Ephesians 1:8
Wherein he has abounded toward us in all wisdom and prudence;
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(8) Wherein he hath abounded toward us in all wisdom and prudence.—It should be, which He made to overflow to us in all wisdom and prudence—the word “overflow” having an emphasis which our word “abound” has lost, and signifying here that the richness of God’s grace not only fills the soul with the blessing of salvation, but overflows into the additional gifts of “all wisdom and prudence” in us, which gifts are here dwelt upon in anticipation of the declaration of the next verse. Of these two gifts, wisdom is clearly the higher gift, signifying (as in the Old Testament) the knowledge of the true end of life, which can only come from some knowledge of the “wisdom of God,” that is, the divine purpose of His dispensation. (See especially Proverbs 8:22-31.) Such knowledge is revealed to us through the “mind of Christ,” who is Himself the true wisdom or “Word of God.” (See 1Corinthians 1:24; 1Corinthians 1:30; 1Corinthians 2:6-10; 1Corinthians 2:16.) Hence wisdom is spoken of in connection with various other gifts, which are but partial manifestations of it. Here with “prudence,” that is, wisdom in action; in Colossians 1:9, with “intelligence,” that is, wisdom in judgment; in 1Corinthians 12:8, Colossians 2:3, with “knowledge,” that is, wisdom in perception; in Ephesians 1:17 of this chapter, with “revelation,” the means by which wisdom is gained.

1:3-8 Spiritual and heavenly blessings are the best blessings; with which we cannot be miserable, and without which we cannot but be so. This was from the choice of them in Christ, before the foundation of the world, that they should be made holy by separation from sin, being set apart to God, and sanctified by the Holy Spirit, in consequence of their election in Christ. All who are chosen to happiness as the end, are chosen to holiness as the means. In love they were predestinated, or fore-ordained, to be adopted as children of God by faith in Christ Jesus, and to be openly admitted to the privileges of that high relation to himself. The reconciled and adopted believer, the pardoned sinner, gives all the praise of his salvation to his gracious Father. His love appointed this method of redemption, spared not his own Son, and brought believers to hear and embrace this salvation. It was rich grace to provide such a surety as his own Son, and freely to deliver him up. This method of grace gives no encouragement to evil, but shows sin in all its hatefulness, and how it deserves vengeance. The believer's actions, as well as his words, declare the praises of Divine mercy.Wherein he hath abounded - Which he has liberally manifested to us This grace has not been stinted and confined, but has been liberal and abundant.

In all wisdom - That is, he has evinced great wisdom in the plan of salvation; wisdom in so saving people as to secure the honor of his own law, and in devising a scheme that was eminently adapted to save people; see the notes at 1 Corinthians 1:24.

And prudence - The word used here (φρονήσις phronēsis) means understanding, thinking, prudence. The meaning here is, that, so to speak, God had evinced great "intelligence" in the plan of salvation. There was ample proof of "mind" and of "thought." It was adapted to the end in view. It was far-seeing; skillfully arranged; and carefully formed. The sense of the whole is, that there was a wise design running through the whole plan, and abounding in it in an eminent degree.

8. Rather, "which He made to abound towards us."

all wisdom and prudence—"wisdom" in devising the plan of redeeming mankind; "prudence" in executing it by the means, and in making all the necessary arrangements of Providence for that purpose. Paul attributes to the Gospel of God's grace "all" possible "wisdom and prudence," in opposition to the boasts of wisdom and prudence which the unbelieving Jews and heathen philosophers and false apostles arrogated for their teachings. Christ crucified, though esteemed "foolishness" by the world, is "the wisdom of God" (1Co 1:18-30). Compare Eph 3:10, "the manifold wisdom of God."

Wherein, in which grace before mentioned,

he hath abounded toward us; i.e. out of abundance of grace in himself, (called riches of grace, Ephesians 1:7), he hath bestowed upon us wisdom and prudence. The like expression we have, 1 Timothy 1:14.

In all wisdom; this denotes either, the perfections or excellency of it, being instead of all other wisdom, and more excellent than all else; or all in comparison of what was under the Old Testament. They then had Divine truths revealed but by parts and parcels, and so a more sparing measure of spiritual wisdom; but under the gospel, believers have it more fully and largely, the Spirit of wisdom and revelation being poured out on them.

Wisdom and prudence; either the doctrine of the gospel, which contains more perfect and higher wisdom than that the Greeks sought after, 1 Corinthians 1:22, and for lack of which they counted the gospel foolishness; or rather, by wisdom is understood that knowledge or faith whereby we receive spiritual truths revealed to us, and to be believed by us, so as to their excellency, and have our hearts affected with them; and by prudence, the knowledge of the rule of our duty, with skill to govern ourselves according to it: and so wisdom is no other than faith, and prudence the same in effect with holiness; the former relates to the things we are to believe, the latter to the things we are to do. In the working these two in the soul, consists inward and effectual calling, which the apostle mentions in this verse, as he doth the outward likewise, by the preaching the word of the gospel, in the next. Wherein he hath abounded toward us,.... That is, in the grace which is so abundantly displayed in redemption and forgiveness of sin, through the blood of Christ:

in all wisdom and prudence; this may be understood, either of the aboundings of grace in the Gospel; which may be called all wisdom and prudence, because it is the wisdom of God; it is the product of his wisdom, and a display of it; the doctrines it contains are full of wisdom, and are the means of communicating it to men, and of making them wise unto salvation; and it may be so called, to set forth the excellency and perfection of it, as greatly transcending all human wisdom; and in this the grace of God has much abounded, for the Gospel is a declaration of the free grace of God, in the salvation of sinners by Christ; in the free justification of them by his righteousness; and in the full pardon of their sins through his blood; and is a kind invitation and free promise of grace to all sensible sinners: or else of the aboundings of grace in conversion; all men by nature are foolish and unwise; in conversion God makes men to know wisdom in the hidden part, which he puts there; and for which purpose the Spirit is given as a spirit of wisdom; and some part of the work of sanctification lies in spiritual light, knowledge, and understanding; and the Syriac version reads the last clause, "and in all spiritual understanding"; and faith particularly may be intended, which is sometimes expressed by knowledge; and now the grace of God is exceeding abundant with faith and love, in regeneration, sanctification, and conversion; or rather this may be understood of the display of divine wisdom, in the work of redemption and salvation by Christ; and which is to be seen, in pitching upon a proper person to be the Mediator, to become a sacrifice, and make intercession, who is the Son of God, truly God and man, and so every way able to perform the business of salvation; and in the manner of its being effected, in a way wherein grace and mercy are highly exalted, and yet in no wise reproachful to the holiness of God, or injurious to his justice, but to the honour of them, in which Satan is greatly mortified, and sin is condemned, and yet the sinner saved; and in the several parts of it, in the justification of the ungodly without works, by the righteousness of another, in pardoning their sins in a way of justice and faithfulness, and yet according to the riches of grace, and in the security of the persons of God's elect, and of their grace and glory in Christ; and in the subjects of this salvation, who are the foolish things of this world, ungodly sinners, the chief of sinners; and lastly, in making faith the receiver of all the blessings of salvation, that so it might appear to be all of grace.

{12} {k} Wherein he hath abounded toward us in {l} all wisdom and prudence;

(12) Now he comes at length to the formal cause, that is to say, to vocation or preaching of the Gospel, by which God executes that eternal counsel of our free reconciliation and salvation in Christ. And putting in place of the Gospel all wisdom and understanding, he shows how excellent it is.

(k) By which gracious goodness and bountifulness.

(l) In perfect and sound wisdom.

Ephesians 1:8. Ἧς ἐπερίσσευσεν εἰς ἡμᾶς] ἧς stands by attraction (comp. Ephesians 1:6), not for (Camerarius, Calvin, Piscator, Erasmus Schmid), so that ἐπερίσσ. would be intransitive,—for the attraction of the dative, rare even in classic authors (Krüger, Gramm. 51. 10. 3, and Grammat. Unters. III. p. 274 f.), is not found in the N.T., not even in the passages adduced by Buttmann, neut. Gr. p. 247 [E. T. 287],—but for ἥν, so that ἐπερίσσ. is transitive (2 Corinthians 4:15; 2 Corinthians 9:8; 1 Thessalonians 3:12): which He has made abundant, has shown in an exceedingly high degree (ἀφθόνως ἐξέχεε, Theophylact), towards us. If, with Calvin and Beza (comp. also Holzhausen), we should not assume any attraction at all, but should take the genitive as at Luke 15:17, there would result the sense, unsuitable to what follows (γνωρίσας κ.τ.λ.): of which He had superabundance towards us.

ἐν πάσῃ σοφίᾳ καὶ φρονήσει] is not, with Chrysostom, Jerome, Theodoret, Homberg, Baumgarten, Semler, Michaelis, Griesbach, Koppe, Holzhausen, Scholz, to be attached to γνωρίσας, because it would thus, like ἐν ἀγάπῃ in Ephesians 1:5, denote the attribute of God operative in the γνωρίζειν, which, on account of πάσῃ (see below), is not admissible. If, again, we should, with Chrysostom (comp. Michaelis and others), regard it as the state of men brought about by γνωρίσας κ.τ.λ., this would be forced, and, as concerns the sense, there might be urged against it the circumstance that, in the making known of the divine mystery, Paul had to set forth, not the divine display of grace in itself (this was given in the work of redemption, Ephesians 1:6-7), but the display of grace as revealed. Hence it was necessary that there should be added to ἧς ἐπερίσσ. εἰς ἡμ, a definition, and this is ἐν πάσῃ σοφ. κ. φρον.: which He has displayed abundantly towards us by every kind of wisdom and discernment (with which He endowed us, comp. Colossians 1:9), in that He made known to us, etc. Observe here withal the climax, in which, rising from the simple ἧς ἐχαρίτωσεν ἡμᾶς, Ephesians 1:6, the apostle now, at this further display of grace, says: ἧς ἐπερίσσευσεν εἰς ἡμᾶς. Rückert (comp. Jerome, Castalio, de Wette, and others), although connecting it with ἧς ἐπερίσσ. εἰς ἡμ., incorrectly holds the divine wisdom to be meant, and takes the sense to be, that God has with highest wisdom and discernment dispensed His grace over us. Not only would this introduce here something remote from the point,—since in the whole context Paul is commending only grace as such, and not any other attribute along with it,—but the words themselves are opposed to it, not indeed by φρονήσει in itself, which (in opposition to Harless and Schenkel) might be used also of God (1 Kings 3:28; Proverbs 3:19; Jeremiah 10:12), but certainly by πάσῃ. For πᾶσα σοφία does not mean summa sapientia, but every kind of wisdom, which, according to a popular mode of expression, like our “all possible wisdom” (Theile, ad Jacob. p. 7), can be said only of men. The πολυποίκιλος σοφία, Ephesians 3:10, is not analogous (in opposition to de Wette), but denotes the absolute wisdom according to its manifold modes of manifestation.

καὶ φρονήσει] Comp. 1 Kings 4:29 : ἔδωκε κύριος φρόνησιν τῷ Σαλωμὼν καὶ σοφίαν πολλήν. Daniel 2:21 : διδοὺς σοφίαν τοῖς σοφοῖς καὶ φρόνησιν τοῖς εἰδόσι σύνεσιν; Joseph. Antt. ii. 5. 7, viii. 7. 5. Φρόνησις is an aptitude, which proceeds from wisdom (ἡ δὲ σοφία ἀνδρὶ τίκτει φρόνησιν, Proverbs 10:23), in connection with which the distinction is to be noted, that σοφία is the general notion (ἐπιστήμη θείων τε καὶ ἀνθρωπίνων πραγμάτων, Sext. Emp. adv. phys. i. 13), which embraces the collective activity of the mind as directed to divine aims only to be achieved by moral means (comp. on Colossians 1:9); whereas φρόνησις denotes the more special notion of the morally determined intelligence, the insight of practical reason regulating the dispositions (ἐπιστήμη ἀγαθῶν καὶ κακῶν, Plato, Def. p. 411 D; ἕξις ἀληθὴς μετὰ λόγου πρακτικὴ περὶ τὰ ἀνθρώπῳ ἀγαθὰ κ. κακά, Arist. Eth. vi. 5. 4). See, especially, also Cic. Off. i. 43. Comp. on φρόνησις, which Paul has not elsewhere, Luke 1:17; Beck, bibl. Seelenl. p. 62.Ephesians 1:8. ἦς ἐπερίσσευσεν εἰς ἡμᾶς: which he made to abound towards us. Both in profane and Biblical Greek περισσεύειν is usually intrans. It is so used in the vast majority of cases in the Pauline Epistles (Romans 5:15; 1 Corinthians 14:12; 2 Corinthians 1:5; 2 Corinthians 8:2; 2 Corinthians 9:12; Php 1:26, etc.). In later Greek, however, it has also, though not frequently, the trans, sense, and there are some instances of this also in the NT (Luke 15:17, according to the better reading; 2 Corinthians 4:15; 2 Corinthians 9:8; 1 Thessalonians 3:12). Here, therefore, two interpretations are possible, viz., “wherewith he abounded” (as in Syr., Vulg., Arm., AV, RV marg., etc.), or “which he made to abound” (as in Goth., Eth., RV, etc.). The latter sense, that of furnishing richly so that there is not only enough but much more, is on the whole in better harmony with the context. It is also supported by grammar, inasmuch as it is uncertain whether the NT presents any instance of attraction where the genitive of the relative represents the dative. Such attraction is possible in classical Greek (cf. G. Krüger, Untersuch., p. 274; Jelf, Gram., 822; Winer-Moult., Gram., p. 204); but the instances referred to in the NT (Romans 4:7; 1 Timothy 4:6) may admit of another explanation. It is also possible, indeed, to take the ἧς, not as a case of attraction, but as under the immediate regimen of ἐπερίσσευσεν. For there are at least some instances of περισσεύειν τινος in the sense of abounding in something; cf. ἵναπαντὸς χαρίσματος περισσεύῃς in Ignat., Pol., 2, and περισσεύουσιν ἄρτων in Luke 15:17 (the reading of the TR with [47] [48]Q[49], etc.; περισσεύονται, however, being accepted by TrWHRV with [50] [51] [52], etc.). The transitive sense, however, is further favoured by the force of the following γνωρίσας, as Winer points out. The εἰς ἡμᾶς, expressing the objects to whom the “abounding” is directed, is like the εἰς τοὺς πολλούς of Romans 5:15, the εἰς ἡμᾶς of 2 Corinthians 1:5, the εἰς ὑμᾶς of 2 Corinthians 9:8. In the last-named passage, indeed, περισσεύειν occurs both in the sense of making to abound and in that of abounding, and in both cases, though with different shades of meaning, it is followed by εἰς.—ἐν πάσῃ σοφίᾳ καὶ φρονήσει: in all wisdom and prudence. The clause expresses the particular forms in which God made His grace to abound towards us, or the gifts in which His abounding grace was to be seen, namely, those of insight and practical intelligence or discernment with regard to the deep things of His saving counsel. There is considerable difference of opinion, however, with respect to the connection of the clause, its application, and the precise import of its terms. By some (Theod., Griesb., etc.) the words are attached to the following γνωρίσας and taken to define the way in which God made known the “mystery of His will”. But the reason already given, drawn from Paul’s usage, for attaching the ἐν ἀγάπῃ (Ephesians 1:4) to the statement preceding it, holds good also here. Not a few (Rückert, De Wette, Alf., etc.) understand the clause to refer to God, and to express the thought that the supremacy of His wisdom was seen in the bestowal of His grace so abundantly on us, that it was “in His manifold wisdom and prudence, manifested in all ways possible for us, that He poured out His grace upon us” (Alf.). But it is difficult to adjust the terms to such a use. For it is doubtful whether φρόνησις in the sense which it bears here can be predicated of God. The instances which are cited (Proverbs 3:19; Jeremiah 10:12) are extremely few. They are also of doubtful relevancy, inasmuch as the φρόνησις in these passages represents a Hebrew word with a somewhat different idea, rendered by the RV “understanding”. Neither is the πολυποίκιλος σοφία τοῦ Θεοῦ (Ephesians 3:10) a valid analogy, the thought expressed there being that of the many and various ways in which the Divine wisdom is manifested and realised. The same must be said of the phrase φρόνησις θεοῦ in the narrative of Solomon’s decision (1 Kings 3:28); for it expresses a prudence or intelligence given to Solomon by God or divine in quality. Even were it more certain than it is that there is biblical warrant for affirming φρόνησις of God, the πάσῃ puts that reference out of the question here; πᾶς being an extensive, not an intensive, definition, expressing not the highest wisdom and prudence, but all possible wisdom and prudence, every kind of such attributes (cf. Winer-Moult., p. 137). It is true that there are cases in classical Greek which might entitle us to take πᾶσα σοφία as equivalent to πᾶσα ἡ σοφία, “the whole of wisdom,” “the sum of wisdom” (cf. Kühner, Gram., ii., § 465; Anm., 8). But there does not appear to be any certain example of that in NT Greek. Further, it is the grace of God that is magnified in the paragraph, and that not in respect of other qualities in God Himself, but in respect of what it does for us. Hence most (Harl., Mey., Ell., Abb., Haupt, etc.) understand the clause to refer not to God the Giver, but to us the receivers. This is borne out also by the ἵνα πληρωθῆτε τὴν ἐπίγνωσιν τοῦ θελήματος αὐτοῦ ἐν πάσῃ σοφίᾳ καὶ συνέσει of Colossians 1:9; by the place assigned to Christian wisdom in the Epistles to the Ephesians and Colossians; and also to some extent by such partial parallels as these: ἐν πάσῃ σοφίᾳ (Colossians 3:16); ἐπλουτίσθητε ἐν αὐ-, ἐν παντὶ λόγῳ καὶ πάσῃ γνώσει (1 Corinthians 1:5), etc.

[47] Codex Sinaiticus (sæc. iv.), now at St. Petersburg, published in facsimile type by its discoverer, Tischendorf, in 1862.

[48] Codex Claromontanus (sæc. vi.), a Græco-Latin MS. at Paris, edited by Tischendorf in 1852.

[49] Codex Cryptoferratensis (sæc. vii.), a palimpsest fragment containing chap. 11:9–19, edited by Cozza in 1867, and cited by Tischendorf.

[50] Codex Vaticanus (sæc. iv.), published in photographic facsimile in 1889 under the care of the Abbate Cozza-Luzi.

[51] Codex Alexandrinus (sæc. v.), at the British Museum, published in photographic facsimile by Sir E. M. Thompson (1879).

[52] Codex Porphyrianus (sæc. ix.), at St. Petersburg, collated by Tischendorf. Its text is deficient for chap. Ephesians 2:13-16.

There remains, however, the question as to the precise sense of the two nouns. Σοφία is of frequent occurrence in the NT generally and in the Pauline writings in particular; φρόνησις occurs only twice in the whole NT, viz., in Luke 1:17 (where the RV renders it “wisdom”) and here. As in the present passage the two nouns are also conjoined in 1 Kings 3:12; 1 Kings 4:29; Proverbs 1:2; Proverbs 8:1; Daniel 1:17; Daniel 2:21; Daniel 2:23. So, too, in Joseph., Antiq., ii., 5, 7, viii., 7, 5. There is a distinction between them which is variously put in Greek and Roman literature, Aristotle, e.g., defines σοφία as ἐπιστήμη καὶ νοῦς τῶν τιμιωτάτων τῇ φύσει, and φρόνησις as περὶ τὰ ἀνθρώπινα καὶ περὧν ἔστι βουλεύσασθαι (Eth. Nic., vi., 7). Plato deals with φρόνησις as the wisdom of action, prudential wisdom or sagacity (Laws, i., 631 [53]; 632 [54], etc.) and as the faculty by which we judge τί πρακτέον καὶ τί οὐ πρακτέον ([Plato] Def., 411). Philo takes σοφία to relate πρὸς θεραπείαν Θεοῦ and φρόνησις to relate πρὸς ἀνθρωπίνου βίου διοίκησι (De Prom. et Poen., 14). Cicero again describes the former as rerum divinarum et humanarum scientia and the latter as rerum expetendarum fugiendarumque scientia (Off., i., 43); while others explain σοφία as ἐπιστήμη θείων τε καἀνθρωπίνων and φρόνησις as ἐπιστήμη ἀγαθῶν καὶ κακῶν (Sext. Emp., p. 720; Plut., Mor., 1066 D). In all these definitions σοφία is the larger idea, wisdom in the most general sense, and φρόνησις is the secondary idea, expressing a particular result or application of σοφία. So it seems to be also substantially with the Biblical use of the terms. Σοφία is the collective moral intelligence, “insight into the true nature of things” (Light.), and in the Pauline Epistles it is this intelligence in especial as knowledge of the Divine plan of salvation long hidden and now revealed; while φρόνησις is the practical use of wisdom, the product of wisdom (cf. Proverbs 10:23, ἡ δὲ σοφία ἀνδρὶ τίκτει φρόνησιν), “the right use and application of the φρήν” (Trench), the faculty of discerning the proper disposition or action. The riches, the abounding riches, of the grace expended on us stood revealed in the bestowal of these gifts of spiritual comprehension and practical discernment with reference to the deep things of the Divine Counsel and the Divine Revelation.

[53] Codex Ephraemi (sæc. v.), the Paris palimpsest, edited by Tischendorf in 1843.

[54] Codex Sangermanensis (sæc. ix.), a Græco-Latin MS., now at St. Petersburg, formerly belonging to the Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés. Its text is largely dependent upon that of D. The Latin version, e (a corrected copy of d), has been printed, but with incomplete accuracy, by Belsheim (18 5).8. Wherein he hath abounded] Better, probably, Which He made to abound; at the time of manifestation and impartation, the great crisis of the Gospel proclamation. This time-reference is fixed by the next verse. Ideally, and for the Church as a body, this time was one; actually, for individuals, it is the time in each case of personal illumination sealed by baptism.

in all wisdom and prudence] In themselves, these words are of ambiguous reference. They may mean either that God largely exercised His wisdom and prudence, or that He largely gave wisdom and prudence to the saints. The context of Ephesians 1:9 favours the latter; He “made known the mystery,” in part by granting the spiritual power to read it. The word rendered “prudence” is the same as that rendered “the wisdom of the just,” Luke 1:17; a passage in point here. It does not occur again in N. T. On the thought and fact, cp. e.g. James 1:5.Ephesians 1:8. Ἧς) [attraction] for, ἣν, viz. χάριν.—ἐπερίσσευσεν, hath abounded) viz. God.—σοφίᾳ) in wisdom, concerning the past and present, in regard to the things which God does, Ephesians 1:17.—φρονήσει) in prudence, concerning the future, in regard to the things that we may do.Verse 8. - Which he made to abound toward us in all wisdom and prudence. This rendering of the R.V. is better than the A.V., "wherein he hath abounded," for ῆς before ἐπερίσσευσεν can hardly be put for the dative; it is genitive by attraction for the accusative. The wisdom and prudence refer to God; he has not made his grace abound to us in a random manner, but in a carefully regulated manner. This is more fully explained afterwards, in reference to God's concealment for a time of the universality of his grace, but manifestation of it now. Some have found a difference between σοφία and φρονήσις, the one being theoretical wisdom and the other practical, or the one intellectual and the other moral; but possibly they may be meant merely to intensify the idea - the height of wisdom is shown in God's way of making his grace abound toward us (comp. Romans 11:33, "Oh, the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and knowledge of God!"). Wherein He hath abounded (ἧς ἐπερίσσευσεν)

Rev., correctly, which He made to abound. The verb is used both transitively and intransitively in the New Testament. The transitive use belongs mainly to later Greek. Compare, for the transitive sense, Matthew 13:12; 2 Corinthians 4:15.

In all wisdom and prudence (ἐν πάσῃ σοφίᾳ καὶ φρονήσει)

For wisdom, see on Romans 11:33. For prudence, on Luke 1:17. The latter is an attribute or result of wisdom, concerned with its practical applications. Both words refer here to men, not to God: the wisdom and prudence with which He abundantly endows His followers. Compare Colossians 1:9. All wisdom is, properly, every kind of wisdom.

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