1 Chronicles 10:13
So Saul died for his transgression which he committed against the LORD, even against the word of the LORD, which he kept not, and also for asking counsel of one that had a familiar spirit, to inquire of it;
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(13, 14) A concluding reflection from the mind of the chronicler himself. He sums up his extract concerning the ruin of Saul by assigning the moral ground of it, viz., Saul’s “unfaithfulness whereby he showed himself unfaithful to Jehovah.” The same charge was made against the Transjordan tribes in 1Chronicles 5:25, and against the people of Judah in 1Chronicles 9:1.

(13) Even against the word of the Lord.—Saul’s unfaithfulness was twofold: (1) he did not observe the prophetic word of Jehovah (comp. 1Samuel 13:13; 1Samuel 15:11); and (2) he consulted a necromancer, to the neglect of consulting Jehovah (1 Samuel 28).

And also for asking counsel.And also by consulting the necromancer in order to get a response. “Turn ye not to the necromancers” (Leviticus 19:31). (See also Isaiah 8:19.) Saul broke the general law of his people, as well as special commands addressed to himself. No allusion is made to his cruel slaughter of the priests (1Samuel 22:18), nor to his implacable hatred of David.

1 Chronicles 10:13. So Saul died for his transgression — The sense is, wonder not that Saul fell by the hands of the Philistines, who were armed against him by his own sin, and by God’s vengeance for it. Against the word of the Lord — Against God’s express, and plain, and positive command; which is a great aggravation of any sin. For asking counsel of one that had a familiar spirit — Which also was contrary to a manifest command,

(Leviticus 19:31,) and moreover contrary to his own conscience, which was so fully convinced of the evil of such practices, that he had endeavoured the utter extirpation of all such persons, in pursuance of God’s law, 1 Samuel 28:9. To inquire of it — Concerning the event of the approaching battle. 10:1-14 The death of Saul. - The design chiefly in view in these books of the Chronicles, appears to be to preserve the records of the house of David. Therefore the writer repeats not the history of Saul's reign, but only of his death, by which a way was made for David to the throne. And from the ruin of Saul, we may learn, 1. That the sin of sinners will certainly find them out, sooner or later; Saul died for his transgression. 2. That no man's greatness can exempt him from the judgments of God. 3. Disobedience is a killing thing. Saul died for not keeping the word of the Lord. May be delivered from unbelief, impatience, and despair. By waiting on the Lord we shall obtain a kingdom that cannot be moved.For his transgression - Compare 1 Chronicles 9:1. The "transgression" intended is probably the disobedience with respect to Amalek, recorded in 1 Samuel 15:1-9 (compare 1 Samuel 28:17-18). 13. Saul died for his transgression which he committed against the Lord—in having spared the king of the Amalekites and taken the flocks of the people as spoils [1Sa 15:9], as well as in having consulted a pythoness [1Sa 28:7]. Both of these acts were great sins—the first as a violation of God's express and positive command [1Sa 15:3], and the second as contrary to a well-known statute of the kingdom (Le 19:31). Saul died for his transgression: the sense is, Wonder not that Saul fell by the hands of the Philistines, who were armed against him by his own sin and by God’s vengeance for it.

Against the word of the Lord; against God’s express, and plain, and positive command; which is a great aggravation of any sin.

For asking counsel of one that had a familiar spirit; which also was contrary to a manifest command, Leviticus 19:31, and moreover, contrary to his own conscience, which was so fully convinced hereof, that he had endeavoured the utter extirpation of all such persons, in pursuance of God’s law. See 1 Samuel 28:9.

To inquire of it, concerning the event of the approaching battle. So Saul died for his transgression,.... See Gill on 1 Samuel 31:13 A violent and dishonourable death, which was suffered on account of the sins he was guilty of:

one was, which he committed against the Lord, even against the word of the Lord, which he kept not; both in not staying for Samuel the time appointed, and by sparing the Amalekites whom he was bid to destroy, 1 Samuel 13:13.

and also for asking counsel of one that had a familiar spirit, to inquire of it; what he should do with respect to engaging in battle with the Philistines, 1 Samuel 28:8 which to do was contrary to an express command of God, Leviticus 19:31.

So Saul died for his transgression which he committed against the LORD, even against the word of the LORD, which he kept not, and also for asking counsel of one that had a familiar spirit, to enquire of it;
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
13. his transgression] R.V. his trespass; cp. 2 Chronicles 26:16. The reference is to Saul’s sacrifice (1 Samuel 13:13-14), and disobedience (ib. 1 Samuel 15:23).

even against the word] R.V. because of the word.

also for asking] R.V. also for that he asked.

to inquire of it] R.V. to inquire thereby; cp. 1 Samuel 28:8.Verse 13. - So Saul died for his transgression. (For this transgression and the stress laid upon it and its predicted consequences, see 1 Samuel 15:1-9, 11, 14; 1 Samuel 28:18.) For asking... of... a familiar spirit (1 Samuel 28:7-24). In 1 Sam his narrative forms the conclusion of Saul's last war with the Philistines. The battle was fought on the plain of Jezreel; and when the Israelites were compelled to retire, they fell back upon Mount Gilboa, but were hard pressed by the Philistines, so that many fell upon the mountain. The Philistines pressed furiously after Saul and his sons, and slew the latter (as to Saul's sons, see on 1 Chronicles 8:33); and when the archers came upon Saul he trembled before them (יחל from חוּל), and ordered his armour-bearer to thrust him through. Between המּורים and בּקּשׁת the superfluous אנשׁים is introduced in Samuel, and in the last clause מאד is omitted; and instead of מהמּורים we have the unusual form מן־היּורים (cf. 2 Chronicles 35:23). In Saul's request to his armour-bearer that he would thrust him through with the sword, וּדקרני (1 Samuel 31:4) is omitted in the phrase which gives the reason for his request; and Bertheau thinks it did not originally stand in the text, and has been repeated merely by an oversight, since the only motive for the command, "Draw thy sword, and thrust me through therewith," was that the Philistines might not insult Saul when alive, and consequently the words, "that they may not thrust me through," cannot express the reason. But that is scarcely a conclusive reason for this belief; for although the Philistines might seek out Saul after he had been slain by his armour-bearer, and dishonour his dead body, yet the anxiety lest they should seek out his corpse to wreak their vengeance upon it could not press so heavily upon him as the fear that they would take vengeance upon him if he fell alive into their hands. It is therefore a more probable supposition that the author of the Chronicle has omitted the word וּדקרני only as not being necessary to the sense of the passage, just as עמּו is omitted at the end of 1 Chronicles 10:5. In 1 Chronicles 10:6 we have וכל־בּיתו instead of the כּל־אנשׁיו גּם כליו ונשׂא of Samuel, and in 1 Chronicles 10:7 ישׂראל אנשׁי is omitted after the words נסוּ כּי (Samuel). From this Bertheau concludes that the author of the Chronicle has designedly avoided speaking of the men of Saul's army or of the Israelites who took part in the battle, because it was not his purpose to describe the whole course of the conflict, but only to narrate the death of Saul and of his sons, in order to point out how the supreme power came to David. Thenius, on the contrary, deduces the variation between the sixth verse of the Chronicles and the corresponding verse in Samuel from "a text which had become illegible." Both are incorrect; for כּל־אנשׁיו are not all the men of war who went with him into the battle (Then.), or all the Israelites who took part in the battle (Berth.), but only all those who were about the king, i.e., the whole of the king's attendants who had followed him to the war. כּל־בּיתו is only another expression for כּל־אנשׁיו, in which the כּליו נשׂא is included. The author of the Chronicle has merely abridged the account, confining himself to a statement of the main points, and has consequently both omitted ישׂראל אנשׁי in 1 Chronicles 10:7, because he had already spoken of the flight of the warriors of Israel in 1 Chronicles 10:1, and it was here sufficient to mention only the flight and death of Saul and of his sons, and has also shortened the more exact statement as to the inhabitants of that district, "those on the other side of the valley and on the other side of Jordan" (Samuel), into בּאמק אשׁר. In this abridgement also Thenius scents a "defective text." As the inhabitants of the district around Gilboa abandoned their cities, they were taken possession of by the Philistines.
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