And he shall bring his trespass offering to the LORD for his sin which he has sinned, a female from the flock, a lamb or a kid of the goats, for a sin offering; and the priest shall make an atonement for him concerning his sin.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)And he shall bring his trespass offering . . . a lamb or a kid of the goats.—Better, a sheep, or a shaggy she-goat (see Leviticus 4:23; Leviticus 4:32). The first thing to be noticed is that the sacrifice is here called (āshām) “trespass offering,” which is the right rendering of the word, and is so translated in thirty-five out of the thirty-six passages in which it is used for a sacrifice. In the verse before us, and in the rest of this section, viz., Leviticus 5:7-13, which treat of this sacrifice, no distinction is made between the ranks of the offenders. There is no special legislation for the high priest, the whole congregation, or the prince, as in the case with the (chātāth) sin offering, which is described in the former chapter. The spiritual officer and temporal sovereign are here on a level with the ordinary layman. There is no scale in the sacrifices corresponding to the position of the sinner. They are all alike to bring the same victim, either sheep or she goat. Though nothing is here said about the sacrificial rites which were to be performed in connection with the victim, in this case it is implied that, apart from the minor deviations here specified, they were to be the same as those in connection with the sin offering. The rule which obtained during the second Temple, is as follows: the trespass offerings were killed, and their blood sprinkled, as is before described in Numbers 4; they were then flayed, the fat and the inwards taken out and salted, and strewed on the fire upon the altar. The residue of this flesh was eaten by the priests in the court, like the sin offerings.Leviticus 5:6. His trespass-offering — But how come confession and sacrifice to be necessary for him that touched an unclean thing, when such persons were cleansed with simple washing, as appears from Leviticus 11., and Numbers 19.? This place speaks of him that being so unclean did come into the tabernacle, as may be gathered by comparing this place with Numbers 19:13; which if any man did, knowing himself to be unclean, which was the case there, he was to be cut off for it; and if he did it ignorantly, which was the case here, he was, upon discovery of it, to offer this sacrifice.Leviticus 5:14 note).Quest. How comes confession and a sacrifice to be necessary for him that touched an unclean thing, when such persons were cleansed with simple washing, as appears from Le 11 Num 19?
Answ. This place speaks of him that being so unclean did come into the tabernacle, as may be gathered by comparing this place with Numbers 19:13, which if any man did, knowing himself to be unclean, which was the case there, he was to be cut off for it; and if he did it ignorantly, which is the case here, Leviticus 4:2, he was upon discovery of it to offer this sacrifice. Interpreters dispute much what the difference is between sins and trespasses, and between sin-offerings and trespass-offerings. Some make the one for omissions, the other for commissions; the one for greater, the other for lesser sins; the one for known sins, the other for sins of ignorance; in all which there seems to be more curiosity than solidity. Either they seem to be the same, as may be gathered from Leviticus 4:6, where those two words, asham and theta, which they so carefully and critically distinguish, are both used concerning the trespass-offerings, and from Leviticus 4:9; or the difference may be this, that sin-offerings were more indefinite or general, being for any particular sin, and trespass-offerings more restrained and particular, for such sins as were more scandalous and injurious, either to God by blasphemy, as Leviticus 4:1, or to his sanctuary, by approaching to it in one’s uncleanness, Leviticus 4:2,3, as hath been now said; or to one’s neighbour, by swearing to do to them either the good which we afterwards cannot or do not, or the evil which we should not; or to the priests and holy things of God, Leviticus 4:15.
A female; because those sins were less than others, as being committed ignorantly or unwittingly, and therefore God would accept a meaner sacrifice for them. Isaiah 53:10 where the same word is used as here:
a female from the flock, a lamb, or kid of the goats, for a sin offering; it is generally thought there was a difference between a trespass offering and a sin offering; but it is not easy to say wherein the difference lies; and what has been observed by learned men is not very satisfactory: and certain it is, that the same offering is here called both a trespass offering and a sin offering; and such as were men of substance, and capable of it, were to bring a female lamb or kid; it being for sins of ignorance, a sacrifice of a less value was admitted; yet it must be a lamb, typical of Christ the Lamb of God; and atonement cannot be made, even for sins of ignorance, but by the blood and sacrifice of Christ:
and the priest shall make an atonement for him concerning his sin; that is, by offering his sacrifice for him, which was a type of the atonement made by the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb without spot and blemish.And he shall bring his trespass offering unto the LORD for his sin which he hath sinned, a female from the flock, a lamb or a kid of the goats, for a sin offering; and the priest shall make an atonement for him concerning his sin.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)6. his guilt offering] The Heb. word ’âshâm, guilt, here and in Leviticus 5:7 is also translated guilt (trespass A.V.) offering in Leviticus 5:15-16; Leviticus 5:18, Leviticus 6:6 (for the attitude of the Heb. mind which led to this ambiguity in the sense of ’âshâm see Kennett, etc. Conceptions of Righteousness and Sin, p. 8). But the offering here brought is described as a Sin-Offering, and the two birds of Leviticus 5:7 are intended the one for a Sin-Offering, and the other for a Burnt-Offering. Moreover the substitute for the offering of Leviticus 5:7-10 (Leviticus 5:11-13) is twice called a Sin-Offering. In the regulations for the Sin-Offering (Leviticus 4:13; Leviticus 4:22; Leviticus 4:27, Leviticus 5:2-4) the bringer of a Sin-Offering is described as guilty (’âshçm), and from 2 Kings 12:16 (‘money for the guilt offerings,’ A.V. ‘trespass money,’ Heb. késeph’âshâm) it appears that Guilt-Offerings were sometimes brought in money. It seems that in these verses the Sin-Offering is regarded as a fine due from one who is guilty, and the clause might be translated ‘and he shall bring as his guilt-fine unto the Lord,’ and similarly in Leviticus 5:7. From the LXX. rendering in Leviticus 5:7 it is possible, but by no means certain, that they read ‘he shall bring his Sin-Offering for that wherein he hath sinned.’ If this reading be adopted, the unusual meaning of’ âshâm will be confined to Leviticus 5:6.
for his sin which he hath sinned] more literally, as his penalty which he has incurred by sin.Genesis 23:7), that is to say, of an Israelite belonging to the people, as distinguished from the chiefs who ruled over the people (2 Kings 11:18-19; 2 Kings 16:15), the sin-offering was to consist of a shaggy she-goat without blemish, or a ewe-sheep (Leviticus 4:32). The ceremonial in both cases was the same as with the he-goat (Leviticus 4:23.). - "According to the offerings made by fire unto the Lord" (Leviticus 4:35): see at Leviticus 3:5.
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