Revelation 14:1
And I looked, and, see, a Lamb stood on the mount Sion, and with him an hundred forty and four thousand, having his Father's name written in their foreheads.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
THE CITADEL OF THE SAINTS AND THE SERVANTS OF THE LAMB.

(1) And I looked . . .—Better, And I saw, and behold, the Lamb (not “a Lamb:” it is the Lamb, the true Lamb of God, against whom the wild beast wages savage and subtle war) standing on the Mount Sion. The Saviour, the Lamb, in whose blood the saints have found their victory, is seen standing on the citadel of the heavenly city. Babylon is to be introduced (Revelation 14:8). In contrast, Zion, the chosen abode of God (Psalm 132:13-18), the type of the spiritual city whose citizens are true to the King (comp. Psalm 2:6; Psalm 74:2; Hebrews 12:22-24), is introduced. There are to be seen the Lamb, set as King upon the holy hill of Zion, and with Him the sealed ones, His faithful soldiers and servants. They are described as 144,000 in number: a number which represents the full growth of the choice ones of God, the true Israel of God. (See Note on Revelation 7:4.) These have their Father’s name on their foreheads: they can be recognised as children of God, (Comp. Note on Revelation 7:2-3, and Revelation 22:4.)

Revelation 14:1-4. I looked, and behold a Lamb — The Lord Jesus, in the form of a lamb, or as the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sins of the world, and not only with horns like a lamb; stood on mount Sion — Namely, the heavenly Sion; and with him a hundred forty and four thousand — The same select number that was mentioned Revelation 7:4, the genuine followers of the twelve apostles, apostolically multiplied, and therefore the number of the church, as six hundred and sixty-six is the number of the beast; and as the followers of the beast have the name of the beast, so these have the name of God, and, as some copies add, of Christ, written in their foreheads — As being the redeemed of God and of the Lamb, his now unalienable property, and as having been, when on earth, his professed servants, and the same as the witnesses. This prophecy often introduces the inhabitants of heaven as a kind of chorus, with great propriety and elegance. The church above, making suitable reflections on the grand events which are foretold in this book, greatly serves to raise the attention of real Christians, and to teach the high concern they have in them. Thus is the church on earth instructed, animated, and encouraged, by the sentiments, temper, and devotion of the church in heaven. And I heard a voice — Or sound, from heaven — Sounding clearer and clearer; first at a distance; as the sound of many waters — Or thunders; and afterward, being nearer, it was as of harpers harping on their harps — It sounded vocally and instrumentally at once. And they sung — With voices and instruments of music; as it were a new song — The Christian song, which they sung before, chap. 5.; and no man could learn that song but the hundred and forty-four thousand — Those who had been the true spiritual worshippers of the one true God, through the one true Mediator, Jesus Christ; all the rest of mankind offering up their devotions to other objects, and through other mediators; or not worshipping with a truly spiritual worship; which were redeemed from the earth — From this present evil world, being bought by the blood of Christ, and delivered from the guilt and power of sin by the word and Spirit of God. These are they which were not — Or, had not been, defiled with women — It seems that one kind of defilement, and the most alluring temptation, is put for every other. Or rather, the meaning is, that they had kept themselves pure from the stains and pollutions of spiritual whoredom, or idolatry, with which the other parts of the world were miserably debauched and corrupted. These are they which follow the Lamb whithersoever he goeth — Who are nearest to him; or rather, the meaning is, who followed the Lamb in all things while on earth; who adhered constantly to the religion of Christ, in all conditions and in all places, whether in adversity or prosperity; whether in conventicles and deserts, or in churches and cities. These were redeemed from among men — Rescued from the corruptions prevalent among mankind, and consecrated as the first-fruits unto God and the Lamb — An earnest and assurance of a more plentiful harvest in succeeding times. And in their mouth was found no guile — They were as free from hypocrisy as from idolatry; for they were without fault before the throne of God — They resembled their blessed Redeemer, who did no sin, neither was guile found in his mouth, (1 Peter 2:22,) and were, as the apostle requires Christians to be, blameless and harmless, the sons of God without rebuke, &c., Php 2:15. But possibly it may be asked, Where did such a church ever exist, especially before the Reformation? To which it may be replied, That it hath existed, and not only in idea, history demonstrates; as it hath been before evinced that there hath been, in every age, some true worshippers of God, and faithful servants of Jesus Christ; and as Elijah did not know the seven thousand who had never bowed the knee to Baal, so there may have been more true Christians than were always visible.14:1-5 Mount Sion is the gospel church. Christ is with his church, and in the midst of her in all her troubles, therefore she is not consumed. His presence secures perseverance. His people appear honourably. They have the name of God written in their foreheads; they make a bold and open profession of their faith in God and Christ, and this is followed by suitable actings. There were persons in the darkest times, who ventured and laid down their lives for the worship and truth of the gospel of Christ. They kept themselves clean from the wicked abominations of the followers of antichrist. Their hearts were right with God; and they were freely pardoned in Christ; he is glorified in them, and they in him. May it be our prayer, our endeavour, our ambition, to be found in this honourable company. Those who are really sanctified and justified are meant here, for no hypocrite, however plausible, can be accounted to be without fault before God.And I looked - My attention was drawn to a new vision. The eye was turned away from the beast and his image to the heavenly world - the Mount Zion above.

And, lo, a Lamb - See the notes on Revelation 5:6.

Stood on the mount Zion - That is, in heaven. See the notes on Hebrews 12:22. Zion, literally the southern hill in the city of Jerusalem, was a name also given to the whole city; and, as that was the seat of the divine worship on earth, it became an emblem of heaven - the dwelling-place of God. The scene of the vision here is laid in heaven, for it is a vision of the ultimate triumph of the redeemed, designed to sustain the church in view of the trials that had already come upon it, and of those which were yet to come.

And with him an hundred forty and four thousand - These are evidently the same persons that were seen in the vision recorded in Revelation 7:3-8, and the representation is made for the same purpose - to sustain the church in trial, with the certainty of its future glory. See the notes on Revelation 7:4.

Having his Father's name written in their foreheads - Showing that they were his. See the notes on Revelation 7:3; Revelation 13:16. In Revelation 7:3, it is merely said that they were "sealed in their foreheads"; the passage here shows how they were sealed. They had the name of God so stamped or marked on their foreheads as to show that they belonged to him. Compare the notes on Revelation 7:3-8.

CHAPTER 14

Re 14:1-20. The Lamb Seen on Zion with the 144,000. Their Song. The Gospel Proclaimed before the End by One Angel: The Fall of Babylon, by Another: The Doom of the Beast Worshippers, by a Third. The Blessedness of the Dead in the Lord. The Harvest. The Vintage.

In contrast to the beast, false prophet, and apostate Church (Re 13:1-18) and introductory to the announcement of judgments about to descend on them and the world (Re 14:8-11, anticipatory of Re 18:2-6), stand here the redeemed, "the divine kernel of humanity, the positive fruits of the history of the world and the Church" [Auberlen]. The fourteenth through sixteenth chapters describe the preparations for the Messianic judgment. As the fourteenth chapter begins with the 144,000 of Israel (compare Re 7:4-8, no longer exposed to trial as then, but now triumphant), so the fifteenth chapter begins with those who have overcome from among the Gentiles (compare Re 15:1-5 with Re 7:9-17); the two classes of elect forming together the whole company of transfigured saints who shall reign with Christ.

1. a—A, B, C, Coptic, and Origen read, "the."

Lamb … on … Sion—having left His position "in the midst of the throne," and now taking His stand on Sion.

his Father's name—A, B, and C read, "His name and His Father's name."

in—Greek, "upon." God's and Christ's name here answers to the seal "upon their foreheads" in Re 7:3. As the 144,000 of Israel are "the first-fruits" (Re 14:4), so "the harvest" (Re 14:15) is the general assembly of Gentile saints to be translated by Christ as His first act in assuming His kingdom, prior to His judgment (Re 16:17-21, the last seven vials) on the Antichristian world, in executing which His saints shall share. As Noah and Lot were taken seasonably out of the judgment, but exposed to the trial to the last moment [De Burgh], so those who shall reign with Christ shall first suffer with Him, being delivered out of the judgments, but not out of the trials. The Jews are meant by "the saints of the Most High": against them Antichrist makes war, changing their times and laws; for true Israelites cannot join in the idolatry of the beast, any more than true Christians. The common affliction will draw closely together, in opposing the beast's worship, the Old Testament and New Testament people of God. Thus the way is paved for Israel's conversion. This last utter scattering of the holy people's power leads them, under the Spirit, to seek Messiah, and to cry at His approach, "Blessed is He that cometh in the name of the Lord."Revelation 14:1-5 The Lamb with his company standing on Mount Sion,

Revelation 14:6,7 an angel preacheth the gospel,

Revelation 14:8 another proclaimeth the fall of Babylon,

Revelation 14:9-12 and a third, the punishment of them that worship the beast.

Revelation 14:13 The blessedness of those that die in the Lord.

Revelation 14:14-16 The harvest of the world.

Revelation 14:17-20 The vintage and winepress of God’s wrath.

God, in this part of the vision, showeth his servant John, that during the whole reign of antichrist, till the voice mentioned Revelation 14:8,

Babylon is fallen, should be heard, notwithstanding all his rage, he would preserve his church, though it would be but a small number, bearing no better proportion to the whole world than one hundred and forty-four thousand (the number of those sealed of each tribe of Israel, Revelation 7:1-17) bare to whole Israel, which were above six hundred thousand upon both their numberings, Numbers 1:26. The

Lamb here signifieth Christ, Revelation 5:6.

Mount Sion signifieth the church of the gospel, typified by Mount Sion amongst the Jews where the temple stood.

An hundred forty and four thousand is the same number that was sealed of all the tribes of Israel, Revelation 7:1-17: not that there was just so many which made up the church under antichrist’s persecution; but it signifies:

1. A small number in comparison of such as should be of another stamp.

2. It is a number made up of twelve times twelve, by which is signified that they were a people that should answer the Israelites indeed of the Old Testament, that remnant of the twelve tribes whom God had chosen, who adhere to the doctrine and precepts of the twelve apostles.

Having his Father’s name written in their foreheads; making an open profession of being the children and servants of God: as those servants and soldiers did that had anciently the names of their masters and generals in their foreheads; it being an ancient custom for masters to brand their servants, and captains their soldiers, as we do our beasts at this day.

And I looked, and, lo, a Lamb,.... The Alexandrian copy, and some others, read "the Lamb"; the same that had been seen before in, the midst of the throne, Revelation 5:6; and all the Oriental versions have the same article also; the Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, for mention is made of his Father in a following clause; the King of Zion, where he is seen standing, and the Redeemer of his people, who are at large described; it is the same Lamb who is so often spoken of in this book before: in the two preceding chapters an account is given of the state of the church, as oppressed under Rome Pagan, and Rome Papal, and here of its more glorious and victorious condition, with Christ at the head of it; in the last chapter antichrist is described, with his followers and worshippers, and as exercising tyranny and cruelty upon the saints, and here Christ and his followers are represented in vision, and some hints given of the fall of Babylon, and of the wrath of God upon the worshippers of the beast, and of the happiness of those who belong to the Lamb: and of him it is here said, that he

stood on the Mount Zion; by which is meant not heaven, but the church on earth; why that is called Mount Zion; see Gill on Hebrews 12:22; here Christ the Lamb stood, as presiding over it, being King of Zion, or the church; where he stood and fed, or ruled, in the name of the Lord, and in the majesty of his God; and where he appeared in the defence of his church and people, oppressed by antichrist; for he is Michael that standeth for the children of his people, and who stands with courage, and in the greatness of his strength, and is invincible; nor does he stand here alone:

and with him an hundred forty and four thousand; the same with those in Revelation 7:3, though all the world wondered after the beast, and all that dwelt upon the earth worshipped him, yet there was a number preserved that did not bow the knee to him; a remnant according to the election of grace, who were called out of the world, and brought to Zion, and were on the side of the Lamb, and abode by him, and cleaved unto him:

having his Father's name written in their foreheads; not baptism, administered in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, as some think; nor eternal election, as others, though as their names were written in the Lamb's book of life, so this was manifest to themselves and others, as if his name and his Father's had been written in their foreheads; but rather adoption, the new name of a child of God, they having the spirit of adoption, whereby they cried, "Abba", Father, and being openly and manifestly the children of God, by faith in Christ Jesus; unless it should be thought there is an allusion to the inscription in the mitre on the forehead of the high priest, "holiness to the Lord", and so be expressive of that visible holiness which will be on the saints in the spiritual reign of Christ, which this vision respects; see Zechariah 14:20; or to the frontlets between the eyes of the people of Israel, to put them in mind of the law, and their obedience to it, Deuteronomy 6:8; and so may here denote the engagements of those saints in the service of God; though perhaps no more is intended than their open and hearty profession of their faith, and that they were not ashamed of appearing in the cause of God and truth; nor of Christ and his words, his Gospel and ordinances: the Alexandrian copy, the Complutensian edition, the Vulgate Latin, Syriac, and Arabic versions, read, "having his name, (the Lamb's,) and his Father's name written in their foreheads"; and the Ethiopic version adds, "and of his Holy Spirit". Mr. Daubuz thinks this vision refers to the times of Constantine, and to the Christians then, and particularly the council of Nice, and as contemporary with that in Revelation 7:9.

And I looked, and, lo, a Lamb {1} stood on the mount Sion, and with him {2} an hundred forty and four thousand, having his Father's {3} name written in their foreheads.

(1) The history of the Church of Christ being finished for more than a 1300 years at which time Boniface the eighth lived as has been said: there remains the rest of the history of the conflicting or militant church, from there to the time of the last victory in three chapters. For first of all, as the foundation of the whole history, is described the standing of the Lamb with his army and retinue in five verses, after his worthy acts which he has done and yet does in most mighty manner, while he overthrows Antichrist with the spirit of his mouth, in the rest of this chapter and in the two following. To the description of the Lamb, are propounded three things: his situation, place and attendance: for the rest are expounded in the former visions, especially in the fifth chapter.

(2) Prepared to do his office see Ac 7:56, in the midst of the church, which mount Zion pictured before.

(3) This retinue of the Lamb is described first by divine mark

(as before in) Re 7:2 in this verse. Then by divine occupation, in that every one in his retinue most earnestly and sweetly Re 14:2 glorify the Lamb with a special song before God and his elect angels. Flesh and blood cannot hear this song, nor understand, Re 14:3. Lastly by their deeds done before, and their sanctification in that they were virgins, pure from spiritual and bodily fornication, that is, from impiety and unrighteousness. They followed the Lamb as a guide to all goodness, cleaved to him and are holy to him, as by grace redeemed by him. In truth and simplicity of Christ they have exercised all these things, sanctimony of life, the guidance of the Lamb, a thankful remembrance of redemption by him and finally (to conclude in a word) they are blameless before the Lord, Re 14:4,5.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
Revelation 14:1. καὶ εἰδον, καὶ ἰδού. The formula[3420] marks the unexpected, forcible contrast to the preceding vision.[3421]

τὸ ἀρνίον. Since the Lamb appears as the leader of the glorified,[3422] not only does the contrast between Christ and Satan, with his dragon-form, stand forth in startling relief; but the form of the Lamb also reminds us that the Lord himself has by his sufferings and death attained the victory,[3423] therefore his people must follow him; and that the redemption of believers (Revelation 14:4), and their glorification, depend upon the blood of the Lamb.[3424]

ἑστός. With the abbreviated form of the part.,[3425] cf. the inf. ἑστάναι, 1 Corinthians 10:12.[3426]

ἐπὶ τὸ ὄρος Σιών. The failure to acknowledge the proper significance of the entire vision is connected no less with the arbitrary presumption that Mount Zion is to be regarded in heaven,[3427] than with the allegorizing interpretation, according to which Mount Zion is regarded as the Christian Church.[3428] Vitringa unites the reference of the whole to the true Church,[3429] with the correct acknowledgment[3430] that the locality represented in the vision is meant properly. Cf. similar local designations within the vision, which are to be understood with absolute literalness, Revelation 14:6; Revelation 14:14; Revelation 13:1; Revelation 13:11; Revelation 12:1; Revelation 7:1. The holy place named, the home of the O. T.—and, therefore, also of the N. T.[3431]

Church, is adapted like no other place for that which is displayed to the gazing John. With the Lamb there appear one hundred and forty-four thousand who have the name of the Lamb, and the name of his Father, written on their foreheads. These one hundred and forty-four thousand are, according to the usual conception,[3432] identical with those mentioned in ch. Revelation 7:4. The number is the same; the seal there mentioned on the foreheads may be combined with the names of God which the followers of the Lamb have written on their foreheads; also the place, Mount Zion, appears to apply especially to glorified believers from Israel. But there are weighty reasons for the distinction of the one hundred and forty-four thousand in our text from those named in Revelation 7:4.[3433] [See, for the contrary, Note LIII., p 256, on ch. Revelation 7:4.] 1. If John had wished here to designate those already mentioned in Revelation 7:4, he would have expressed this definitely by the article. Cf. similar retrospective allusions in Revelation 14:1 (τὸ ἀρν.), Revelation 14:3 (ἐν τοῦ θρ., τῶν τεσσ. ζ., τῶν πρεσβ.). This was the more necessary, because here a particular description of the one hundred and forty-four χιλιάδες follows (ε͂χουσαι, κ.τ.λ.), which could lead to an identity with the sealed only in case it be conceived that the seal had as an inscription the twofold names here designated; a conception which in itself has no difficulty, but is remote therefrom, because the sign of the seal has a designation and significance different from this sign of the name: there the fidelity, not to be affected by the impending trouble, is sealed, while here the name of God expresses the eternal and blessed belonging of believers to their heavenly Lord,[3434] in contrast with those who have made themselves bondsmen of the beast. (Revelation 14:9; Revelation 14:11; Revelation 13:16 sq.) 2. To this must be added the fact, which may be decisive, that the one hundred and forty-four thousand in our passage, which, according to Revelation 14:3 sqq., do not appear at all as from Israel, can be identified with those mentioned in Revelation 7:4, only in case one of the two false conceptions, with respect to ch. 7,[3435] be sanctioned; viz., either that the one hundred and forty-four thousand (Revelation 7:4) be regarded identical with the innumerable multitude (Revelation 7:9 sqq.), or this multitude be regarded as a part of the one hundred and forty-four thousand. But it is rather to be said that in this passage only the schematic number, which as a designation of a mass suits mainly believers out of Israel (cf. Revelation 7:4-8), is transferred to such as have completed their course, and designates not only the definite description, Revelation 14:3 sqq., but especially also the antithesis lying in the entire context to the heathen worshippers of the beast, as those springing from the heathen.[3436] This select band (cf. Revelation 14:4) appears as such in the holy numerical sign of believers out of Israel; it is contained in the innumerable company, viz., as an ἀπαρχή.

[3420] Cf. Revelation 14:14; Revelation 6:2; Revelation 6:5; Revelation 6:8.

[3421] Hengstenb.

[3422] Cf. Revelation 7:17.

[3423] Cf. Revelation 5:5 sqq., Revelation 3:21.

[3424] Cf. Revelation 5:9, Revelation 7:14, Revelation 12:11.

[3425] Matthew 24:15.

[3426] Winer, p. 75.

[3427] Grot., Eichh., Stern., Züll., Ew., Hengstenb., Ebrard, etc. Especially does Züllig explain: “The highest mountain-like vault of the firmament, which corresponded to Mount Zion, inasmuch as, according to the Israelitic idea, it lay directly beneath the same.”

[3428] Beda, C. a Lap., Calov., etc.

[3429] In Revelation 14:1-5 it is stated: “That in a false, there is a true Church” (cf. Laun.).

[3430] De Wette.

[3431] Cf. Revelation 12:1; Revelation 12:17Revelation 14:1-5, introduced as a foil to what precedes and as an anticipation of 21–22, is “a sort of Te Deum” (Wellhausen), a vision of the Lamb no longer as slain but triumphant (militant on the mount of Olives, Zechariah 14:3 f., against the nations = Revelation 11:8; Revelation 11:18), attended by the élite of the redeemed who had worshipped him, not the Emperor, during their life-time. The Jewish tradition underlying this oracle seems to have been cognate to that of En. Revelation 1:4 f. (Greek), reflected already in Revelation 7:1-8; it showed the rallying of the faithful remnant at mount Zion (Joel 2:32; Isaiah 11:9-12) after the throes of the latter days (cf. on Revelation 11:19). In terms of this John pictures the Christians who appear with Jesus their messiah upon earth (cf. Revelation 5:10, Revelation 20:4-6). Revelation 14:1-5 thus hint faintly and fragmentarily at the belief that, before the general judgment and recompense of the saints (Revelation 11:18, Revelation 20:11 f.), the vanguard who had borne the brunt of the struggle would enjoy a special bliss of their own. The prophet does not stop to elaborate this independent anticipation of Revelation 20:4-6, but hurries on (6 f.) to depict the negative side, viz., the downfall of the enemy. When Caligula first attempted to enforce his worship on the Jews, the pious flung themselves on the ground, “stretching out their throats” in their readiness to die sooner than let their God be profaned (Jos. Bell. ii. 10, 4; Ant. xviii. 8, 3). John desiderates an equally dauntless temper in Christians, though they could not hope to avert, as the Jews had done, the imperial propaganda of the false prophet (Revelation 13:16 f.; cf. 2 Thessalonians 2.). Martyrdom (Revelation 14:13, cf. Revelation 13:15) was all that the majority could expect. But loyalty would bring them ultimate triumph. The passage is not simply Christian but from the hand of the prophet himself.The Lamb upon Mount Zion. Chap. 14 Revelation 14:1-51. a Lamb] Read the Lamb: of course the same as in chap. 5.

on the mount Sion] Probably the earthly one—the heavenly Jerusalem of chap. 21 has not yet appeared. And in Revelation 11:7-8 we had an intimation that the seer’s gaze was now directed to Jerusalem: Babylon, though mentioned in Revelation 14:8, is not seen till chap. 17.

an hundred forty and four thousand] Cf. Revelation 7:4.

his Father’s name] Read, His Name and His Father’s Name. Notice that it is assumed as understood, that the Lamb is the Son of God. See notes on Revelation 3:12, Revelation 7:3.Revelation 14:1. Ἑκατὸν, κ.τ.λ.) They are the same CXLIV. thousands which are mentioned ch. 7, but now in a much more splendid condition; wherefore they are mentioned without the article αἱ: just as in ch. Revelation 17:3, θηρίον, the beast, without the article τὸ, is the same beast as that which is mentioned in ch. Revelation 13:1, but which afterwards became very unlike its former self.—τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ καὶ) This was wanting to the Codex Reuchlinianus,1[152] although it does not seem to have been wanting to the more ancient MS., from which it was copied. For, instead of the subsequent participle ΓΕΓΡΑΜΜΈΝΟΝ, Erasmus, in his 1James , 2 d, and 3d Editions, put ΚΑΙΌΜΕΝΟΝ. And this appears to have been inserted in an improper place from the margin, which in smaller [fainter] character, frequently used in margins, reminded [the reader] that the words ΚΑῚ ὌΝΟΜΑ were to be supplied; just as shortly afterwards, in Revelation 14:6, at ΤΟῪς ΚΑΘΗΜΈΝΟΥς the same Codex Reuchlinianus introduced from other places the marginal gloss ΤΟῪς ΚΑΤΟΙΚΟῦΝΤΑς. It is more probable, in Wolf’s opinion, that καιόμενον ought to be attributed to a gloss. For it is well known, he says, that marks of this kind were accustomed to be burnt in either on the forehead or hand. And some one wishing to point out this custom, thought fit to explain the word γεγραμμένον by καιόμενον. I reply: If a name, which is being burnt in, can be expressed by καιόμενον, that which has been burnt in cannot thus be expressed. It is a matter of little consequence: it is admitted to be a gloss on both sides; the only question is as to its origin. My own view serves towards vindicating the reading respecting the name of the Lamb. Some one, relying on the reading of Erasmus, which does not contain the name of the Lamb, ventured to hope that the name of the Father, and not that of the Lamb, would hereafter come into favour. That enemy of the Nicene faith, and of the glory of Christ, was deceived. Nay, indeed both the name of the Lamb and the name of His Father are written on the foreheads of the CXLIV. thousands.

[152] 1 These words (His name and) are omitted by Rec. Text; but ABCh Vulg. Orig. 4,2a, Cypr. 294 support them. Orig. 4,2d has τοῦ ἀρνίου for αὐτοῦ.—E.Verse 1. - And I looked; and I saw, indicating a fresh phase of the vision (cf. Revelation 4:1, etc.). Having described (Revelation 12. and 13.) the trinity of enemies with which Christ and his people contend, the vision now passes on to depict the blessedness in store for the faithful Christian, and, on the other hand, the final fate of the dragon and his adherents. We are thus once more led to the final judgment. And just as in the former vision, after the assurance of the salvation of the faithful (Revelation 7.), came the denunciation of woe for the ungodly (Revelation 8-11:14), leading once more to a picture of the saved (Revelation 11:15-19), so here we have the assured blessedness of the faithful portrayed (Revelation 14:1-13), followed by the judgments upon the ungodly (Revelation 14:14 - 18:24), and leading on once more to a picture of the saints in glory (Revelation 19.). And, lo, a Lamb stood on the Mount Zion; and behold, the Lamb standing on the Mount Zion, as in the Revised Version. "The Lamb," with the article, referring to "the Lamb" described in Revelation 5, whom the second beast had attempted to personate. He stands on Mount Zion (cf. Hebrews 12:22, "Mount Zion, the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem"). The appropriateness of the position is seen

(1) in its strength (cf. the position of the beast, rising from the sea, perhaps standing on the sand, Revelation 13:1; and cf. Psalm 87:1, 2, "His foundation is in the holy mountains. The Lord loveth the gates of Zion more than all the dwellings of Jacob").

(2) Because there is the temple of God, in the midst of which is the Lamb, and there is the new Jerusalem (Revelation 21:2).

(3) Zion is the new Jerusalem, the opposite extreme to Babylon (ver. 8). And with him an hundred forty and four thousand, having his Father's Name written in their foreheads. The reading, τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ καὶ τὸ ὅνομα τοῦ Πατρὸς αὐτοῦ, his Name and his Father's Name, adopted in the Revised Version, is supported by א, A, B, C, with most cursives, versions, and Fathers. Note the similarity to the description in Revelation 7. Here, as there, the hundred and forty-four thousand are those "redeemed from the earth" (ver. 3). The number denotes a large and perfect number; a multitude of which the total is complete (see on Revelation 7:4). In Revelation 7. the sealing in the forehead is described. This sign marks out the redeemed in contradistinction to those who have received the mark of the beast (Revelation 13:16). A lamb

Read "the lamb." See Revelation 5:6.

Stood (ἑστηκὸς)

The participle, standing, as Rev.

His Father's name

Add αὐτοῦ καὶ τὸ ὄνομα His and the name, and render as Rev., His name and the name of His Father.

The Adoration of the Lamb is the subject of the great altar piece in the church of St. Bavon at Ghent, by John and Hubert Van Eyck. The scene is laid in a landscape. The background is formed by a Flemish city, probably intended to represent Jerusalem, and by churches and monasteries in the early Netherland style. The middle ground is occupied by trees, meadows, and green slopes. In the very center of the picture a square altar is hung with red damask and covered with a white cloth. Here stands a lamb, from whose breast a stream of blood issues into a crystal glass. Angels kneel round the altar with parti-colored wings and variegated dresses, many of them praying with joined hands, others holding aloft the emblems of the passion, two in front waving censers. From the right, behind the altar, issues a numerous band of female saints, all in rich and varied costumes, fair hair floating over their shoulders, and palms in their hands. Foremost may be noticed Sta. Barbara and Sta. Agnes. From the left advance popes, cardinals, bishops, monks, and minor clergy, with crosiers, crosses, and palms. In the center, near the base, a small octagonal fountain of stone projects a stream into a clear rill. Two groups are in adoration on each side of the fountain, - on the right, the twelve apostles kneeling barefoot, and an array of popes, cardinals, and bishops, with a miscellaneous crowd of church-people; on the left, kings and princes in various costumes. They are surrounded by a wilderness of flowering shrubs, lilies, and other plants. On the wings of the picture numerous worshippers move toward the place of worship, - crusaders, knights, kings, and princes, including the figures of the two artists on horseback. "Here, approaching from all sides, are seen that 'great multitude of all nations and hundreds and people and tongues' - the holy warriors and the holy pilgrims, coming in solemn processions from afar - with other throngs already arrived in the celestial plain, clothed in white robes, and holding palms in their hands. Their forms are like unto ours; the landscape around them is a mere transcript of the sweet face of our outer nature; the graceful wrought-iron fountain in the midst is such an one as still sends forth its streams in an ancient Flemish city; yet we feel these creatures to be beings from whose eyes God has wiped away all tears - who will hunger and thirst no more; our imagination invests these flowery meads with the peace and radiance of celestial precincts, while the streams of the fountain are converted into living waters, to which the Lamb Himself will lead His redeemed. Here, in short, where all is human and natural in form, the spiritual depths of our nature are stirred" (Mrs. Jameson, "History of Our Lord," ii., 339).

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