Revelation 19:1
And after these things I heard a great voice of much people in heaven, saying, Alleluia; Salvation, and glory, and honor, and power, to the Lord our God:
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
XIX.

THE CHORUS OF THE HEAVENLY MULTITUDE REJOICING OVER HER FALL.

(1-3) And after these things I heard . . .—Or, I heard, as it were, a mighty voice of a great multitude in the heaven, saying. The saints who were bidden in the last chapter to rejoice are now heard raising their songs as in one great voice of praise. The song is as follows:—

Alleluia!

The salvation, and the glory, and the power

Are our God’s,

Because true and righteous are His judgments,

Because He judged the great harlot, who corrupted the

earth in her fornication,

And avenged the blood of His servants out of her hand,

Alleluia.

This last “Alleluia” clearly belongs to the song or chorus. It is separated from the body of it by the descriptive words (Revelation 19:3), And again they said, Alleluia; or better, and a second time they have said. The Evangelist, as he writes, seems to hear once more the strains of the anthem: he writes down the words. and, as the final “Alleluia” bursts forth after a musical pause, he writes, “once more they have said Alleluia.” The word Alleluia occurs in this passage no less than four times (Revelation 19:1; Revelation 19:3-4; Revelation 19:6): it is nowhere else used in the New Testament; but it is familiar to us in the Psalms, as fifteen of them begin or end with “Praise ye the Lord,” or “Hallelujah;” and the genius of Handel has enshrined the word in imperishable music. The song here does not begin with ascribing “salvation, &c.,” to God, as the English version suggests: it rather affirms the fact: the salvation, &c., is God’s. It is the echo of the ancient utterance—“Salvation belongeth unto God.” It is the triumphant affirmation of the truth by which the Church and children of God had sustained their struggling petitions, as they closed the prayer which Christ Himself had taught them, saying, when too often it seemed to be otherwise, “Thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory.” So here they give a threefold praise: the salvation, and the glory, and the power are all God’s. The manifestation of His power is in the deliverance of His children from the evil, from the great harlot, and in the avenging the blood of His servants out of her hand, “forcing, as it were, out of her hand the price of their blood.”

Revelation 19:1-3. And after these things — After this affecting representation of the certain destruction of Babylon, as the seat of the antichristian kingdom; I heard a great voice of much people in heaven — A great chorus, who, with united voices, began to praise God on the occasion, saying, Alleluia — That is, Praise ye Jehovah, or, He that is, and was, and is to come; a title which, of all others, is the most peculiar to the everlasting God. Salvation, glory, honour, and power be ascribed unto the Lord our God — To whom only they belong. The salvation spoken of is opposed to the destruction which the great whore had brought upon the earth: his power and his glory appear from the judgment executed on her, and from the setting up of his kingdom to endure through all ages. For true and righteous are his judgments — His judgments show him to be righteous, true, and faithful; for he hath judged the great whore — His punishment of mystical Babylon, for her pride, superstition, and idolatry, declares his righteousness; and his truth and faithfulness to his promises are illustriously manifested in his avenging the blood of his servants on her, who so cruelly put them to death for their faith in his word and constancy in his religion. And again they said, Alleluia — With their hearts inflamed with gratitude and joy. And her smoke rose up Αναβαινει, rises up, for they seem to be the words of the same heavenly chorus which praised in the preceding language. As if they had said, Let our God be glorified, who in this last judgment hath put an end to this persecuting power for ever. It shall not henceforth, as formerly, rise up again to afflict his saints. This city shall lie waste from generation to generation, never to be restored. Mr. Daubuz observes: “The two alleluias in this part of the hymn correspond to the messages of the two angels, one of which proclaims the fall of Babylon, and the other shows its destruction to be perpetual.” The expression, her smoke rose up, &c., intimated that Rome should be made as signal a monument of divine vengeance as Sodom and Gomorrah had been. It is taken from Isaiah 34:9-10, where by Edom the Jews understand Rome; and in the genuine editions of the Chaldee paraphrase it is, And the rivers of Rome shall be turned into pitch, and the dust thereof into brimstone, and the land thereof shall become burning pitch: — it shall not be quenched night nor day: the smoke shall go up for ever. And this tradition of the rabbins may receive some confirmation from this verse. Indeed, such an event must appear the more probable, when we consider that the adjacent countries are known to be of a sulphurous and bituminous soil: and that even at Rome there have been eruptions of subterraneous fire, which have consumed several buildings, according to Dion, (lib. 66.,) on one occasion, even a considerable part of Rome; so that the fuel seems to be prepared, and to wait only for the breath of the Lord to kindle it.19:1-10 Praising God for what we have, is praying for what is yet further to be done for us. There is harmony between the angels and the saints in this triumphant song. Christ is the Bridegroom of his ransomed church. This second union will be completed in heaven; but the beginning of the glorious millennium (by which is meant a reign of Christ, or a state of happiness, for a thousand years on earth) may be considered as the celebration of his espousals on earth. Then the church of Christ, being purified from errors, divisions, and corruptions, in doctrine, discipline, worship, and practice, will be made ready to be publicly owned by him as his delight and his beloved. The church appeared; not in the gay, gaudy dress of the mother of harlots, but in fine linen, clean and white. In the robes of Christ's righteousness, imputed for justification, and imparted for sanctification. The promises of the gospel, the true sayings of God, opened, applied, and sealed by the Spirit of God, in holy ordinances, are the marriage-feast. This seems to refer to the abundant grace and consolation Christians will receive in the happy days which are to come. The apostle offered honour to the angel. The angel refused it. He directed the apostle to the true and only object of religious worship; to worship God, and him alone. This plainly condemns the practice of those who worship the elements of bread and wine, and saints, and angels; and of those who do not believe that Christ is truly and by nature God, yet pay him a sort of worship. They stand convicted of idolatry by a messenger from heaven. These are the true sayings of God; of Him who is to be worshipped, as one with the Father and the Holy Spirit.And after these things - The things particularly that were exhibited in the previous chapter. See the notes on Revelation 18:1.

I heard a great voice of much people in heaven - The voice of the worshippers before the throne.

Saying, Alleluia - The Greek method of writing "Hallelujah." This word - ἀλληλούΐα allēlouia - occurs in the New Testament only in this chapter, Revelation 19:1, Revelation 19:3-4, Revelation 19:6. The Hebrew phrase - הללוּ יה haleluw Yah "Hallelujah" - occurs often in the Old Testament. It means, properly, "Praise Yahweh," or "Praise the Lord." The occasion on which it is introduced here is very appropriate. It is uttered by the inhabitants of heaven, in the immediate presence of God himself, and in view of the final overthrow of the enemies of the church, and the triumph of the gospel. In such circumstances it was fit that heaven should render praise, and that a song of thanksgiving should be uttered in which all holy beings could unite.

Salvation - That is, the salvation is to be ascribed to God. See the notes on Revelation 7:10.

And glory, and honour - notes on Revelation 5:12.

And power - notes on Revelation 5:13.

Unto the Lord our God - That is, all that there is of honor, glory, power, in the redemption of the world belongs to God, and should be ascribed to him. This is expressive of the true feelings of piety always; this will constitute the song of heaven.

CHAPTER 19

Re 19:1-21. The Church's Thanksgiving in Heaven for the Judgment on the Harlot. The Marriage of the Lamb: The Supper: The Bride's Preparation: John Is Forbidden to Worship the Angel: The Lord and His Hosts Come Forth for War: The Beast and the False Prophet Cast into the Lake of Fire: The Kings and Their Followers Slain by the Sword Out of Christ's Mouth.

1. As in the case of the opening of the prophecy, Re 4:8; 5:9, &c.; so now, at one of the great closing events seen in vision, the judgment on the harlot (described in Re 18:1-24), there is a song of praise in heaven to God: compare Re 7:10, &c., toward the close of the seals, and Re 11:15-18, at the close of the trumpets: Re 15:3, at the saints' victory over the beast.

And—so Andreas. But A, B, C, Vulgate, Syriac, and Coptic omit.

a great voice—A, B, C, Vulgate, Coptic, and Andreas read, "as it were a great voice." What a contrast to the lamentations Re 18:1-24! Compare Jer 51:48. The great manifestation of God's power in destroying Babylon calls forth a great voice of praise in heaven.

people—Greek, "multitude."

Alleluia—Hebrew, "Praise ye Jah," or Jehovah: here first used in Revelation, whence Ellicott infers the Jews bear a prominent part in this thanksgiving. Jah is not a contraction of "Jehovah," as it sometimes occurs jointly with the latter. It means "He who Is": whereas Jehovah is "He who will be, is, and was." It implies God experienced as a PRESENT help; so that "Hallelujah," says Kimchi in Bengel, is found first in the Psalms on the destruction of the ungodly. "Hallelu-Jah" occurs four times in this passage. Compare Ps 149:4-9, which is plainly parallel, and indeed identical in many of the phrases, as well as the general idea. Israel, especially, will join in the Hallelujah, when "her warfare is accomplished" and her foe destroyed.

Salvation, &c.—Greek, "The salvation … the glory … the power."

and honour—so Coptic. But A, B, C, and Syriac omit.

unto the Lord our God—so Andreas. But A, B, C, and Coptic read, "(Is) of our God," that is, belongs to Him.Revelation 19:1-5 God is praised in heaven for judging the great whore, and

avenging the blood of his saints.

Revelation 19:6-9 The triumph because of the marriage of the Lamb.

Revelation 19:10 The angel who showed John these things, refuseth to

be worshipped.

Revelation 19:11-16 The vision of the Word of God sitting upon a white

horse, and followed by his armies.

Revelation 19:17-19 The fowls called to feast on the flesh of those that

took part with the beast.

Revelation 19:20,21 The beast and false prophet cast into the lake of

fire and brimstone; and the rest slain.

And after these things; after the pouring out of the fifth vial upon the seat of the beast, Revelation 16:10; for Revelation 17:1-18:24, as we have formerly hinted, is but a parenthesis to the history. God, in this chapter, more fully describes the effects of the pouring out that vial.

I heard a great voice of much people in heaven, saying: it may be understood either of the third heavens, or the heaven upon earth, the church of God; for the church triumphant and militant both will concur in praising God for the ruin of antichrist’s power.

Alleluia is a Hebrew word, and signifies: Praise ye the Lord.

Salvation, and glory, and honour, and power, unto the Lord our God: all these are but terms of honour and praise given unto God, acknowledging that the church’s salvation is from him, the effect of his power; and that to him, upon that account, all honour and glory imaginable is due, as having shown himself his people’s God.

And after these things,.... After the angel had declared the fall of Babylon, a voice from heaven had called the people of God out of her, and had ordered them to take vengeance on her; after the mournful lamentation of the kings, merchants, and seafaring men; after another voice had called upon the saints to rejoice at her overthrow, and a mighty angel had described the manner of it, and had expressed her ruin in the strongest terms, with the reasons of it, John heard the songs of the righteous, as follow:

I heard a great voice of much people in heaven: not literally taken, for these are not the innumerable company of angels, who are never called people; nor the spirits of just men made perfect, or the souls of departed saints, but men on earth; wherefore heaven designs the church, as in Revelation 18:20 and frequently in this book; the people are the same with the 144000 seen with the Lamb on Mount Zion, Revelation 14:1 and with those on the sea of glass, who had got the victory over the beast, Revelation 15:2 and are no other than God's covenant people, who are given to Christ, and made willing to be his in the day of his power; and though they are but a seed, a remnant, a small company, when compared with the world and carnal professors; yet are a large body of themselves, especially they will be at this time, when the nation of the Jews shall be born at once, and the fulness of the Gentiles will be brought in: and their voice on this occasion, the downfall of Rome, is said to be "great" partly on account of their number, who will join together in acclamations of praise, and partly on account of their great affection and vehemency of spirit, which will be raised hereby:

saying Alleluia; an Hebrew word, which signifies "praise ye the Lord". The Jews say (n), that the book of Psalms consists of ten sorts of songs, but Hallelujah is the greatest of them, because it comprehends the name (Jehovah) and praise in one word: and it is observable that this word, which is often used in the Psalms, is first used when the Psalmist desires the utter consumption and destruction of sinners and wicked men on earth, and is here taken up by the saints at the destruction of the man of sin and son of perdition; see Psalm 104:35 and its being an Hebrew word shows that at this time the Jews will be converted, and that Jews and Gentiles will become one church state, and will worship and praise the Lord together; for the word is a call upon the saints to join together in solemn praise and thanksgiving; who is to be praised for the perfections of his nature, for the works of his hands, both of nature and grace; and for his righteous judgments on his and his church's enemies; and this is to be done in concert:

salvation, and glory, and honour, and power, unto the Lord our God: salvation, temporal, spiritual, and eternal, is of God; "salvation" from antichristian power and tyranny, and from all enemies, and the everlasting salvation of the soul; and the "glory" of it belongs to all the three Persons; they are glorious in themselves, and deserve all glory to be ascribed to them by man, and especially by the saints: "honour" is also their due; God the Father is to be honoured because he is the Father, and the Son is to he honoured as the Father is, and the Holy Spirit is not to be grieved, but to be highly esteemed and valued, and equally with the other two Persons: and "power" belongs to them all, and is seen in the works of creation, redemption, and sanctification.

(n) Yalkut Simeoni, par. 2. fol. 89. 1. T. Bab. Pesachim, fol. 117. 1.

And {1} after these things I heard a great voice of much people in heaven, saying, {a} {2} Alleluia; Salvation, and glory, and honour, and power, unto the Lord our God:

(1) This chapter has in summary two parts, one transitory or of passage to the things that follow, to the tenth verse, Re 19:2-10, another historical of the victory of Christ over both the beasts, to the end of the chapter Re 19:11-21, which I said was the second history of this argument, Re 17:1. The transition has two places, one of praising God for the overthrow done to Babylon in Re 19:4: and another likewise of praise and prophecy, for the coming of Christ to his kingdom, and his most royal marriage with his Church, thence to the tenth verse Re 19:5-10. The former praise has three parts, distinguished after the ancient manner of those that sing: an invitation in Re 19:1,2, a response or answer in Re 19:3, and a close or joining together in harmony in Re 19:4, all which I thought good of purpose to distinguish in this place, lest any man should with Porphyrius, or other like dogs, object to John, or the heavenly Church, a childish and idle repetition of speech.

(a) Praise the Lord.

(2) The proposition of praise with exhortation in this verse, and the cause of it in Re 19:2.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
Revelation 19:1-2. ἤκουσα ὦς φωνὴν μεγάλην ὄχλου πολλοῦ. “I heard” (something) “like a great voice of a large multitude,” The ὡς, κ.τ.λ.,[4025] states, by way of comparison, that the sound perceived by John became as loud as though a great multitude of men had made their voice sound powerfully (cf. Revelation 19:6). Incorrectly, Beng., Hengstenb., etc., who by the ὌΧΛ. ΠΟΛΛ. wish those named in Revelation 18:20 to be recognized. Ew. ii. refers it, just as Revelation 12:10-12, to the glorified martyrs.

ʼΑΛΛΗΛΟΎΪΑ. The leading tone of this song, resounding repeatedly (Revelation 19:3-4; Revelation 19:6), is marked from the very beginning as that of an exalted ascription of praise. It is certainly not unintentional, that just here, after the complete judgment upon the enemies of God and of his believers has already begun, the express hallelujah is found, which does not occur elsewhere in the Apoc.[4026] The fourfold repetition, however, is not to be pressed, at least in the sense of Hengstenb.,[4027] because it is not the victory over the earth, but that over the harlot, that is celebrated.

Ἡ ΣΩΤΗΡΊΑ, Κ.Τ.Λ. Cf. Revelation 7:10, Revelation 12:10.

ὌΤΙ ἈΛΗΘ., Κ.Τ.Λ. Foundation of the praise in the righteousńess of the Divine judgments in general;[4028] there follows[4029] the concrete foundation in the judgment just fulfilled, whose justice is expressly emphasized.[4030]

[4025] Cf. Revelation 4:6.

[4026] Nor does it occur in the rest of the N. T.

[4027] With reference to the victory of God over the earth, whose sign is four.

[4028] Cf. Revelation 16:7.

[4029] Cf. Revelation 18:23, where there are also two co-ordinated clauses with οτι.

[4030] ἥτις, κ.τ.λ. Cf. Revelation 12:13. On the subject, cf. Revelation 18:23 sq., also Revelation 11:18, Revelation 6:10.

Revelation 19:1-8. The ascription of praise to God on the part of those who dwell in heaven is made in songs, which properly now change to a far richer fulness (Revelation 19:1 sq., Revelation 19:3, Revelation 19:4, Revelation 19:5, Revelation 19:6 sq.) than previously.[4024]

[4024] Cf. Revelation 4:8 sqq., Revelation 5:9 sqq., Revelation 11:15 sqq., Revelation 15:3, Revelation 16:5 sqq.Revelation 19:1. Here only in N.T. (after the ruin of sinners, as Psalm 104:35) the liturgical hallelujah of the psalter and synagogue worship occurs. In Revelation 19:1; Revelation 19:3; Revelation 19:6 it stands as usual first, an invocation = “praise Jah”; but in Revelation 19:4 it is responsive, as in Pss. 104–5., 115–117. (the latter being sung at the passover; cf. Revelation 19:7).Further Thanksgivings. Chap. 19 Revelation 19:1-61. And after] Omit “and.”

a great voice] Read, as it were a great voice.

Salvation &c.] Cf. Revelation 7:10; also Revelation 4:11, Revelation 5:12-13, Revelation 7:12.

and honour] Should be omitted.

unto the Lord our God] Read, [are] our God’s.Revelation 19:1. Φωνὴν, a voice) Widely different from the complaints described in ch. 18—ἀλληλούϊα, Hallelujah) This is a most weighty cry, respecting which we deem it necessary to make some remarks.

§ 1. It is a Hebrew word הללו יה, compounded of הללו and יה.

§ 2. The name יָהּ occurs in hymns of the Old Testament; Exodus 15:2, Isaiah 38:11, Psalm 118:5; Psalm 118:14; Psalm 118:17-19, and elsewhere repeatedly, especially in this very Hallelujah, which the Apocalypse alone contains in the New Testament, and that in this one chapter, but repeatedly.

§ 3. Some derive יָהּ from יָאָה, and refer it to the Divine comeliness; but, as many acknowledge, under this name is rather denoted, He who is.

§ 4. Hiller, in his Onom. p. 262, supports the threefold repetition of the letter of breathing ההה, from which, by a change of the second radical into י or ו, the theme היה and הוה, and moreover the name אהיה and יהוה, are derived.

§ 5. In the same manner is formed ייָהּ by י for ה (as in עֹטְיָה for עֹטְהָה and אֶהֱמָיָה for אֶהֱמָהָה) and by הּ marked with the mappik:[207] for as from the final הּ is formed the middle ה, in like manner from the middle ה is formed the final הּ, as in נֹהַּ from נהה, and in other words, which Cocceius has well remarked upon in his Lexicon, col. 284.

[207] The tittle in ח final, making the letter emphatic, which otherwise would be quiescent.—E.

§ 6. I obtrude this analysis upon the attention of no one: no one, however, will readily deny, that He, Who is, is called יָהּ; and that remains firm, even though you should derive it with Hiller from יהי, the future; for the phrase, καὶ ὁ ἐρχόμενος, has already before been given for the pause (close of the formula): see above on ch. Revelation 11:17. In the three clauses, ὁ ἦν καὶ ὁ ὢ καὶ ὁ ἐρχόμενος, the times had to be accurately distinguished; but when the יָהּ is found separately, the derivation from יהי does not remove the force of present time, as is seen in so many proper names of men. The LXX. use the name, ὁ ὢν, Exodus 3:14, and (where there was less occasion for it) Jeremiah 1:5 (6), Jeremiah 14:13, Jeremiah 32:17 : and יָהּ itself has the same meaning as ὁ ὢν, Euthymius explaining it in Fuller, Miscell. pp. 486, 487. Add Drusius on this passage.

§ 7. That the name יָהּ is not curtailed from the name יְהֹוָה, is evident from this, that יְהֹוָה is used much more frequently than יָהּ, and that it is quoted sometimes jointly יָהּ יְהֹוָה.

§ 8. As God commanded by Moses that He should be called יְהֹוָהּ, immediately upon the very coming out of Egypt, the name יָהּ was also introduced in the Song of Moses, Exodus 15:2, in these words: עזי וזמרת יה ויהי לי לישועה, where, from a most present feeling of that most saving Divine work, the Lord is called יָהּ, ὁ ὤν. Hence this name is quoted only in Songs. Isaiah is in harmony with the Song of Moses, introducing the people thus speaking: כי עזי וזמרת יה יהוה ויהי לי לישועה, ch. Isaiah 12:2. The same has בטחו ביהוה עדי עד כי ביה יהוה צור עולמים, ch. Isaiah 26:4. But in both passages Isaiah at the same time exhorts to trust in God for the future, and on this account he calls the Lord יהוה and יה יהוה, and by this very circumstance he teaches us the difference between the two names.

§ 9. God is called יה, because He is; He is called יהוה, because He will be, and Is and Was: He is called יה יהוה, because, for instance, in the Song of Isaiah He is celebrated, as He has shown Himself a present God in the very act itself, and at the same time He is with all confidence declared as about to show Himself (similarly) for the future. The name, יהוה, was frequently used in the times of promises drawing towards their accomplishment: יה is adapted to all times which are gladdened with present aid, and therefore especially to the last times. Thus the consideration of time future, and also of former time (Jeremiah 23:7), coalesces with the present: and He who was before called ὁ ὢν καὶ ὁ ἦν καὶ ὁ ἐρχόμενος, is at length called ὁ ὢν καὶ ὁ ἦν, and ὁ ὤν.

§ 10. Hallelujah therefore is again and again suitable to this song, Revelation 19, and in it the name יָהּ, ὁ ὢν, Being.

§ 11. The observation which is found in Kimchi is everywhere quoted, that Hallelujah resounds, in the place where it first occurs in the Psalms, upon the destruction of sinners and the ungodly: Psalm 104:35. More instances from the Rabbis to the same purport, comp. Proverbs 11:10, have been collected by Cartwright, l. iii. Melif. Hebr. c. 8.Verse 1. - And after these things I heard a great voice of much people in heaven, saying; after these things I heard, as it were, a great voice of a great multitude, etc. The usual introduction to a new phase of a vision (see Revelation 4:1, etc.). The "great voice," as usual, characteristic of the heavenly utterances (see Revelation 5:2, etc.). Again, we are not told whose the utterance is. It may well be that of all the heavenly inhabitants and saints in glory (cf Revelation 7:9). As usual in the Apocalypse, at the termination of a description of the last judgment comes the triumphant song of the heavenly host (cf Revelation 7:9-17; Revelation 11:17). Thus the account of the conflict between God and the devil, which was begun at Revelation 12, is here concluded at ver. 8; after which the narrative takes a fresh departure, once more returning, as it were, to the beginning, and tracing anew this warfare. The remaining portion of the book is analogous to the latter part of Ezekiel. Alleluia; Salvation, and glory, and honor, and power, unto the Lord our God; Hallelujah; the salvation and the glory and the power belong to our God. Η τιμή, "the honour," found in several cursives, is omitted in א, A, B, C, P, etc. So also with the word "Lord." Hallelujah - "Praise ye Jehovah" - is found in Psalm 135:1 and elsewhere. It is translated in ver. 5 of this chapter, as is St. John's custom (see on Revelation 9:11). It has been remarked that the word "Hallelujah" is chiefly used in connection with the punishment of the wicked; in which manner it is also used here. (For a similar ascription of praise, see Revelation 4:11, etc.) Hallelujah (ἀλληλούΐ́α)

Hebrew. Praise ye the Lord. Only in Revelation and in this chapter. Fifteen of the Psalms either begin or end with this word. The Jewish anthem of praise (Psalm 104-109), sung chiefly at the feasts of the Passover and of Tabernacles, derived its title of the Great Hallel from the frequent use of that phrase.

Honor

Omit. On the doxologies in Revelation, see on Revelation 1:6.

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