And the LORD discomfited them before Israel, and slew them with a great slaughter at Gibeon, and chased them along the way that goes up to Bethhoron, and smote them to Azekah, and to Makkedah.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)Beth-horon—is identified as Beit’ Ur.
(11) Great stones from heaven.—Compare Job 38:22-23, “Hast thou seen the treasures of the hail, which I have reserved against the time of trouble, against the day of battle and war?” The employment of the artillery of heaven against Jehovah’s enemies was there foretold by Himself.
(12-15)—The whole of this paragraph appears to be a quotation from the Book of Jasher. That book is mentioned also in 2Samuel 1:18, where the lament of David over Saul and Jonathan appears to be a citation from it. We may compare Numbers 21:14; Numbers 21:27, where reference is made to poetical passages either current among the people (as national ballads) or actually written. The name Jasher (upright) is not taken as the name of an author, and what it refers to no one knows. From the fact that all the passages cited in this way are more or less poetical, we may infer that there was a poetical literature among the Hebrews (partly written, partly unwritten) from which the inspired writers occasionally made extracts. The songs of Moses, including the ninetieth Psalm, belong to this literature.
The fact that the great miracle of the Book of Joshua is recorded in this form is, to those who believe that Joshua was the original author of the book, a remarkable proof of the impression which the miracle had’ made upon the minds of the people. Even before the death of the hero of the story, it had come to be told in a set form of words, in which the ear could tolerate no alteration. As in later times they sang, “Saul hath slain his thousands and David his ten thousands,” so. they appear to have recited the deed of Joshua. “Then spake Joshua to the Lord.” The form of the original sentence, “Then speaketh Joshua,” &c., is suitable to this view.
(12) And he said in the sight of Israel, Sun, stand thou still . . .—It is not impossible to read thus: “And he said, In the sight of Israel sun in Gibeon be thou still (dumb); and, moon, in the valley of Ajalon.” But we do not seem to gain anything by supposing that the miracle was only apparent—i.e., that the light of the sun and moon was retained in its position, while the heavenly bodies themselves—viz., earth, moon, and sun—maintained their actual course (for the sun moves). Nor, again, can we accept the view of some, that it was the night, not the day, that was specially prolonged. The word used for the sun’s standing still is peculiar, and signifies to be dumb or silent. We may compare with this metaphor the words of Psalm 19:3-4, “There is no speech nor language, where their voice is not heard. Their line is gone out through all the earth, and their words to the end of the world.” Joshua’s command was that the sun should for the time silence that penetrating voice, and be dumb from those all-prevailing words. Translated into technical language, the command would be to suspend the motion of the earth round its axis, and that of the moon round the earth. At the same time the earth was left free to move round the sun, and the moon to revolve (if it does revolve) on its own axis. The objection which we sometimes hear, that if the earth had stopped in its orbit it would have fallen into the sun, is nothing to the purpose (supposing its Maker to have arrested its motion in such an imperfect and clumsy manner), for Joshua did not ask that it should cease to move in its orbit, only that it should cease the revolution which causes day and night to succeed each other at fixed intervals. Gravitation does not touch this.
How the miracle was done we are not informed. But if we understand the narrative literally, the problem is, How to suspend the motion of the earth upon its axis, and the motion of the moon round the earth, for twelve hours, the earth being free to move round the sun, and the moon free to revolve upon her axis, if these motions are independent of the others. And if they are not independent, it is not easy to say why a perfect solilunar cycle is not more readily obtained. This problem should be solved before men can assert the thing to be impossible. The late Professor Mozley has well shown, in his Bampton Lectures, that the presumption against a miracle of this kind is not a reasonable presumption. For, on the other hand, the presumption that the sun will rise to-morrow, and that the day will be of a given length, is not based upon reason at all, however strongly it may be felt by mankind. But many who do not doubt that the Creator could perform the miracle (as easily as an engine-driver can stop an engine at full speed, or a skilful finger arrest the progress of a watch without injury to the works), nevertheless hesitate to believe that He would have done such a thing under the stated circumstances and for the proposed end. The answer to this objection is, that the history of the chosen people in Holy Scripture is a series of miracles. The miracles of Moses and Elijah and Elisha are not less wonderful than this. The three days’ darkness in Egypt, the sign that was given to Hezekiah, which brought inquirers from Babylon (2Chronicles 32:31), the star that conducted the wise men from the East to Bethlehem, and the miraculous darkness at the crucifixion, were wonders of the same kind. Holy Scripture expressly informs us that there will be “signs in the sun and in the moon and in the stars.” Astronomers speak calmly of the possibility of the extinction of the solar fires. Can they tell us what would be the effect of a partial, gradual, or momentary extinction? At least Holy Scripture is consistent throughout, in the view that the God of Israel never spared a sign or a wonder that might further His purposes towards His people. As for the remark made by one commentator, that the silence of other contemporary records is a presumption against the miracle in its literal sense, we ask, Where are the contemporary records that are silent?
At the same time, if any one finds it easier to believe that the motions of the earth, sun, and moon were continued, and the light only was arrested in its course, the Scripture does not forbid that view. But there is still a question left unsolved even then. Why did Joshua bid the moon stand still as well as the sun to be silent? In any case, indeed, this is a remarkable feature of the story. It must not be forgotten that while we know the law and rate of the earth’s motion, we do not entirely understand what the CAUSE of the motion is, and therefore it is impossible to state what must be done in order to arrest the motion for a time.
Upon Gibeon; and . . . in the valley of Ajalon.—The two prepositions are the same in Hebrew. It seems to be an order that the sun should not go down, and the moon cease to rise.
EXCURSUS TO NOTES ON JOSHUA. THE DEFEAT OF THE FIVE KINGS AT GIBEON
THE DEFEAT OF THE FIVE KINGS AT GIBEON(Joshua 10:10-12).
IT was not until I had an opportunity of verifying the course of the combatants on the large Ordnance Map with the sheets fitted together that I was able to form a clear and connected notion of the proceedings of that memorable day. It appears to me that the scene described is this:—
When the five kings of the Amorites besieged Gibeon, the Gibeonites sent a hasty appeal to Joshua for help. Joshua replied by a night march from Gilgal, which brought the host of Israel to Gibeon at early dawn. The Amorite army was surprised, and speedily took to flight. Being attacked from the east, they naturally fled westward, and took the road to Beth-horon. An ancient road from Gibeon (El-Jîb) still passes both the Beth-horons, first the upper (Beit’ur El-Foka), then the lower (Beit’ur Et-Tahta). They are about two miles apart. The road then turns southward (the Beth-horons lie slightly to the northwest of Gibeon), and leads to the border of Philistia. Beth-horon the upper Isaiah 2, 022 feet above the sea; Beth-horon the nether 1,310 feet above the sea; the points about Gibeon varying from 2,300 to 2,500 feet in height. But the road from Gibeon to Beth-horon appears at first to ascend slightly, and then to descend. From Beth-horon the upper there is a steep descent of nearly 600 feet in the first half mile, and from Beth-horon the nether a continuous slope towards Philistia. Ajalon (Yâlo), about five miles south-west of Beth-horon the nether, is only 940 feet above the Mediterranean. Azekah is not identified, but was probably somewhere near Amwâs. Makkedah is thought by Conder to be El-Mughâr, in Philistia, the only place in the district where there are caves. Ajalon and Gibeon are about nine miles apart in a straight line, due east and west of each other, and El-Mughâr (Makkedah) is about eighteen miles from Beth-horon the nether. These are the geographical data. Now as to what occurred.
When Joshua and his army were in pursuit of the Amorites from Gibeon towards the west, the sun was rising behind them. They presently saw—what we so often see in the early morning—the moon in front of them on the west, just setting in the valley of Ajalon, and the sun behind them over Gibeon on the east. It was the height of summer (as appears by the date of the passage of Jordan, and the commencement of the war, Joshua 5, 6), and in a little while the heat would prevent or greatly retard further operations. A sudden inspiration now seized Joshua, and he requested that the cool morning hours—the best time for battle—might be prolonged. Let the sun remain in the east, and the moon in the west, until the discomfiture of the Amorite army was complete. “So the sun stood still in the one-half of the heavens”—in the eastern hemisphere—“and hasted not to go down about a whole day.” It may be observed that the book which mentions the sun oftener than any other in the Old Testament describes his course thus: “The sun ariseth, and the sun goeth down, and hasteth to his place where he arose” (Ecclesiastes 1:5). Between his rising and setting nothing else is named. So the sun arose on Joshua and on Joshua’s enemies. He arose, and his course was then arrested. He was not permitted to go down, or to pass over to the western side of the heavens, until the enemies of Israel had disappeared. We may add that the sun’s position in the east over Gibeon was the very best for Israel, and the worst possible for the Amorites. The pursuit being westward, whenever the flying Amorites attempted to turn and rally, the level or slant rays of the sun were full in their faces, and they could not see to fight, while their pursuers had the best possible view of them. Presently, in the descent of Beth-horon (not “the going down to Beth-horon,” as in the English Version; but either in the steep descent from the upper to the lower town, or more probably in the long descent from the lower Beth-horon to Azekah, on the borders of Philistia), a storm of hail burst upon them, and followed them to the plain. “They were more that died with hailstones than they whom Israel slew with the sword.” At length, after a flight of some five-and-twenty miles, the kings found shelter in the cave at Makkedah. Even then the pursuit was not ended. Under the shadow of the clouds that had obscured the heavens, while the sun made his way westward, the Israelites still hunted down their beaten foes, until the remnant found shelter in the fortresses. Then, in the afternoon, Joshua and his warriors returned to Makkedah, and unearthed the five kings to die. Even for the trained soldiers of the wilderness, that day’s work must have been a severe trial. The night march from Gilgal to Gibeon, and the pursuit to Makkedah, cover forty miles of country, measured in a direct line. The time is some thirty-six hours, allowing for the miraculous prolongation of the day. But the whole story is consistent; and Makkedah was an admirable starting-point for the attack upon the fortresses which followed, and which occupied the Israelitish army during the remainder of the campaign.
In Dean Stanley’s account of the battle, the sun is made to stand still at noon—in the middle of the day. But the mid-day sun does not appear to be “upon” any place in particular; the morning and evening suns do. Gibeon and Ajalon are only about nine miles apart. To see the sun upon Gibeon and the moon upon Ajalon it must be early morning, and one must be between the two places. Five miles from Gibeon would soon be accomplished. If the battle began at daybreak, a single hour after sunrise would be sufficient to bring the pursuers and pursued to the required spot. “The midst of heaven” (Hebrew, the one half of the heaven) does not seem to mean the meridian, but the one hemisphere as opposed to the other.
Again, Dean Stanley makes the hail come up from the westward. But the narrative says, “As they were in the going down of Beth-horon, the Lord cast down great stones from heaven upon them unto Azekah.” All down the slope the hail followed them, for some seven or eight miles. It is much more natural for a storm of hail to come from the hills towards the plain than vice versâ. Do not the hail and snow in Palestine more generally come from the north and east than from the sea?Joshua 10:10. At Gibeon — That is, near Gibeon; for it is plain they were not in the city; and so ought we to take the particle at, in many other places of Scripture, as signifying no more than nigh unto. Along the way that goeth up to Beth-horon — That is, to the place which was afterward called by that name; for there was no such place at the time of this battle, it being built after they were settled in Canaan, as we read 1 Chronicles 7:24. And it probably was so called from the miraculous destruction which overtook the enemies of Israel here; for Beth-horon signifies the place of anger or fury. It stood upon a hill, as appears by the expression here used, of going up to Beth-horon.Joshua 10:11; and here the Amorites were crushed by the hailstones. The main road from Jerusalem and the Jordan valley to the seacoast lay through the pass of Beth-horon; and, accordingly, both the Beth-horons were secured by Solomon with strong fortifications 2 Chronicles 8:5. It was in this pass that Judas Maccabaeus routed the Syrians under Seron (1 Macc. 3:13ff). and here also, according to Jewish traditions, the destruction of the host of Sennacherib took place 2 Kings 19:35.
Azekah, which has not been as yet certainly identified, was in the hill country, between the mountains around Gibeon and the plain (see the marginal reference). It was fortified by Rehoboam 2 Chronicles 11:9 and besieged by the Babylonians Jeremiah 34:7 shortly before the captivity. It was an inhabited city after the return from the exile Nehemiah 11:30.
Makkedah - The exact site of this town is uncertain. It was situated in the plain between the mountains and the line of seacoast which the Philistines held Joshua 15:41, and no great way northeast of Libnab Joshua 12:15-16. (Warren (Conder) identifies it with the modern el Mughhar, a village on the south side of the valley of Torek.)
10, 11. the Lord discomfited them—Hebrew, "terrified," confounded the Amorite allies, probably by a fearful storm of lightning and thunder. So the word is usually employed (1Sa 7:10; Ps 18:13; 144:6).
and slew them with a great slaughter at Gibeon—This refers to the attack of the Israelites upon the besiegers. It is evident that there had been much hard fighting around the heights of Gibeon, for the day was far spent before the enemy took to flight.
chased them along the way that goeth up to Beth-horon—that is, "the House of Caves," of which there are still traces existing. There were two contiguous villages of that name, upper and nether. Upper Beth-horon was nearest Gibeon—about ten miles distant, and approached by a gradual ascent through a long and precipitous ravine. This was the first stage of the flight. The fugitives had crossed the high ridge of Upper Beth-horon, and were in full flight down the descent to Beth-horon the Nether. The road between the two places is so rocky and rugged that there is a path made by means of steps cut in the rock [Robinson]. Down this pass Joshua continued his victorious rout. Here it was that the Lord interposed, assisting His people by means of a storm, which, having been probably gathering all day, burst with such irresistible fury, that "they were more which died with hailstones than they whom the children of Israel slew with the sword." The Oriental hailstorm is a terrific agent; the hailstones are masses of ice, large as walnuts, and sometimes as two fists; their prodigious size, and the violence with which they fall, make them always very injurious to property, and often fatal to life. The miraculous feature of this tempest, which fell on the Amorite army, was the entire preservation of the Israelites from its destructive ravages.Slew them, or, he slew them; either God or Israel; for God’s work is described Joshua 10:11.
At Gibeon, Heb. in Gibeon; not in the city, but in the territory belonging to it; as Joshua is said to be in Jericho, Joshua 5:13.
and slew them with a great slaughter at Gibeon; by the Israelites, who came upon them suddenly:
and chased them along the way that goeth up to Bethhoron; there were two places of this name, the upper and the nether, both built by Sherah, the daughter or granddaughter of Ephraim, 1 Chronicles 7:24; therefore here so called by anticipation. It was about an hundred furlongs, or twelve miles and a half, according to Josephus (o), from Jerusalem, which agrees with Eusebius and Jerom; and from Gibeon thither, it was fifty furlongs, or six miles and a quarter; so far the kings were pursued by Joshua and his army, at least unto the ascent of it; for being built on a hill, it had an ascent on one side, and a descent on the other, after mentioned, and both were very narrow passages; of the former it is said in the Talmud (p), that if two camels go up the ascent to Bethhoron, they both fall; upon which the gloss says, it is a narrow place, and there is no way to turn to the right hand, or the left:
and smote them to Azekah, and unto Makkedah; the former of which is placed by Jerom (q) between Eleutheropolis and Jerusalem, and was a village in his days, and the other eight miles from Eleutheropolis, and both in the tribe of Judah, see Joshua 15:35; according to Bunting (r), they were both eight miles from Jerusalem towards the west.And the LORD discomfited them before Israel, and slew them with a great slaughter at Gibeon, and chased them along the way that goeth up to Bethhoron, and smote them to Azekah, and unto Makkedah.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)10. And the Lord discomfited them] “As often before and after,” so now, “not a man could stand before the awe and the panic of the sudden sound of the terrible shout, the sudden appearance of that undaunted host who came with the assurance not to fear, nor to be dismayed, but to be strong and of a good courage, for the Lord had delivered their enemies into their hands.” Comp. Jdg 4:15; 1 Samuel 7:10; 2 Samuel 22:15.
discomfited] Comp. Exodus 17:13, “And Joshua discomfited Amalek and his people with the edge of the sword;” 1 Samuel 7:10, “but the Lord thundered with a great thunder on that day upon the Philistines, and discomfited them;” 2 Samuel 22:15, “he sent out arrows, and scattered them; lightning, and discomfited them.” Discomfit comes from Fr. déconfire, It. sconfiggere, to rout, whence the substantive sconfitia, the original of all being the Latin configere, to fasten together; whence discomfit primarily signifies to unfasten; then to disintegrate, or break up a mass into the parts of which it is composed. Hence to break up an army, to disperse it.
before Israel] In Exodus 23:27, the promise is given that God will always do so before the foes of Israel.
up to Beth-horon] or “the House of caves” Notice the expression “along the way that goeth up to Beth-horon.” It was the first stage of the flight—in the long ascent from Gibeon towards Beth-horon the upper.
to Azekah] which lay in the Shephelah or rich agricultural plain. It was near Shochoh, and between the two places the Philistines encamped before the battle in which Goliath was killed (1 Samuel 17:1). It was afterwards fortified by Rehoboam (2 Chronicles 11:9), was still standing at the time of the Babylonish invasion (Jeremiah 34:7), and was reoccupied by the Jews after their return from the Captivity (Nehemiah 11:30).
unto Makkedah] Porter would identify it with a ruin on the northern slope of the Wady es Sunt, bearing the somewhat similar name of el-Klediah. Van de Velde would place it at Sumeil, a village standing on a low hill 6 or 7 miles N. W. of Beth-Jebrin.Verse 10. - Discomfited. The original meaning of the word is to disturb, put in motion. Hence, as here, to throw into con. fusion, put to rout. Going up to Beth-horon. Beth-horon, or the house of the hollow, consisted of two towns. The one is now called Belt Ur el Foka, or Upper Belt Ur, the other Belt Ur el Tachta, or Lower Beit Ur. To the former led a difficult pass from Gibeon, called the ascent מַעֲלֵה) to Beth-horon. From the former to the latter ran a path so rocky and rugged that steps have been made in the rock to facilitate the descent. This is the "going down" (מורַד) to Beth-horon, mentioned in the next verse. So Maccabees 3:16-24. (Cf. Robinson, vol. 3. see. 9). Speaking of the view from Beth-horon, he says, The prospect included the hill country and the plain as far as the eye could reach .... Upon the side of the long hill that skirts the valley on the south, we could perceive a small village on the W.S.W. called Yalo." To Azekah. See Joshua 15:35; cf. 1 Samuel 17:1. This place is known to after Jewish history, having been fortified by Rehoboam (2 Chronicles 11:9), besieged by Nebuchadnezzar (Jeremiah 34:7), which shows it to have been a place of some importance. It continued to be inhabited after the captivity (Nehemiah 11:30), and has been identified by Vandevelde with Ahbek, a place standing upon a mountain. He supposes it to have been identical with the Aphek in Judah (1 Samuel 4:1). But this would be better identified with Aphekah (Joshua 15:53). Lieut. Conder ('Palest. Expl. Quart. Paper,' Oct., 1875) identifies it with a place called Deir el Aashek, eight miles north of Shochoh. But apparently in the 'Handbook' he has abandoned this idea, though he makes no reference to this passage. And unto Makkedah. One of the lowland cities of Judah (see Joshua 15:41). Vandevelde identifies it with Summeil, a place where there are the ruins of a very ancient city (see ver. 28), built of large uncemented stones, a sign of great antiquity, and a large cave, such as that described in ver. 16. See Robinson, vol. 2. p. 368, who gives not a hint, however, that it is to be identified with Makkedah, nor does he mention a cave. Lieut. Conder ('Palest. Expl. Quart. Paper,' July, 1875) identifies it with the present E1 Moghar (The Caves), twenty-five miles from Gibeon along the valley of Ajalon, where several caves are found, the only ones, apparently, in the district. Summeil is a very long distance from Gibeon, and if we are to identify this with Makkedah, which there appears no ground for doing, supernatural assistance would have been required in more than one way for so protracted a pursuit during the same day. Genesis 14:18), was the proper name of the town, which was also frequently called by the name of its Canaanitish inhabitants Jebus (Judges 19:10-11; 1 Chronicles 11:4), or "city of the Jebusite" (Ir-Jebusi, Judges 19:11), sometimes also in a contracted form, Jebusi (היבוּסי, Joshua 18:16, Joshua 18:28; Joshua 15:8; 2 Samuel 5:8).
(Note: In our English version, we have the Hebrew word itself simply transposed in Joshua 18:16, Joshua 18:28; whilst it is rendered "the Jebusite" in Joshua 15:8, and "the Jebusites" in 2 Samuel 5:8. - Tr.)
On the division of the land it was allotted to the tribe of Benjamin (Joshua 18:28); but being situated upon the border of Judah (Joshua 15:8), it was conquered, and burned by the sons of Judah after the death of Joshua (Judges 1:8). It was very soon taken again and rebuilt by the Jebusites, whom the sons of Judah were unable to destroy (Joshua 15:63; Judges 19:10-12), so that both Benjaminites and Judahites lived there along with the Jebusites (Judges 1:21; Joshua 15:63); and the upper town especially, upon the summit of Mount Zion, remained as a fortification in the possession of the Jebusites, until David conquered it (2 Samuel 5:6.), made it the capital of his kingdom, and called it by his own name, "the city of David," after which the old name of Jebus fell into disuse. Hebron, the town of Arba the Anakite (Joshua 14:15, etc.; see at Genesis 23:2), was twenty-two Roman miles south of Jerusalem, in a deep and narrow valley upon the mountains of Judah, a town of the greatest antiquity (Numbers 13:22), now called el Khalil, i.e., the friend (of God), with reference to Abraham's sojourn there. The ruins of an ancient heathen temple are still to be seen there, as well as the Haram, built of colossal blocks, which contains, according to Mohammedan tradition, the burial-place of the patriarchs (see at Genesis 23:17). Jarmuth, in the lowlands of Judah (Joshua 15:35; Nehemiah 11:29), according to the Onom. (s. v. Jermus) a hamlet, Jermucha (Ἰερμοχωῶς), ten Roman miles from Eleutheropolis, on the road to Jerusalem, is the modern Jarmuk, a village on a lofty hill, with the remains of walls and cisterns of a very ancient date, the name of which, according to Van de Velde (Mem. pp. 115-6), is pronounced Tell 'Armuth by the Arabs (see Rob. Pal. ii. p. 344). Lachish, in the lowlands of Judah (Joshua 15:39), was fortified by Rehoboam (2 Chronicles 11:9), and besieged by Sennacherib and Nebuchadnezzar (2 Kings 18:14; 2 Kings 19:8; Jeremiah 34:7), and was still inhabited by Jews after the return from the captivity (Nehemiah 11:30). It is probably to be found in Um Lakis, an old place upon a low round hill, covered with heaps of small round stones thrown together in great confusion, containing relics of marble columns; it is about an hour and a quarter to the west of Ajlun, and seven hours to the west of Eleutheropolis.
(Note: It is true that Robinson dispute the identity of Um Lakis with the ancient Lachish (Pal. ii. p. 388), but "not on any reasonable ground" (Van de Velde, Mem. p. 320). The statement in the Onom. (s. v. Lochis), that it was seven Roman miles to the south of Eleutheropolis, cannot prove much, as it may easily contain an error in the number, and Robinson does not admit its authority even in the case of Eglon (Pal. ii. p. 392). Still less can Knobel's conjecture be correct, that it is to be found in the old place called Sukkarijeh, two hours and a half to the south-west of Beit Jibrin (Eleutheropolis), as Sukkarijeh is on the east of Ajlun, whereas, according to Joshua 10:31-36, Lachish is to be sought for on the west of Eglon.)
Eglon: also in the lowlands of Judah (Joshua 15:39). The present name is Ajln, a heap of ruins, about three-quarters of an hour to the east of Um Lakis (see Rob. Pal. ii. p. 392, and Van de Velde, Mem. p. 308). In the Onom. (s. v. Eglon) it is erroneously identified with Odollam; whereas the situation of Agla, "at the tenth stone, as you go from Eleutheropolis to Gaza" (Onom. s. v. Βηθαλαΐ́μ, Bethagla), suits Eglon exactly.
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