2 Chronicles 12:3
With twelve hundred chariots, and three score thousand horsemen: and the people were without number that came with him out of Egypt; the Lubims, the Sukkiims, and the Ethiopians.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(3) With twelve hundred chariots.—The short account in Kings says nothing of the numbers or constituents of the invading host. The totals here assigned are probably round numbers founded on a rough estimate. The cavalry are exactly fifty times as many as the chariots. Thenius finds the numbers “not in credible.”

The Lubims, the Sukkiims, and the Ethi-opians.—Rather, Lybians, Sukkîyans, and Cushites (without the definite article). These were “the people”—i.e., the footmen. The Lybians and Cushites are mentioned together as auxiliaries of Egypt in Nahum 3:9. (Comp. 2Chronicles 16:8.) The Sukkîyans are unknown, but the LXX. and Vulg. render Troglodytes, or cave-dwellers, meaning, it would seem, the Ethiopian Troglodytes of the mountains on the western shore of the Arabian Gulf. (Comp. sukkô, “his lair,” Psalm 10:9.)

2 Chronicles 12:3. The Lubims — The people of Lybia, a famous country of Africa, adjoining to Egypt. And the Sukkiims were the Troglodytes, a people who lived on the western side of the Red sea, and had that name from their dwelling in dens and caves of the earth, which is also the meaning of the Hebrew word סכיים, succhiim, here used. As for the people called Cush, which we translate Ethiopians, they were either those to the south of Egypt, or the Scenitæ in Arabia.12:1-16 Rehoboam, forsaking the Lord, is punished. - When Rehoboam was so strong that he supposed he had nothing to fear from Jeroboam, he cast off his outward profession of godliness. It is very common, but very lamentable, that men, who in distress or danger, or near death, seem much engaged in seeking and serving God, throw aside all their religion when they have received a merciful deliverance. God quickly brought troubles upon Judah, to awaken the people to repentance, before their hearts were hardened. Thus it becomes us, when we are under the rebukes of Providence, to justify God, and to judge ourselves. If we have humbled hearts under humbling providences, the affliction has done its work; it shall be removed, or the property of it be altered. The more God's service is compared with other services, the more reasonable and easy it will appear. Are the laws of temperance thought hard? The effects of intemperance will be found much harder. The service of God is perfect liberty; the service of our lusts is complete slavery. Rehoboam was never rightly fixed in his religion. He never quite cast off God; yet he engaged not his heart to seek the Lord. See what his fault was; he did not serve the Lord, because he did not seek the Lord. He did not pray, as Solomon, for wisdom and grace; he did not consult the word of God, did not seek to that as his oracle, nor follow its directions. He made nothing of his religion, because he did not set his heart to it, nor ever came up to a steady resolution in it. He did evil, because he never was determined for good.twelve hundred chariots - This number is not unusnal (compare Exodus 14:7; 1 Kings 10:26). Benhadad brought 1,200 chariots into the field against Shalmaneser II; and Ahabhad at the same time a force of 2,000 chariots (compare the 1 Kings 20:1 note).

The Lubims or "Libyans" Daniel 11:43, were a people of Africa, distinct from the Egyptians and the Ethiopians dwelling in their immediate neighborhood. They were called Ribu or Libu by the Egyptians. See Genesis 10:13.

Sukkiims - This name does not occur elsewhere. The Septuagint, who rendered the word "Troglodytes," regarded the Sukkiim probably as the "cave-dwellers" along the western shore of the Red Sea; but the conjecture that the word means "tent-dwellers" is plausible, and would point rather to a tribe of Arahs (Scenitae).

3-5. the Lubims—the Libyans of northeastern Africa.

the Sukkiims—Some think these were the Kenite Arabs, dwellers in tents, but others maintain more justly that these were Arab troglodytes, who inhabited the caverns of a mountain range on the western coast of the Red Sea.

and the Ethiopians—from the regions south of Egypt. By the overwhelming force of numbers, they took the fortresses of Judah which had been recently put in a state of defense, and marched to lay siege to the capital. While Shishak and his army was before Jerusalem, the prophet Shemaiah addressed Rehoboam and the princes, tracing this calamity to the national apostasy and threatening them with utter destruction in consequence of having forsaken God (2Ch 12:6).

The Lubims; a people of Africa bordering upon Egypt; of whom See Poole "2 Chronicles 16:8"; See Poole "Daniel 11:43"; See Poole "Nahum 3:9".

The Sukkiims; a people living in tents, as the word signifies; and such there were not far from Egypt, both in Africa and in Arabia.

The Ethiopians; either those beyond Egypt, or the Arabians. With twelve hundred chariots, and threescore thousand horsemen; and the people were without number,.... The foot soldiers; their number, according to Josephus (h) was 400,000:

that came with him out of Egypt; the above numerous army came from thence with him, which was famous for horses and chariots of war, see Exodus 14:7, what follow seem to have joined him after he came out of Egypt, or whom he subdued in his way; the Lubim or Lybians, inhabitants of Libya, a country near Egypt the same with the Lehabim; of whom see Genesis 10:13,

the Sukkiims; who were either the Scenite Arabs, who dwelt in tents, as this word signifies; or the Troglodytes, according to the Septuagint and Vulgate Latin versions, who dwelt in dens and caves, in which sense the word "Succah" is sometimes used, Job 38:40 and in their country was a town called Suchae, mentioned by Pliny (i); they inhabited near the Red sea; and if Shishak is the same with Sesostris, as is thought, these people were subdued by him, as Herodotus (k) and Strabo (l) testify:

and the Ethiopians; some think these were the Cushite Arabs, and that Sesostris came into Arabia is testified by the above writers; though rather the proper Ethiopians are meant, since they are joined with the Lubim or Africans; and since, as Herodotus (m) says, he ruled over Ethiopia; and Diodorus Siculus (n) says he fought with them, and obliged them to pay him tribute.

(h) Antiqu. l. 8. c. 10. sect. 2.((i) Nat. Hist. l. 6. c. 29. (k) Euterpe, sive, l. 2. c. 102. (l) Geograph. l. 16. p. 529. (m) Ut supra, (Euterpe, sive, l. 2.) c. 110. (n) Bibliothec. l. 1. p. 50.

With twelve hundred chariots, and threescore thousand horsemen: and the people were without number that came with him out of Egypt; the Lubims, the {b} Sukkiims, and the Ethiopians.

(b) Who were a people of Africa called the Troglodytes because they lived in holes.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
3. with twelve hundred chariots] The details given in this verse are absent from 1 Kin.

Lubims] R.V. Lubim (cp. 2 Chronicles 16:8). The “s” is not needed, “im” being a mark of the Heb. plural as in “Cherubim” and “Seraphim.” The Lubim are no doubt the Libyans.

Sukkiims] R.V. Sukkiim. LXX. Τρωγλοδύται, i.e. the cave dwellers of the mountains which fringe the west coast of the Red Sea. But whether these are really meant here is doubtful.Verse 3. - Twelve hundred chariots. The parallel does not give the numbers. These are large, but not inconsistent with those mentioned in other connections, whether those of Solomon, or, going further back, of Pharaoh. Lubims. The letter s is orthographically redundant in this, as also in the following names, the forms being already plural. The Lubim mean the Libyans, west of Egypt. They are probably the people represented on the Egyptian monuments as Lebu, of Semitic type, subjugated by Egypt's kings in the thirteenth century B.C. They were among the oldest of colonists, that drifted along the coast of Africa, north of the Great Desert, from the East, and are perhaps the same as the Lehabim (Genesis 10:13; 2 Chronicles 16:8; Nahum 3:9; Daniel 11:43; Jeremiah 46:9; Ezekiel 38:5). Sukkiims. Probably an Arab tribe, though the Septuagint Version gives Τρωγοδύται, as though taking them for Troglodytes in the hills west of the Red Sea; so, too, the Vulgate. Gesenius at once renders the סֻכִּיִּים tent-dwellers, and sets the people in question down for some African tribe. They are not mentioned elsewhere so as to be recognized. Ethiopians. These were ethnically Cushites, but the territorial application of the term was confined to the African Cushite settlers. It is remarkable that, in 2 Chronicles 21:16, Ethiopians are classed with Arabians, but otherwise with African peoples, and in particular Egypt (Psalm 68:31; Isaiah 20:3, 4; Isaiah 43:3; Isaiah 45:14; Jeremiah 46:9; Ezekiel 30:5; Ezekiel 38:5). They were many-tribed, and the Sabaeans were a leading tribe of them. It is evident that Shishak could draw from a large and varied dominion subject to his dynasty at this time. Maachah the daughter, i.e., the granddaughter, of Absalom; for she cannot have been Absalom's daughter, because Absalom, according to 2 Samuel 14:27, had only one daughter, Tamar by name, who must have been fifty years old at Solomon's death. According to 2 Samuel 18:18, Absalom left no son; Maachah therefore can only be a daughter of Tamar, who, according to 2 Chronicles 13:2, was married to Uriel of Gibeah: see on 1 Kings 15:2. Abijah, the oldest son of Maachah, whom his father nominated his successor (2 Chronicles 11:22 and 2 Chronicles 12:16), is called in the book of Kings constantly Abijam, the original form of the name, which was afterwards weakened into Abijah.
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