James Gray - Concise Bible Commentary
And the LORD said unto Moses, Depart, and go up hence, thou and the people which thou hast brought up out of the land of Egypt, unto the land which I sware unto Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, saying, Unto thy seed will I give it:
And Moses took the tabernacle, and pitched it without the camp, afar off from the camp, and called it the Tabernacle of the congregation. And it came to pass, that every one which sought the LORD went out unto the tabernacle of the congregation, which was without the camp.Exodus 33:7-34:35
THE COVENANT RENEWED
MOSES SEPARATED UNTO GOD (Exodus 33:7-11)
The tabernacle, or tent, here referred to (Exodus 33:7), was that of Moses, as the Tabernacle of the Lord had not yet been erected. As the Lord would no longer manifest Himself among the people, it was necessary thus to become separated from them if Moses was to enjoy such intercourse. (Compare 2 Corinthians 6:14-18.) “The tabernacle of the Congregation” is rendered in the Revised Version, “the tent of meeting,” i.e., the place where the Lord met Moses and others who in penitence and faith gathered with him there.
In what now familiar way did the Lord manifest His presence with Moses (Exodus 33:9)? What effect had this upon the people (Exodus 33:10)? How is the Lord’s loving kindness towards Moses expressed in Exodus 33:11 ? Compared with Exodus 33:20 it will be seen that Moses did not behold the divine essence, but only such a vision of God’s face as it is possible for men to look upon and live.
MOSES’ INTERVIEW WITH GOD (Exodus 33:12-23)
What information does he seek (Exodus 33:12)? And what argument does he use to obtain it? Observe further that he also wants to know God’s “way,” i.e., His way of salvation and leading for the people (Exodus 33:13). Moreover, he would know God Himself better, to the end that he might obtain more grace. Increasing grace always accompanies increasing knowledge of God (2 Peter 1:2). Observe the holy boldness with which he declines to relieve the Lord of the responsibility for the people He has chosen. He begs Him to consider that they are still His, and that He cannot thus break His covenant. What startling faith! And how God honors it! The Angel that shall go with them is the Angel of His presence (Isaiah 63:9).
And what greater boon does Moses ask (Exodus 33:18)? Murphy has an excellent paragraph on this verse, quoted here in full:
To show mercy and yet do justly, to magnify grace and holiness at the same time, to bestow a perpetuity of blessing on a people wavering now and again into disobedience, was a problem that seemed to task the highest intelligence, to transcend the ordinary ways of providence, and call into exercise some inner and higher reaches of the eternal mind. Moved by a wish to do his duty with intelligence, Moses desires some insight into this mystery. Feeling that it touches the very center of the divine nature, involves the sublimest manifestations of His glory, his last and grandest petition is: “Show me now Thy glory.”
And from this point of view what is God’s glory (Exodus 33:10)? An expansion of this thought is found in the next chapter. What necessary limitation must be laid upon Moses in the answer to his request (Exodus 33:20)? The face of God means doubtless His essential self, the sight of which would be irresistible or insupportable to a finite being tainted with guilt as man is. But His back is His averted self, that mediate manifestation which a man may see and still live (Exodus 33:23).
MOSES’ VISION OF THE GLORY OF GOD (Exodus 34:1-10)
Moses now returns to the mount (Exodus 34:2). What is he to prepare and take with him (Exodus 34:1)? Who prepared the former tables which Moses broke? (Compare Exodus 31:18.) What prohibition is laid upon him in this instance (Exodus 34:3)?
Note carefully the proclamation of God’s glory in seven characteristics: “three pairs referring to His mercy and a single one affirming His justice” (Exodus 34:6-7).
If God “will by no means clear the guilty,” how can He at the same time forgive “iniquity, transgression and sin”? Only as the guilt falls on a voluntary and accepted substitute. A substitute accepted by God in the first instance, and humbly and penitently received by the sinner when revealed to him. It is this which gives meaning to all the Levitical sacrifices of which we are soon to learn more, and which typify the person and work of Him whom God had in mind from all eternity as the bearer of human guilt His Son, Jesus Christ, our Lord.
How is Moses affected by what he sees and hears (Exodus 34:8)? In what terms does he repeat his intercession for the people (Exodus 34:9)? How does he identify himself with them?
Is Moses’ prayer heard and the covenant fully renewed (Exodus 34:10)? What promise accompanies it?
MOSES’ FACE REFLECTING THE VISION OF GOD (Exodus 34:11-35)
The first part of this section is occupied with the repetition and enforcement of certain admonitions concerning entangling alliances with the idolatrous nations of Canaan (Exodus 34:11-17), and concerning the observance of the feasts (Exodus 34:18-26). Note especially the obligation imposed on the males in Exodus 34:23, and the provision for their comfort in the promises in Exodus 34:24, last half. Note further the second command to Moses to “write” what he had heard (Exodus 34:27). This writing doubtless includes the record of his present interview with God, but from Deuteronomy 10:4 we learn that it was God Himself who wrote the ten commandments again on the two tables which Moses had prepared.
How is Moses’ appearance described in Exodus 34:29? The word “shone” might be rendered “sent forth beams” or “horns,” which explains why some of the old artists show Moses with horns of light. How did this extraordinary luster affect the people (Exodus 34:30)? How is the word “till” of Exodus 34:33 translated in the Revised Version? What a conspicuous sign this was of Moses’ acceptance with God and his authority over the people! And how it must have demonstrated to the latter their utter unpreparedness as yet for any higher manifestations of the divine glory than what they had already received. Compare 2 Corinthians 3:7-18 in the Revised Version.