1 Kings 1:34
And let Zadok the priest and Nathan the prophet anoint him there king over Israel: and blow ye with the trumpet, and say, God save king Solomon.
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(34) Anoint him . . . king.—It is notable that of this solemn inauguration of royalty, marked emphatically as a religious consecration by the common phrase “the Lord’s anointed”—then especially in use (1Samuel 16:6; 1Samuel 24:6; 1Samuel 26:9; 2Samuel 1:14; 2Samuel 19:21), though found also occasionally in the later books (Lamentations 4:20)—there is no mention of the tumultuous usurpation of Adonijah. Probably, as in the appointment of Saul and David himself, the right to anoint was recognised as belonging to the prophetic order (see 1Kings 19:16), inasmuch as it signified the outpouring of the Holy Spirit of the Lord. (Comp. Acts 10:38.) Hence, in the absence of Nathan, it could not be attempted. In the case of David, such anointing had marked (1Samuel 16:13) his first private designation for the kingdom by Samuel, and his public accession to royalty, first over Judah (2Samuel 2:4), then over all Israel (2Samuel 5:3).

The completeness of the old King’s provision is especially to be noticed. The “riding on the King’s mule,” attended by the body-guard, marked the royal sanction; the anointing, the sanction of priest and prophet; and the acclamation the adhesion of the people. Then are to follow the enthronement and homage.

1 Kings 1:34. Let Zadok the priest and Nathan the prophet anoint him — That is, say the Jews, one of them poured out the oil, and the other anointed his head, drawing a circle round about it with oil, according to their maxim that their kings were anointed in the form of a crown, to denote their delegation to the royal dignity. It is of more importance to observe, that this unction signified not only the designation of the person anointed to his office, but the gifts and graces which were necessary to qualify him for it, and which, seeking them sincerely of God, he might expect to receive. “We do not find,” says Henry, “that Abiathar pretended to anoint Adonijah: he was made king by a feast, not by unction. Whom God calls, he will qualify, which was signified by the anointing: usurpers had it not. Christ signifies anointed, and he is the king whom God hath set upon his holy hill of Zion, according to the decree, Psalm 2:6-7. Christians, also, are made to our God, and by him, kings, and they have an unction from the Holy One, 1 John 2:20.”

1:32-53 The people expressed great joy and satisfaction in the elevation of Solomon. Every true Israelite rejoices in the exaltation of the Son of David. Combinations formed upon evil principles will soon be dissolved, when self-interest calls another way. How can those who do evil deeds expect to have good tidings? Adonijah had despised Solomon, but soon dreaded him. We see here, as in a glass, Jesus, the Son of David and the Son of God, exalted to the throne of glory, notwithstanding all his enemies. His kingdom is far greater than that of his father David, and therein all the true people of God cordially rejoice. The prosperity of his cause is vexation and terror to his enemies. No horns of the altar, nor forms of godliness, nor pretences to religion, can profit those who will not submit to His authority, and accept of his salvation; and if their submission be hypocritical, they shall perish without remedy.Anoint him - Inauguration into each of the three offices (those of prophet, priest, and king) typical of the Messiah or Anointed One, was by anointing with oil. Divine appointment had already instituted the rite in connection with the kingly office 2 Samuel 2:4; but after Solomon we have no express mention of the anointing of kings, except in the three cases of Jehu, Joash, and Jehoahaz 2 Kings 9:6; 2 Kings 11:12; 2 Kings 23:30, who were all appointed irregularly. At the time of the captivity, kings, whose anointing has not been related in the historical books, still bear the title of "the anointed of the Lord." Lamentations 4:20; Psalm 89:38, Psalm 89:51. 34. anoint him—done only in the case of a new dynasty or disputed succession (see on [286]1Sa 16:13; [287]2Sa 2:1). Anoint him there king; as they used to do where there was any thing new, or doubtful, or extraordinary in the succession, as 1 Samuel 10:1 16:12,13 1 Kings 19:15,16 2 Kings 9:3. And this unction signified both the designation of the persons to the office, and the gifts and graces which were necessary for their office, and which they, seeking them sincerely from God, might expect to receive.

Blow ye with the trumpet; to make the action more solemn, and glorious, and public.

And let Zadok the priest, and Nathan the prophet, anoint him there king over Israel,.... For it might be done by either of them, as the unctions of Saul and David show:

and blow ye the trumpet, and say, God save King Solomon; the blowing of the trumpet was to make it public; the proclamation of him as king was to be made by the sound of it, and the acclamation of the people was to express their concurrence with it, their loyal affection to the new king, and their hearty wishes for his health, prosperity, and long life.

And let Zadok the priest and Nathan the prophet anoint him there king over Israel: and blow ye with the trumpet, and say, God save king Solomon.
34. anoint him there] The anointing was the most solemn portion of the ceremonies connected with the installation of a new king. We only read of its being done on some very marked occasions. Thus Saul, the first king, was anointed (1 Samuel 10:1), and David, the king of God’s own choice (1 Samuel 16:13); also when God orders the prophet Elijah to make provision for a new succession in Israel, Jehu is to be anointed (1 Kings 19:16), which was done when the proper time came (2 Kings 9:3; 2 Kings 9:6); so Joash after his preservation was anointed by Jehoiada (2 Chronicles 23:11). But though unmentioned it may have been performed in other cases. For ‘anointing’ is mentioned even in Jotham’s parable (Jdg 9:8), where the trees will choose them a king. The ceremony is intended to symbolize the outpouring of gifts from above upon the new monarch.

blow ye with the trumpet] Thus did Jehu’s companions after his anointing (2 Kings 9:13); neither anointing nor the blowing of the trumpets has been mentioned in connexion with Adonijah’s faction. No doubt they wished to gain strength before making such a public display of what they were doing.

Verse 34. - And let Zadok the priest and Nathan the prophet [Bahr sees in the fact that Nathan was associated with Zadok in the anointing, "the high significance David attributed to the prophetic office in Israel" But the prophets constantly performed this ceremony. Samuel anointed both Saul and David; Elisha anointed Jehu (2 Kings 9:1), and was commissioned to anoint Hazael (1 Kings 19:15, 16) ] anoint him [the king, being a sacred personage, was set apart to the office, like the priest and prophet, by anointing. Saul was probably anointed twice (1 Samuel 10:1; 1 Samuel 11:15. Cf. 12:3). David was anointed thrice (1 Samuel 16:13; 2 Samuel 2:4; 2 Samuel 5:3. Solomon was anointed twice (ver. 39; 1 Chronicles 29:22). The Rabbins have always held that subsequent kings were not anointed, where the succession was regular. But this opinion must be taken quantum valet. It is true that we only read of the anointing of Jehu (2 Kings 9:6), Joash (ibid. 2 Kings 11:12), and Jehoahaz (ibid. 2 Kings 23:30), and that in these three cases the accession was irregular. But it is obvious that other kings may have been anointed as well, though the fact is not recorded. There would be no reason for recording it in ordinary cases It seems hardly likely, too, that any king would readily dispense with an ordinance which would so much strengthen his title] there king over Israel: and blow ye with the trumpet [the sound of the trumpet would almost seem to have been a necessary accompaniment of coronations, or the proclamation of a new king. See 2 Samuel 15:10; 2 Kings 9:13; 2 Kings 11:14], and say, God cave king Solomon. [See on ver. 25.] 1 Kings 1:34The blowing of the trumpet and the cry "Long live the king" (cf. 1 Samuel 10:24) were to serve as a solemn proclamation after the anointing had taken place.
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