Then you shall come up after him, that he may come and sit on my throne; for he shall be king in my stead: and I have appointed him to be ruler over Israel and over Judah.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)Over Israel and over Judah.—The phrase clearly refers to the distinction, already tending to become a division, between Israel and Judah in relation to the monarchy. In the case of David himself, it may be observed that the record of his accession to royalty over Israel contains the notice of “a league” made by him with the elders of Israel (2Samuel 5:3), to which there is nothing to correspond in the account of his becoming king over Judah (2Samuel 2:4). This perhaps indicates from the beginning a less absolute rule over the other tribes. Certainly the history of the rebellion of Absalom (2Samuel 15:10; 2Samuel 15:13; 2Samuel 18:6-7), the disputes about the restoration of David (2Samuel 19:41-43), and the attempt of Sheba to take advantage of them (2Samuel 20:1-2), show a looser allegiance of Israel than of Judah to the house of David.1 Kings 1:35-36. Then ye shall come up after him, that he may sit on my throne — Ye shall attend upon him to Jerusalem, and give him actual possession of the throne. For he shall be king in my stead — My deputy and vice-king while I live, and absolutely king when I die. Over Israel and over Judah — The latter clause is added, lest the men of Judah, who were in a special manner invited by Adonijah, (1 Kings 1:9,) should think themselves exempted from his jurisdiction. And Benaiah said, Amen — They all said the same, (1 Kings 1:47,) not doubting but God would establish his authority.2 Samuel 2:9; 2 Samuel 19:11. King in my stead; my deputy and vice-king whilst I live, and absolutely king when I die. Or if David and Solomon were joint kings, it is no more than was afterwards frequent at Rome, where the father and son, or two other persons, were not seldom joint emperors.
I have appointed, and that by Divine direction.
And over Judah: this is added, partly as being the most eminent and royal tribe; it being frequent, together with the general distinction, to mention one of the most eminent particulars, as 1 Kings 11:1 Psalm 18:1 Mark 16:7; and partly lest the men of Judah, who were in a special manner invited by Adonijah, 1 Kings 1:9, might think themselves exempted from his jurisdiction.
that he may come and sit upon my throne; at Jerusalem, in the king's palace, and there exercise his kingly power he would now be invested with:
for he shall be king in my stead; even during David's life, as well as after his decease:
and I have appointed him to be ruler over Israel, and over Judah; that is, over all the twelve tribes of Israel Judah may be particularly mentioned, though included in Israel, because Adonijah had invited the men of Judah to his feast and party, 1 Kings 1:9; and therefore had they not been named, might think he had no power over them.Then ye shall come up after him, that he may come and sit upon my throne; for he shall be king in my stead: and I have appointed him to be ruler over Israel and over Judah.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)35. come up after him] That is, as his supporters and body-guard, just as in 1 Kings 1:7 above, the conspirators ‘helped after Adonijah.’ Cf. also below, 1 Kings 1:40.
to be ruler over Israel] A better rendering is ‘prince’. The title was that given by God specially to those who should lead His people. Thus Saul is first so called (1 Samuel 9:16. A.V. ‘captain’ as in 1 Samuel 10:1. In 2 Chronicles 11:22 A.V. has ‘ruler,’ R.V. ‘prince’), then David (1 Samuel 25:30, A. V. ‘leader’). It is used also of Hezekiah (2 Kings 20:5), and in Daniel (1 Kings 9:25) of Him who was to be greater than all these, ‘Messiah the Prince.’Verse 35. - Then ye shall come up (after him [not in the LXX. Cod. Vat.] that he may [Hebrews and he shall] come and sit upon my throne [in every possible way his accession was to be proclaimed and confirmed], for he shall be king in my stead [David i.e., virtually abdicates in Solomon's favour. Cf. vers. 46, 51, 53; 1 Chronicles 29:23, 26], and I have appointed him [he and him are emphasised in the original] to be ruler over Israel and over Judah. It is possible, as Bahr thinks, that Israel and Judah were severally mentioned because David had once been king over Judah only, and because Israel had gone over to the side of Absalom. It is more probable, however, that "Israel and Judah" was even then the current designation of the two component parts of the realm (see 2 Samuel 2:9, 10; 2 Samuel 19:11, 41, etc.). Besides, we can hardly suppose that the historian has in every case, though he probably has in this, preserved the exact words of the speaker; and it need cause us no surprise had he put into David's mouth the phraseology of a later age. In the nature of things he can only give us the substance of conversations such as these. 2 Samuel 4:9), yea, as I swore to thee by Jehovah, the God of Israel, saying, Solomon thy son shall be king after me, ... yea, so shall I do this day." The first and third כּי serve to give emphasis to the assertion, like imo, yea (cf. Ewald, 330, b.). The second merely serves as an introduction to the words.
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