Exodus 12:34
And the people took their dough before it was leavened, their kneading troughs being bound up in their clothes on their shoulders.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(34) Kneadingtroughs.—Light, portable wooden bowls, such as are now used by the Arabs.

Exodus 12:34. The people took their dough — Perhaps the Hebrew word here used had better be rendered flour, as it is 2 Samuel 13:8; for if they had time to make it into paste, it seems they would also have had time to leaven it. Their kneading-troughs — The word thus rendered is translated store, Deuteronomy 28:5; Deuteronomy 28:17. And as kneading-troughs are not things which travellers are wont to carry with them, it seems more natural to understand it of their flour, grain, or dough.12:29-36 The Egyptians had been for three days and nights kept in anxiety and horror by the darkness; now their rest is broken by a far more terrible calamity. The plague struck their first-born, the joy and hope of their families. They had slain the Hebrews' children, now God slew theirs. It reached from the throne to the dungeon: prince and peasant stand upon the same level before God's judgments. The destroying angel entered every dwelling unmarked with blood, as the messenger of woe. He did his dreadful errand, leaving not a house in which there was not one dead. Imagine then the cry that rang through the land of Egypt, the long, loud shriek of agony that burst from every dwelling. It will be thus in that dreadful hour when the Son of man shall visit sinners with the last judgment. God's sons, his first-born, were now released. Men had better come to God's terms at first, for he will never come to theirs. Now Pharaoh's pride is abased, and he yields. God's word will stand; we get nothing by disputing, or delaying to submit. In this terror the Egyptians would purchase the favour and the speedy departure of Israel. Thus the Lord took care that their hard-earned wages should be paid, and the people provided for their journey.Kneadingtroughs - (Compare the margin and Deuteronomy 28:5). The troughs were probably small wooden bowls in which the cakes when baked were preserved for use. The Hebrews used their outer garment, or mantle, in the same way as the Bedouins at present, who make a bag of the voluminous folds of their burnous. See Ruth 3:15; 2 Kings 4:39. 34. people took … their kneading-troughs—Having lived so long in Egypt, they must have been in the habit of using the utensils common in that country. The Egyptian kneading-trough was a bowl of wicker or rush work, and it admitted of being hastily wrapped up with the dough in it and slung over the shoulder in their hykes or loose upper garments. Their kneading-troughs; or, as others rightly render it, their dough lumps, or food, or lumps of paste unleavened. And the people took their dough before it was leavened,.... They had that evening mixed their flour with water, and made it into dough, but had put no leaven into it; and the Egyptians being so very earnest to have them gone, they stayed not to put any leaven into it:

but their kneadingtroughs, or rather "their dough":

being bound up in their clothes upon their shoulders; for it is not likely that their troughs should be wrapped up in the skirts of their garments; but their dough might, if their clothes were like the hykes of the Arabs now, as Dr. Shaw (z) thinks they were, and which are pretty much like the plaids of the Scotch, and which are large enough for such a purpose; as even the veil which Ruth wore held six measures of barley, Ruth 3:15 and so these clothes of theirs, like the Arabs' hykes, and the Scotch plaids, might be so made, that large lumps of dough being bound up in them might be thrown over their shoulders, and so carried by them when they journeyed.

(z) Travels, p. 224, 225. Edit. 2.

And the people took their dough before it was leavened, their kneadingtroughs being bound up in their clothes upon their shoulders.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
34. The people had not time to leaven their dough, but took it with them before it was leavened. The notice, taken in conjunction with the one in v. 39, is evidently intended as an explanation of the origin of the Maẓẓoth-feast: cf. Deuteronomy 16:3; and p. 91, above.

their kneading-bowls,] See on Exodus 8:3.

in their clothes] rather, in their mantles. The simlâh was the large square outer garment, made of woollen cloth, which served as a covering by night (ch. Exodus 22:26 f.), and was also often used for carrying things in (Jdg 8:25, Ruth 3:15). See Dress 3 b in DB. (i. 625).Verse 34. - The people took their dough. They probably regarded dough as more convenient for a journey than flour, and so made their flour into dough before starting; but they had no time to add leaven. Their kneading-troughs. This rendering is correct, both here and in the two other places where the word occurs (Exodus 8:3, and Deuteronomy 28:5). Kneading-troughs would be a necessity in the desert, and, if like those of the modern Arabs, which are merely small wooden bowls, would be light and portable. The dough and kneading-troughs, with perhaps other necessaries, were carried, as the Arabs still carry many small objects, bound up in their clothes (i.e., in the beged or ample shawl) upon their shoulders. They then proceeded to execute the command, that through the obedience of faith they might appropriate the blessing of this "service."
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