξει, etc., understands this and the subsequent words as substantives: perficiet fultura confirmatione, fundatione.1 Peter 5:10. Your adversary assails you, but God has called you to His eternal glory; first for a little you must suffer, His grace will supply all your needs. 1 Peter 5:9 is practically a parenthesis; ὁ θεός stands over against ὁ ἀντίδικος (1 Peter 5:8) as δέ shows.—ὁ καλέσας, for the promise of sustenance implied in the calling; cf. 1 Thessalonians 5:23 f.; 1 Corinthians 1:8 f.—ἐν Χριστῷ goes with δόξαν; God called them in Christ and only as they are in Christ can they enter the glory; cf. 2 Corinthians 5:17-19, εἴ τις ἐν Χριστῷ καινὴ κτίσιςθεὸς ἦν ἐν Χριστῷ κόσμον καταλλάσσων ἑαυτῷ.—ὀλίλον παθόντας, after you have suffered for a little while. The same contrast between temporary affliction and the eternal glory is drawn by St. Paul in 2 Corinthians 4:17, τὸ παραυτίκα ἐλαφρὸν τῆς θλίψεωαἰώνιον βάρος δόξης κατεργάζεται, where in addition to the antithesis between eternal glory and temporary suffering the weight of glory (play on meanings of root יקר) is opposed to the lightness of tribulation.—αὐτός has the force of πιστὸς ὁ καλῶν (1 Thessalonians 5:24).—καταρτίσει, shall perfect. When Simon and Andrew were called to leave their fishing and become fishers of men James and John were themselves also in a boat mending—κατατίζοντας—their nets (Mark 1:16-19). The process was equally necessary in their new fishing and the word was naturally applied to the mending of the Churches or individual Christians who by their good behaviour must catch men (see e.g., 1 Corinthians 1:10). Only God can fully achieve this mending of all shortcomings; cf. Hebrews 13:21.—στηρίξει, shall confirm; cf. 2 Thessalonians 2:17, etc.; when the Kingdom of Heaven was stormed the stormers needed confirmation (Acts 18:23). This was the peculiar work assigned to St. Peter—thou having converted confirmστήρισονthe brethren (Luke 22:32).—σθενώσει is only apparently unique, being equivalent to ἐνισχύσει or δυναμώσει (Hesychius) cf. Colossians 1:11, ἐν πάσῃ δυνάμει δυναμώμενοι κατὰ τὸ κράτος τῆς δόξης αὐτοῦ and Hebrews 11:34, ἐδυναμώθησαν ἀπὸ ἀσθενείας (parallel to ὀλίγον παθ. above).10. But the God of all grace] Rather, as there is no implied contrast, “And the God of all grace.” The epithet, like “the God of all comfort,” in 2 Corinthians 1:3, implies that God is the Author and Giver of all grace that the child of God needs. In connexion with this attribute of God, there follows the fact that He had called those to whom the Apostle writes to nothing less than a share in His “eternal glory.” It may be noted, as bearing on the question as to the authorship of the Second Epistle, that the same description occurs there also (2 Peter 1:3). But this calling is “in Christ,” i.e not merely by Him as the instrument through whom the call came, but as being “in Him,” i.e. by virtue of our union with Him.

after that ye have suffered a while] Literally, suffered a little; but the context, contrasting the transient suffering with the eternal glory, as well as the use of the same adverb in chap. 1 Peter 1:6, justifies us in taking the word of time rather than degree.

make you perfect, stablish, strengthen, settle you] The English verb follows the Received Text in taking the Greek verb as optative. Most of the better MSS., however, give the future tense, “will make you perfect …,” expressing not the prayer of the Apostle, but his firm and steadfast confidence. Each verb has a distinct meaning. That for “make you perfect” implies, as in Matthew 4:21; Luke 6:40; 1 Corinthians 1:10, restoring to completeness; that for “stablish,” as 2 Thessalonians 2:17; 2 Thessalonians 3:3, the fixity of Christians; that for “strengthen” (not found elsewhere in the New Testament) giving power to resist attack. In “settle” (literally, to lay a foundation), as in Matthew 7:25, Luke 6:48, which may well have been in the Apostle’s thoughts, we have the idea of building up the spiritual life upon Christ as the one foundation (1 Corinthians 3:11).1 Peter 5:10. Πάσης χάριτος) of all and unmixed grace, which begins and completes, which calls and settles (founds). [It is an act of grace, when GOD sends even sufferings upon us.—V. g.]—ἐν, in) Taken with who hath called.—ὀλίγον, a little) However great it seems, it is little and short in comparison with eternal glory.—παθόντας, when you have suffered) Some sufferings are to be endured, then perfection comes, etc.—αὐτὸς, He Himself) [without the aid of man]. Do you only watch, and resist the enemy: God will perform the rest. Comp. the I, Joshua 13:6; Joshua 13:1.—καταρτίσει, will perfect) so that no defect remain in you. The Doxology which follows agrees with the Indicative, rather than with the Optative, which some here read.[42] Comp. 1 Timothy 1:17; 2 Timothy 4:18.—ΣΤΗΡΊΞΕΙ, will stablish) so that nothing may cause you to waver.—σθενώσει, will strengthen) so that you may overcome all the violence of your adversaries. A saying worthy of Peter. He is strengthening his brethren.

[42] καταρτίσει, στηρίξει, etc., in the Future, is the reading of AB and most Versions, except that, whilst many MSS. of Vulg. read “confirmabit,” Amiat. MS. reads “confirmavit:” the latter, however, has “perficiet.” Rec Text reads the optative, καταρτίσαι, στηρίξαι, etc.—E.Verse 10. - But the God of all grace (comp. 2 Corinthians 1:3, "the God of all comfort"). St. Peter has finished his exhortations; he has told his readers what they must do; he now bids them look to God, and tells them where they will find strength. God will work within them both to will and to do of his good pleasure; for he is the God of all grace. All that grace by which we are saved, without which we can do nothing, comes from him as its Author and Source. Who hath called us unto his eternal glory by Christ Jesus; rather, who called you... in Christ Jesus. All the best manuscripts read "you" instead of us. Two of the most ancient omit "Jesus" here. God called us "in Christ;" that is, through spiritual union with Christ; the glory is promised to these who are one with Christ; for the glory is Christ's, and his members will share it. The very end and purpose of our calling was that we might inherit that glory. This is the apostle's great topic of consolation. After that ye have suffered a while; literally, a little. The word may refer to the degree, as well as to the duration, of the sufferings. They are transient; the glory is eternal. They may seem very severe, but they are light in comparison with that "far more exceeding and eternal weight of glory." Make you perfect, stablish, strengthen, settle you. The manuscripts vary between the future and the optative in these four verbs; the preponderance of evidence seems in favor of the future. The emphatic pronoun αὐτός must not be omitted. Translate therefore, "shall himself make you perfect." He only can "perfect what is lacking in our faith" (1 Thessalonians 3:10, where the same verb is used); and he will do it. This is our hope and encouragement. The verb καταρτίζω means "to finish, to complete, to repair." It is the word used in the account of the calling of Peter and Andrew, James and John, by the Sea of Galilee, when the two last were in the ship with Zebedee their father, mending καταρτίζοντας their nets. God will repair, bring to completion, what is lacking in the character of his chosen, if they persevere in prayer, if they are sober and vigilant (comp. 1 Corinthians 1:10; 2 Corinthians 13:11, etc.). Stablish στηρίξει. The Lord had said to St. Peter, "When thou art converted, strengthen στήριξον thy brethren" (Luke 22:32); Peter remembers his Master's words. Strengthen σθενώσει. The word occurs only here. Settle θεμελιώσει; literally, "shall ground you, shall give you a firm foundation." "Digna Petro oratio, 'Confirmat fratres sues,'" says Bengel (comp. Ephesians 3:17; 2 Timothy 2:19; 1 Corinthians 3:11). The word is omitted in the Vatican and Alexandrine Manuscripts; but it is found in the Sinaitic and other manuscripts and versions, and ought to be retained. Who hath called us (ὁ καλέσας ἡμᾶς)

But the tense is the aorist, and the true reading is ὑμᾶς, you, instead of us. Render, therefore, as Rev., who called you; before the foundation of the world. See Romans 8:29, Romans 8:30, and compare unto his eternal glory and them he also glorified.

By Christ Jesus (ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ)

The best texts omit Jesus. So Rev., which also renders, better, in Christ, denoting the sphere or element in which the calling and its results take place: "Christ as the life, head, and very principle of all existence to the Christian" (Cook).

Awhile (ὀλίγον)

Rev., more literally, a little while. See on 1 Peter 1:6.

Make you perfect, etc

The Tex. Rec. makes this and the three following verbs in the optative mood, expressing a wish. So the A. V. But the best texts make them all indicative future, and thus convert the wish or prayer into an assurance. Thus, then,

Shall himself perfect (αὐτὸς καταρτίσει)

The A. V. overlooks the αὐτὸς, himself, which is very significant as indicating God's personal interest and energy in the work of confirming his children.

Shall perfect. Rev. reads restore, in margin. The root of this word appears in ἄρω or ἀραρίσκω, to fit or join together. So ἄρθρον means a joint. The radical notion of the verb is, therefore, adjustment - the putting of all the parts into right relation and connection. We find it used of mending the nets (Matthew 4:21), and of restoring an erring brother (Galatians 6:1); of framing the body and the worlds (Hebrews 10:5; Hebrews 11:3); of the union of members in the church (1 Corinthians 1:10; 2 Corinthians 13:11). Out of this comes the general sense of perfecting (Matthew 21:16; Luke 6:40; 1 Thessalonians 3:10).

Shall stablish (στηρίξει)

The word is akin at the root to στερεός, steadfast (1 Peter 5:9), and is the very word used by Christ in his exhortation to Peter, "strengthen thy brethren" (Luke 22:32). Possibly there is a reminiscence of this in Peter's use of the word here. Compare 1 Thessalonians 3:13; 2 Thessalonians 2:17; James 5:8; Revelation 3:2.

Shall strengthen (σθενώσει)

continued...

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