Titus 1:1
Paul, a servant of God, and an apostle of Jesus Christ, according to the faith of God's elect, and the acknowledging of the truth which is after godliness;
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(1) Paul, a servant of God, and an apostle of Jesus Christ.—The titles here assumed by St. Paul in his introductory greeting are in some respects slightly different to any of his usual designations. In the other two so-called Pastoral Epistles addressed to Timothy, St. Paul simply styles himself “an Apostle of Jesus Christ.” Possibly, the longer and more formal title is here adopted because his relations were hardly ever of so intimate a character with Titus as with Timothy; the latter would seem to have held the position of St. Paul’s adopted son. (See Note below on Titus 1:4, “To Titus.”)

According to the faith of God’s elect.—The English version here entirely fails to give the meaning of the Greek preposition. The rendering should be, “for (the furtherance of) the faith,” or, in other words, “the object of my (Paul’s) apostleship was, that through my instrumentality the chosen of God should believe.” The whole question respecting these “elect,” or “chosen of God,” is surrounded with deep mystery; three or four guiding thoughts may, however, be safely laid down. (1) In the visible world such an apparently arbitrary election to special privileges, fortune, happiness. utterly irrespective, in the first instance, of individual merit, does exist. This is clear to all of us. (2) In grace we are distinctly told repeatedly that a similar election exists, and our own observation certainly coincides here with revelation. (3) Such election in no case seemingly affects our position here as free agents; surrounded with the most precious privileges, gifted with much knowledge, it is possible, as we, alas, too often see, deliberately to refuse the good and to choose the evil. (4) All such allusions to the “elect” as, for instance, the one here before us, are intended, not as a stumbling-block for the believer, but as a comfort for the faithful, struggling man of God, for it tells him how the Eternal “before the ages” had chosen him to be His servant.

And the acknowledging of the truth which is after godliness.—More accurately rendered, and the full knowledge of the truth which is designed for godliness, or, which leadeth to godliness. Here the further purpose of St. Paul’s apostleship is specified. St. Paul was appointed an Apostle that through him the elect of God might believe and heed “the truth”—that truth, the knowledge of which produces as its fruit in the individual a holy, useful life.

Titus 1:1. Paul, a servant of the one living and true God — In some of his other epistles, Paul calls himself a servant of Jesus Christ; but this is the only one in which he calls himself a servant of God: an appellation which some think he took because the Judaizing teachers in Crete affirmed that he had apostatized from God, by receiving into his church the uncircumcised Gentiles, and thereby freeing them from obedience to the law of Moses, as a term of salvation. And an apostle of Jesus Christ — By this title he distinguishes himself from other pious and holy men, who were all servants of God; and asserts his apostleship, not to raise himself in the estimation of Titus, but to make the false teachers in Crete, and all in every age who should read this letter, sensible that every thing he ordered Titus to inculcate was of divine authority. According to the faith of God’s elect — That is, God’s true people; the propagation of which faith was the proper business of an apostle. And the acknowledging of the truth — That is, the doctrine of the gospel here termed the truth, to distinguish it from the errors of heathenism, and the shadows of the Mosaic law; and because it teaches the true, and the only true way of salvation for Jews and Gentiles; which is after godliness — Which in every point agrees with and supports the true, vital, spiritual worship and service of God; and indeed has no other end or scope. These two verses contain the sum of Christianity, which Titus was always to have in his eye.

1:1-4 All are the servants of God who are not slaves of sin and Satan. All gospel truth is according to godliness, teaching the fear of God. The intent of the gospel is to raise up hope as well as faith; to take off the mind and heart from the world, and to raise them to heaven and the things above. How excellent then is the gospel, which was the matter of Divine promise so early, and what thanks are due for our privileges! Faith comes by hearing, and hearing by the word of God; and whoso is appointed and called, must preach the word. Grace is the free favour of God, and acceptance with him. Mercy, the fruits of the favour, in the pardon of sin, and freedom from all miseries both here and hereafter. And peace is the effect and fruit of mercy. Peace with God through Christ who is our Peace, and with the creatures and ourselves. Grace is the fountain of all blessings. Mercy, and peace, and all good, spring out of this.Paul, a servant of God, and an apostle of Jesus Christ - See notes at Romans 1:1; compare the notes at 1 Corinthians 9:1-5.

According to the faith of God's elect - Compare the Romans 8:33 note; Ephesians 1:4 note; 2 Timothy 2:10 note. The meaning of the word rendered here, "according to" - κατὰ kata - is, probably, with reference to; that is, he was appointed to be an apostle with respect to the faith of those whom God had chosen, or, in order that they might be led to believe the gospel. God had chosen them to salvation, but he intended that it should be in connection with their believing, and, in order to that, he had appointed Paul to be an apostle that he might go and make known to them the gospel. It is the purpose of God to save His people, but he does not mean to save them as infidels, or unbelievers. He intends that they shall be believers first - and hence he sends his ministers that they may become such.

And the acknowledging of the truth - In order to secure the acknowledgment or recognition of the truth. The object of the apostleship, as it is of the ministry in general, is to secure the proper acknowledgment of the truth among men.

Which is after godliness - Which tends to promote piety towards God. On the word rendered godliness, see the notes at 1 Timothy 2:2; 1 Timothy 3:16. - The truth, the acknowledgment of which Paul was appointed to secure, was not scientific, historical, or political truth: it was that of religion - that which was adapted to lead men to a holy life, and to prepare them for a holy heaven.

THE EPISTLE OF PAUL TO TITUS Commentary by A. R. Faussett


Genuineness.—Clement of Rome quotes it [Epistle to the Corinthians, 2]; Irenæus [Against Heresies, 3.3.4] refers to it as Paul's; Theophilus of Antioch [To Autolychus, 3.14], quotes it as Scripture. Compare Clement of Alexandria [Miscellanies, 1, p. 299]; Tertullian [The Prescription against Heretics, 6].

Time and Place of Writing.—This Epistle seems to have been written from Corinth [Birks], subsequently to his first imprisonment, when Paul was on his way to Nicopolis (Tit 3:12) in Epirus, where he purposed passing the winter, shortly before his martyrdom, A.D. 67. Birks thinks, from the similarity of the Epistle to Titus and First Timothy, that both were written from the same place, Corinth, and at dates not widely apart; First Timothy shortly after coming to Corinth, before he had planned a journey to Epirus, the Epistle to Titus afterwards. The journey to Crete and Ephesus for the bearers of his letters would be easy from Corinth, and he could himself thence easily pass into Epirus. He had shortly before visited Crete, wherein a Church existed (though without due organization), the first foundation of which he may have partly laid at his former visit (Ac 27:7, &c.), when on his way to his first imprisonment at Rome. That he returned to the East after his first imprisonment appears most probable from Php 2:24; Phm 22. However, there may have been seeds of Christianity sown in Crete, even before his first visit, by the Cretans who heard Peter's preaching on Pentecost (Ac 2:11).

Occasion of Writing.—Corrupt elements soon showed themselves in the Cretan Church, similar to those noticed in the Epistles to Timothy, as existing in the Ephesian Church, Judaism, false pretensions to science, and practical ungodliness. Paul, on his late visit, had left Titus in Crete to establish Church government, and ordain presbyters (deacons are not mentioned). Titus had been several times employed by Paul on a mission to the Corinthian Churches, and had probably thence visited Crete, which was within easy reach of Corinth. Hence the suitableness of his selection by the apostle for the superintendence of the Cretan Church. Paul now follows up with instructions by letter those he had already given to Titus in person on the qualifications of elders, and the graces becoming the old, the young, and females, and warns him against the unprofitable speculations so rife in Crete. The national character of the Cretans was low in the extreme, as Epimenides, quoted in Tit 1:12, paints it. Livy [History, 44.45], stigmatizes their avarice; Polybius [Histories, 6.46.9], their ferocity and fraud; and [Histories, 6.47.5], their mendacity, so much so, that "to Cretanize" is another name for to lie: they were included in the proverbial three infamous initials "K" or "C," "Cappadocia, Crete, Cilicia."

Notices of Titus.—It is strange that he is never mentioned by this name in Acts, and there seems none of those mentioned in that book who exactly answers to him. He was a Greek, and therefore a Gentile (Ga 2:1, 3), and converted by Paul (Tit 1:4). He accompanied the apostle on the deputation sent from the Church of Antioch to Jerusalem, to consult the apostles respecting the circumcision of Gentile converts (Ac 15:2); and, agreeably to the decree of the council there, was not circumcised. He was in company with Paul at Ephesus, whence he was sent to Corinth to commence the collection for the Jerusalem saints, and to ascertain the effect of the First Epistle on the Corinthians (2Co 7:6-9; 8:6; 12:18), and there showed an unmercenary spirit. He next proceeded to Macedon, where he joined Paul, who had been already eagerly expecting him at Troas (2Co 2:12, 13, "Titus my brother," 2Co 7:6). He was then employed by the apostle in preparing the collection for the poor saints in Judea, and became the bearer of the Second Epistle to the Corinthians (2Co 8:16, 17, 23). Paul in it calls him "my partner and fellow helper concerning you." His being located in Crete (Tit 1:5) was subsequent to Paul's first imprisonment, and shortly before the second, about A.D. 67, ten years subsequent to the last notice of him in Second Corinthians (2Co 12:18), A.D. 57. He probably met Paul, as the apostle desired, at Nicopolis; for his subsequent journey into Dalmatia, thence (or else from Rome, whither he may have accompanied Paul) would be more likely, than from the distant Crete (2Ti 4:10, written subsequently to the Epistle to Titus). In the unsettled state of things then, Titus' episcopal commission in Crete was to be but temporary, Paul requiring the presence of Titus with himself, whenever Artemas or Tychicus should arrive in Crete and set him free from his duties there.

Tradition represents him to have died peaceably in Crete, as archbishop of Gortyna, at an advanced age.


Tit 1:1-16. Address: For What End Titus Was Left in Crete. Qualifications for Elders: Gainsayers in Crete Needing Reproof.

1. servant of God—not found elsewhere in the same connection. In Ro 1:1 it is "servant of Jesus Christ" (Ga 1:10; Php 1:1; compare Ac 16:17; Re 1:1; 15:3). In Ro 1:1, there follows, "called to be an apostle," which corresponds to the general designation of the office first, "servant of God," here, followed by the special description, "apostle of Jesus Christ." The full expression of his apostolic office answers, in both Epistles, to the design, and is a comprehensive index to the contents. The peculiar form here would never have proceeded from a forger.

according to the faith—rather, "for," "with a view to subserve the faith"; this is the object of my apostleship (compare Tit 1:4, 9; Ro 1:5).

the elect—for whose sake we ought to endure all things (2Ti 2:10). This election has its ground, not in anything belonging to those thus distinguished, but in the purpose and will of God from everlasting (2Ti 1:9; Ro 8:30-33; compare Lu 18:7; Eph 1:4; Col 3:12). Ac 13:48 shows that all faith on the part of the elect, rests on the divine foreordination: they do not become elect by their faith, but receive faith, and so become believers, because they are elect.

and the acknowledging of the truth—"and (for promoting) the full knowledge of the truth," that is, the Christian truth (Eph 1:13).

after godliness—that is, which belongs to piety: opposed to the knowledge which has not for its object the truth, but error, doctrinal and practical (Tit 1:11, 16; 1Ti 6:3); or even which has for its object mere earthly truth, not growth in the divine life. "Godliness," or "piety," is a term peculiar to the Pastoral Epistles: a fact explained by the apostle having in them to combat doctrine tending to "ungodliness" (2Ti 2:16; compare Tit 2:11, 12).Tit 1:1-4 The salutation.

Tit 1:5 For what end Titus was left in Crete.

Tit 1:6-9 How they should be qualified who are ordained

to the ministry.

Tit 1:10,11 The mouths of evil teachers must be stopped.

Tit 1:12-16 The bad character of the Cretians.

Paul, a servant of God; that is, in the work of the ministry.

And an apostle of Jesus Christ; who glory in this as my greatest honour and dignity, that I was one immediately sent by Jesus Christ to preach the gospel.

According to the faith of God's elect; kata pistin according to what the elect, or chosen of God from the beginning of the world, have believed; so as it is no new doctrine which I bring: or else kata here should be translated for, denoting the final cause, as some judge it signifieth, 2Ti 1:1, and in Tit 1:9 of this chapter; then the sense is, that he was sent to be an instrument to beget faith in such as God had chosen unto life. Act 26:18, for those only ordained to eternal life believe, Act 13:48, and Paul was sent to be a helper of their faith. Some think the apostle by this phrase only distinguisheth himself from the ministers of the law.

And the acknowledging of the truth which is after godliness; to which faith men are brought by the knowledge of the truth, and it worketh by the owning, profession, and acknowledgment of the truth; not all propositions of truth, but that which is productive of a godly life, lying in the true worship of God, and a universal obedience to the Divine will.

Paul, a servant of God,.... So James styles himself, James 1:1 and others of the apostles, as Peter and Jude, call themselves the servants of Jesus Christ; and as does the Apostle Paul also; and both seem to be esteemed by them as high characters and titles of honour, by which they chose to be described and known. Paul, before his conversion, was a servant of sin, of divers lusts and pleasures, and which he owns in this epistle, Titus 3:3 but being called by grace, he became free from the vassalage of sin, and became a servant of God, and of righteousness; and henceforward, from a principle of grace, and being constrained by love, served the Lord, and yielded obedience to his commands and ordinances, with all readiness and cheerfulness: though this character belongs to him in a higher sense than it does to believers in common; and respects his ministerial service, or his serving God in the Gospel of his Son; in which he, and others, were eminently the servants of the most high God, whose business greatly lay in showing unto men the way of salvation.

And an apostle of Jesus Christ: constituted, qualified, and sent by him to preach his Gospel; and who had his mission, commission, and doctrine from him; and was an ambassador of his, who represented him, and preached him; and had a power of working miracles to confirm his mission and ministry; and so had all the signs and proofs of an apostle in him; See Gill on Romans 1:1.

And according to the faith of God's elect: which may either denote the agreement there was between the ministry of the apostle, and the faith of the choice and eminent saints of God, under the former dispensation; he saying no other things than what Moses, and the prophets did; and laying no other foundation of salvation than they did, and which is therefore called the foundation of the apostles and prophets; and directing souls to the righteousness, sacrifice, and blood of Christ, the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world, to which the faith of Old Testament saints looked, and by whose grace they were justified, pardoned, and saved, as we are: or else the way and manner in which he became an apostle; it was "by, in, or through the faith of God's elect", as the Syriac version renders it; he was chosen of God, and brought as such to believe in Christ, and then called to be an apostle: or rather this may regard the end of his apostleship, and be rendered, "unto the faith of God's elect"; that is, either he was appointed an apostle, to preach the doctrine of faith, which once he destroyed, and which is but one, and is common to all the elect, and what is commonly received, and embraced by the elect of God, in all ages; or to be a means and instrument of bringing the elect of God to that faith in Christ, which is peculiar to them; see Romans 1:5. There are some persons who are styled the elect of God; these are not all men, some are vessels of wrath fitted to destruction, ungodly men, foreordained to condemnation and given up to believe a lie, that they might be damned; nor the Jews only, nor all of them, for though, as a nation, they were chosen, above all others, to many outward privileges, yet they were not chosen to special grace, and eternal glory; only a remnant, according to the election of grace: but these are some of both, Jews and Gentiles; some of every kindred, tongue, people, and nation; these were chosen in Christ from eternity, and are the peculiar objects of the affection and care of God, whom he calls, justifies, and glorifies: and there is a special "faith" that belongs to these; which is a spiritual looking to Christ, a going to him, a laying hold and leaning on him, and trusting in him for salvation; and this faith is peculiar to the elect of God; all men have it not, and those that have it, have it through the free gift of God; nor is it given to any but to the chosen ones. The reason why the Jews did not believe in Christ, was, because they were not of this number, John 10:26. And this faith is secured and, made sure to them by their election; they are chosen to it, and through it to salvation; they believe in consequence, and by virtue of it; and certainly obtain it in all ages, as well as righteousness, life, and salvation; and it is that by which they are known to be the elect of God: and the apostle mentions it in this form, and manner, to distinguish it from other faith; the faith of devils, and of reprobates, and the historical and temporal faith of hypocrites, and nominal professors.

And the acknowledging of the truth; by which is meant the Gospel, often called the truth, and the word of truth; in distinction from that which was shadowy, the ceremonies of the law; and in opposition to that which is false, it being from the God of truth, concerning Christ, who is the truth; and containing nothing but truth, and what is led into by the Spirit of truth. Now to preach, spread, and defend this, was the apostle constituted in his office as such; and which he did preach with all clearness and faithfulness, to bring souls to a spiritual and experimental knowledge of it, and so to an acknowledgment, a public owning and professing of it:

which is after godliness; the Gospel is a doctrine according to godliness; the truths of it have an influence, both on internal and external godliness; they direct to, and promote the worship and fear of God, and a religious, righteous, sober, and godly life and conversation.

Paul, {1} a {a} servant of God, and an apostle of Jesus Christ, according to the faith of God's {b} elect, {2} and the acknowledging of the truth which is after godliness;

(1) He vouches his apostleship (not for Titus, but for the Cretian's sake) both by the testimony of his outward calling, and by his consent in which he agrees with all the elect from the beginning of the world.

(a) A minister, as Christ himself, in his office of minister and head of the Prophets, is called a servant; Isa 43:10.

(b) Of those whom God has chosen.

(2) The faith in which all the elect agree, is the true and sincere knowledge of God for this purpose, that worshipping God correctly, they may at length obtain everlasting life according to the promise of God, who is true, which promise was exhibited in Christ in due time according to his eternal purpose.

Titus 1:1. For Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, Buttm. and Tisch. 7, following A, al., adopted Χριστοῦ Ἰησοῦ; but the majority of the most important MSS. (D** E F G H J K L א) support the Rec. (Lachm. Tisch. 8).

Titus 1:4. χάρις καὶ εἰρήνη] So Scholz, Tisch., following C* D E F G J א 73, al., Syr. Copt. Chrys. Aug. al.

Lachm. and Buttm. retained the usual reading: χάρις, ἔλεος, εἰρήνη; it is found in A C** K L, etc., but seems nevertheless to be a correction from the analogy of 1 Timothy 1:2; 2 Timothy 1:2.

Tittmann’s reading: χάρις, ἔλεος, καὶ εἰρήνη, is quite arbitrary.

Matthaei: ἔλεος nullus meorum omittit, nec ex quinque iis, quos postea consului. Reiche decided for the reading of Tisch.

καὶ κυρίου Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ] For this Lachm. Buttm. Tisch. read καὶ Χριστοῦ Ἰησοῦ, on the authority of A C D* al., Vulg. Copt. Arm. Theodoret, etc.

Titus 1:5. So far as internal evidence goes, we cannot decide whether the Rec. κατέλιπον or the reading ἀπέλιπον (Lachm. Tisch.) is the original one; both may be corrections, the latter on the analogy of 2 Timothy 4:20, the former on the analogy of Acts 18:19; Acts 24:27. Hofmann prefers καταλείπειν, because it means: “leaving some one behind in going away;” but the simple verb is in no way unsuitable in the passage. The external evidence (A C D* F G, al., Or. Basil, ms.) is in favour of ἀπέλιπον. It is uncertain, too, whether the aor. ἀπέλιπον (Rec. supported by D E K א, al., Lachm. Buttm. Tisch. 8) or the imperf. ἀπέλειπον (A C F G J L, al., Tisch. 7) is the original reading. Hofmann prefers the imperf. “because it was part of the purpose for which Paul at that time left Titus behind;” but this would not prevent the apostle from writing the aor.

The authorities waver between the middle ἐπιδιορθώσῃ (Rec. Tisch.) and the act. ἐπιδιορθώσῃς (Scholz, Lachm. Buttm.). Since in classic Greek the middle is more current than the active, it may be supposed that the middle was a correction. It can hardly be supposed that the copyists did not know the middle form (Hofmann).

Titus 1:10. In A C J א, many cursives, etc., καί is wanting between πολλοί and ἀνυπότακτοι, for which reason it was omitted by Lachm. and Tisch. 8. Tisch. 7 retained it, on the authority of D E F G K L, several cursives, etc. The καί was perhaps added to be in accordance with classical usage.

In several MSS. (F G 67* 73, al.), as well as in some versions, Oecum. Hilar., a καί was inserted after ἀνυπότακτοι.

Titus 1:15. The μέν following πάντα in the Rec. is to be deleted, on the authority of A C D* E* F G א 17, al., Vulg. It. Or. Tert. etc.

For μεμιασμένοις, μεμιαμμένοις is found in A C K L א, many cursives, etc., and was adopted by Lachm. Buttm. and Tisch. (see Winer, p. 84 [E. T. p. 108]). D* has μεμιανμένοις.

Titus 1:1. Παῦλος δοῦλος Θεοῦ] This designation, which indicates generally the official position (Wiesinger: “δοῦλος Θεοῦ here in the same sense as in Acts 16:17, Revelation 1:1; Revelation 15:3, etc., not as in 1 Peter 2:16, Revelation 7:3,” etc.), is not usually found in the inscriptions of the Pauline Epistles. In the Epistle of James we have: Θεοῦ καὶ κυρίου Ἰ. Χρ. δοῦλος, and in writing to the Romans and Philippians Paul says δοῦλος Ἰ. Χρ.

ἀπόστολος δὲ Ἰ. Χρ.] δέ indicates here not so much a contrast (as Mack thinks) as a further definition (Matthies: a more distinct description); comp. Judges 1:1. With this double designation comp. Romans 1:1 : δοῦλος Ἰ. Χρ., κλητὸς ἀπόστολος.

κατὰ πίστιν ἐκλεκτῶν Θεοῦ] κατά is explained by Matthies to mean: “according to faith, so that the apostleship is described in its normal state, in its evangelic character;” but it is altogether opposed to the apostolic spirit to make appeal on behalf of the apostleship to its harmony with the faith of the elect. Κατά rather expresses here the general relation of reference to something: “in regard to faith;” the more precise definition must be supplied. This, however, can be nothing else than that which in Romans 1:5 is expressed by εἰς (εἰς ὑπακοὴν πίστεως ἐν πᾶσι τ. ἔθνεσιν). It is on account of the πίστις ἐκλ. Θεοῦ that he is a δοῦλ. Θεοῦ and ἀπόστ. Χρ., and to this his office is related, see 2 Timothy 1:1. This general relation is limited too precisely by the common exposition: “for producing faith,” etc. Hofmann thinks the apostle uses ΚΑΤᾺ ΠΙΣΤ. ἘΚΛ. to describe faith as that which is presupposed in his apostleship, as that without which he would not be an apostle; but, on the one hand, we should in that case have had ΜΟΥ; and, on the other hand, ΚΑΤᾺ, does not express a presupposition or condition.

The expression ἘΚΛΕΚΤΟῚ ΘΕΟῦ is taken by de Wette in a proleptic sense, to mean those who, by the free counsel of God, are predestinated to faith; and ΚΑΤᾺ ΠΊΣΤΙΝ ἘΚΛ. Θ., according to him, declares the faith of these elect to be the aim of the apostolic office. Wiesinger, on the contrary, thinks the expression ἘΚΛΕΚΤΟῚ ΘΕΟῦ quite abstract, leaving it uncertain “whether the ΚΛῆΣΙς has already taken place in their case or not;” but he agrees with de Wette in taking the ἘΚΛΕΚΤΟΊ to be the object of the apostolic labours, so that the meaning is: in order to produce or further faith in the elect. But in the N. T. the expression ἘΚΛΕΚΤΟῚ ΘΕΟῦ is always used of those who have already become believers, never of those who have not yet received the ΚΛῆΣΙς. Since it cannot be said that the purpose of the apostolic office is to produce faith in the ἘΚΛΕΚΤΟΊ (Plitt: “that the elect may believe”), who as such already possess faith, nor that it is to further their faith, ΠΊΣΤΙς ἘΚΛΕΚΤῶΝ must be taken as one thought, the genitive serving to define more precisely the faith to which Paul’s apostolic office is dedicated. We have therefore here a contrast between the true faith and the false πίστις, of which the heretics boasted.

ΚΑῚ ἘΠΊΓΝΩΣΙΝ ἈΛΗΘΕΊΑς Τῆς ΚΑΤʼ ΕὐΣΈΒΕΙΑΝ] In genuine faith the knowledge of the truth is a substantial element; and Paul here lays stress on this element to point the contrast with the heretics. The ἘΠΊΓΝΩΣΙς is the subjective aspect, as the ἈΛΉΘΕΙΑ is the objective.

Τῆς ΚΑΤʼ ΕὐΣΈΒΕΙΑΝ serves to define ἈΛΉΘΕΙΑ more precisely, as Chrysostom says: ἘΣΤῚ ΓᾺΡ ἈΛΉΘΕΙΑ ΠΡΑΓΜΆΤΩΝ, ἈΛΛʼ Οὐ ΚΑΤʼ ΕὐΣΈΒΕΙΑΝ, ΟἿΟΝ ΤῸ ΕἸΔΈΝΑΙ ΤᾺ ΓΕΩΡΓΙΚᾺ, ΤῸ ΕἸΔΈΝΑΙ ΤΈΧΝΑς, ἈΛΗΘῶς ἘΣΤῚΝ ΕἸΔΈΝΑΙ· ἈΛΛʼ ΑὝΤΗ ΚΑΤʼ ΕὐΣΈΒΕΙΑΝ Ἡ ἈΛΉΘΕΙΑ. De Wette, Wiesinger, van Oosterzee, Plitt interpret Ἡ ΚΑΤʼ ΕὐΣΈΒΕΙΑΝ: “leading to holiness,” thus, indeed, naming a right element in truth, but one rather indicated than expressed by ΚΑΤΆ; it is merely said that here a truth is under discussion which is in nature akin to ΕὐΣΈΒΕΙΑ. Hofmann translates it “piously,” asserting that ΚΑΤʼ ΕὐΣΈΒΕΙΑΝ without the article stands for an adjective; but had Paul used the clause as an adjective, he would certainly have written: Τῆς ΚΑΤʼ ΕὐΣΈΒΕΙΑΝ ἈΛΗΘΕΊΑς (as in Romans 9:11 : Ἡ ΚΑΤʼ ἘΚΛΟΓῊΝ ΠΡΌΘΕΣΙς). Besides, the translation “piously” is not sufficiently clear.

Titus 1:1-4. Salutation, in which the place of the Gospel in eternity and in time is largely expressed.

1–4. Apostolic Greeting

1. Paul, a servant of God] A bond-servant (as R.V. margin) or slave of God; in St Paul’s other uses of this word as his title it is ‘slave of Jesus Christ.’ The variation has been well pointed to as an evidence of genuineness; ‘a forger would not have made a deviation so very noticeable.’ The reason for the variation is probably the same as for the phrase ‘God our Saviour’ here and through these epistles; see note 1 Timothy 1:1. Here in the Salutation itself we have ‘God’s slave,’ ‘God’s elect,’ ‘God who cannot lie,’ ‘God our Saviour.’ Paul is the minister of the One Personal Eternal God; it is ‘faith in Him,’ full knowledge of Him that is wanted where, as Lewin remarks was the case in Crete, ‘Judaism and then Gnosticism, its offspring, had corrupted the Word, and the Gospel had become so disfigured by strange phantasies that its features could scarcely be recognised.’

and an apostle of Jesus Christ] The ‘and’ is in Vulgate ‘autem’ not ‘et’ or ‘sed,’ the exact force being almost ‘and so as a consequence.’

‘Jesus Christ’ is here the right order, as Tischendorf 8th ed. admits, though in 1 Timothy 1:1; 2 Timothy 1:1 ‘Christ Jesus’ should be read. See notes there. It is natural enough that the new order of the words should sometimes be displaced by the older and more familiar.

according to the faith] Vulg. ‘secundum’; and the R.V. keeps according to rightly enough in spite of all modern commentators who wish for the meaning ‘with a view to’ as in Php 3:14, ‘I press on toward the goal,’ and think that ‘according to’ must imply that the faith and knowledge is the rule or norma of the Apostle’s office. But surely the word is not so narrow. Its common use, e.g. in ‘The Gospel according to St Matthew,’ gives a wider sense, ‘in the sphere of,’ ‘on the side of truth where St Matthew stands and sees and teaches.’ And this sense is of course directly derived from the proper meaning of the preposition ‘along,’ ‘throughout.’ So here, the faith and full knowledge of the Cretan Christians is the sphere within which he is to execute this commission from Jesus Christ as an apostle to them. His apostleship might have other spheres for other times and other Churches. Calvin says of St Paul’s commendation of his apostleship here ‘indicat ecclesiae magis quam unius Titi habitam a Paulo rationem.’

God’s elect] Among the N.T. words corresponding to the universal later use of the word ‘Christians,’ 1 Peter 4:16, are ‘those who are being saved,’ ‘the called,’ ‘the chosen’ or ‘elect,’ ‘the consecrated’ or ‘saints,’ ‘the faithful’ or ‘believers.’ The first chapter of St Peter’s first epistle touches all; ‘to the elect who are sojourners of the Dispersion’ 1 Peter 4:1—‘receiving now the salvation of your souls,’ 1 Peter 4:9—‘like the Holy One which called you, be ye yourselves also holy1 Peter 4:15—‘who through him are believers in God’ 1Pe 4:21. Cf. 2 Peter 1:10 ‘make your calling and election sure,’ 2 Peter 1:1 ‘who have obtained faith,’ 2 Peter 2:21 ‘the holy commandment delivered,’ cf. Revelation 17:14called and chosen and faithful.’ The name ‘faithful’ evidently means ‘those who have been made partakers of and received the faith’; and all the names describe a present state of privilege and sonship and grace, the same as that assigned to the baptized in the Catechism, ‘he hath called me to this state of salvation’—‘the Holy Ghost, who sanctifieth me and all the elect people of God,’ and in the Baptismal Services, ‘Grant that this child, now to be baptized therein, may receive the fulness of thy grace and ever remain in the number of thy faithful and elect children,’—‘walk answerably to your Christian calling.’

the acknowledging of the truth] Rather, the full knowledge, in opposition to the ‘knowledge falsely so called’ of Gnostic teachers; see Titus 1:16 and note on 1 Timothy 2:5.

after godliness] The old English use of ‘after,’ according to; cf. Hebrews 5:6, ‘a priest for ever after the order of Melchisedec.’ The same preposition being used and in the same sense as just above ‘according to the faith.’ ‘The truth’ is not speculative but moral truth, affecting the life—that they ‘may learn the Creed, the Lord’s Prayer and the Ten Commandments, and all other things which a Christian ought to know and believe to his soul’s health.’ Pr.-Bk. Baptismal Service. For ‘godliness’ see note on 1 Timothy 2:2.

Titus 1:1-3. Παυλος, Paul) A title suitable to the character of Paul, and to the office of Titus.—κατὰ, according to) Comp. κατὰ, Titus 1:4; Titus 1:9; 2 Timothy 1:1, note. It is the duty of an apostle to propagate the faith, Romans 1:5.—πίστιν, faith) faith—hope are the sum of Christianity; and these things Titus ought to regard in all his teaching, and avoid everything else; comp. 1 Timothy 1:5; 1 Timothy 3:15-16; 1 Timothy 4:1; 1 Timothy 4:3; 1 Timothy 4:10.—ἐκλεκτῶν Θεοῦ, the elect of God) for whose sake we ought to do and endure all things, 2 Timothy 2:10. The elect were from among Jews and Gentiles; and their faith was common, Titus 1:4; 2 Peter 1:1 : of the former was Paul; of the latter, Titus.

Verse 1. - - Knowledge for acknowledging, A.V.; according to for after, A.V. A servant of God (δοῦλος Θεοῦ); so in the superscriptions: Romans 1:1; Philippians 1:1, Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ; James 1:1; 2 Peter 1:1; Jude 1:1; Revelation 1:1. St. Paul also calls himself "the servant of Christ" (Galatians 1:10); and the phrase, δοῦλον Κυρίου, occurs in 2 Timothy 2:24. But neither "servant of God" nor any equivalent is in the superscription of either 1 or 2 Timothy. "Servant" is a better rendering than "slave," as Farrar renders it. An apostle, etc.; as in both 1 and 2 Timothy, and also in Romans 1:1; 1 Corinthians 1:1 2 Corinthians 1:1, etc.; showing that this is not a private letter, but a public and official document, conveying official authority to Titus over the Church in Crete. According to the faith of God's elect. The phrase is peculiar to this passage, and the exact force of κατὰ is not easy to determine (see Bishop Ellicott's notes, who renders κατὰ "for," and explains that "the faith of God's elect is the destination of the apostleship," with the further explanation that this meaning of κατά is about equivalent to "with special reference to," or "destination for," as its object). It is nearly the same thing to say that the true faith, and the perfect knowledge of the truth, and the hope of eternal life promised by God, are the sphere in which the apostolic office moves and acts. "The faith of God's elect," etc., seems to imply that there was in some who were not elect (1 John 2:19, 20) a corruption of the faith, a departure from it - a faith that was no faith, and something calling itself truth which was not "according to godliness," and so to point to rising heresies. The authors of these heresies were chiefly Jews (ver. 10), of whom there was a considerable colony in Crete (Conybeare and Howson, vol. it. p. 475; and Lewin, vol. 2. p. 337). According to godliness (for the use of εὐσεβεία in the pastoral Epistles, see 1 Timothy 2:2; 1 Timothy 3:16; 1 Timothy 4:7, 8; 1 Timothy 6:3, 5, 6, 11; 2 Timothy 3:5, and notes). Titus 1:1An apostle - according to the faith of God's elect, etc.

The norm of the apostolate in each of the three Epistles is unique, and not Pauline. In 1 Timothy, according to the commandment of God: in 2 Timothy, according to the promise of life in Christ Jesus. Κατὰ according to, not for the faith, but corresponding to the norm or standard of faith which is set for God's elect.

And acknowledging of the truth (καὶ ἐπίγνωσιν ἀληθείας)

For acknowledging rend. knowledge. For the phrase, see on 1 Timothy 2:4. Governed, like πίστιν faith, by κατὰ. The writer is an apostle according to the faith of God's elect, and according to the truth which is contained in the faith, as that truth is intelligently apprehended and held.

Which is after godliness (τῆς κατ' εὐσέβειαν)

Or according to godliness. Comp. 1 Timothy 6:3. This addition describes the peculiar and essential character of the truth which is held and known by God's elect, namely, that it is concerned with the fear and obedience of God - all that constitutes true piety. See on 1 Timothy 1:10.

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