Psalm 76:2
In Salem also is his tabernacle, and his dwelling place in Zion.
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(2) Salem.—The LXX. and Vulgate translate “his place was in peace,” and possibly the poet may use the word Salem with the thought in his mind of the peace won by God for Judah, or, again, it may be only a poet’s preference for an ancient over a modern name; but the identification of the Salem of Genesis 14:18 with Jerusalem is too doubtful to allow much weight to this view. (See the whole question discussed in Sir G. Grove’s article on “Salem,” in Smith’s Bibl. Dict.)

Tabernacle . . . dwelling-place.—These renderings quite obliterate the image, which is that of a beast of prey crouching ready for its spring. Translate,

“In Salem is his covert,

And his lair in Sion.”

and for these meanings of the Hebrew words sokh and meônah comp. Psalm 10:9; Jeremiah 25:38; Psalm 104:22; Amos 3:4.

76:1-6 Happy people are those who have their land filled with the knowledge of God! happy persons that have their hearts filled with that knowledge! It is the glory and happiness of a people to have God among them by his ordinances. Wherein the enemies of the church deal proudly, it will appear that God is above them. See the power of God's rebukes. With pleasure may Christians apply this to the advantages bestowed by the Redeemer.In Salem also - This was the ancient name for Jerusalem, and is evidently so used here. It continued to be given to the town until the time of David, when it was called "Jerusalem." See the notes at Isaiah 1:1. The word properly means "peace," and is so rendered here by the Septuagint, ἐν εἰρήνῃ ὁ τόπος αύτοῦ en eirēnē ho topos autou - "his place is in peace." There may have been an allusion here to that ancient signification of the name, as being more poetical, and as suggesting the fact that God had restored peace to the city and nation when invaded.

Is his tabernacle - The tent, or sacred place where he is worshipped. Salem or Jerusalem was made the place of public worship, and the ark removed there by David, 2 Samuel 6:17.

And his dwelling-place in Zion - That is, on Mount Zion - the portion of Jerusalem in which David built his own palace, and which he made the place of public worship. This remained so until the temple was built on Mount Moriah; see the notes at Psalm 2:6; compare Psalm 9:11; Psalm 48:12; Psalm 65:1.

2. Salem—(Ge 14:18) is Jerusalem. In Salem; in Jerusalem, which was anciently called Salem, Genesis 14:18 Hebrews 7:1.

Zion; largely so called, as it includes Moriah, an adjoining hill, or another branch of the same hill. In Salem also is his tabernacle,.... That is, in Jerusalem, as the Targum expresses it, where the tabernacle of Moses and the ark of the covenant were, and afterwards the temple of Solomon, which the Targum here calls the house of the sanctuary; and may be interpreted of the human nature of Christ, the true tabernacle which God pitched, and not man, in which the divine word when he was made flesh dwelt or tabernacled among the Jews at Jerusalem, and in other parts of Judea, Hebrews 8:2. Salem or Jerusalem often signifies the church of God in Gospel times, in the midst of which Christ resides, and where he grants his gracious presence, Hebrews 12:22 and in the New Jerusalem the tabernacle of God will be with men, and he will dwell among them, Revelation 21:2. The Septuagint translate the word, and render it, "in peace", as in Hebrews 7:2, the God of peace dwells among those that live in peace, 2 Corinthians 13:11,

and his dwelling place in Zion; where the ark was brought by David, and the temple was built by Solomon, into which, as rebuilt by Zerubbabel, Christ came, and here he preached; a figure of the church, which is his habitation.

In {b} Salem also is his tabernacle, and his dwelling place in Zion.

(b) Which later was called Jerusalem.

2. And he hath set his pavilion in Salem,

And his habitation in Zion.

For the words pavilion and habitation applied to the Temple see Psalm 27:5; Psalm 68:5. The words may however mean the covert and lair of a lion (Psalm 10:9; Psalm 104:22; Amos 3:4); and it is possible that the Psalmist intends to describe God as the lion of Judah, who has issued forth from His lair, and seized His prey. Cp. Psalm 76:4, and the simile in Isaiah 31:4.

Salem is either an old name for Jerusalem (Genesis 14:18), or a poetical abbreviation. The name means ‘unharmed,’ ‘at peace,’ and it is doubtless used with allusion to the recent escape of Zion from destruction (Isaiah 33:20).Verse 2. - In Salem; i.e. Jerusalem. "Salem" was probably a shortened form of the full and complete name, like "Peer" for "Baalpeor," "Maachah" for "Aram-Maa-chah," "El Kuds" for "Beit-el-Kuds," and the like. (So Professor Cheyne.) "Salem" is the peaceful place, the place where God's presence breathed peace and tranquillity. It is only used here and in Genesis 14:11. Is his tabernacle; literally, his tent (comp. Psalm 15:1; Psalm 27:5, 6; Psalm 61:4). The temple is meant, as even Professor Cheyne sees. It took the place of the original "tabernacle," and was modelled upon it. And his dwelling place in Zion; or, "his lair" (comp. Psalm 104:22). The church here takes up the words of God, again beginning with the כּי of Psalm 75:3 (cf. the כּי in 1 Samuel 2:3). A passage of the Midrash says הרים חוץ מזה כל הרים שׁבמקרא (everywhere where harim is found in Scripture it signifies harim, mountains, with the exception of this passage), and accordingly it is explained by Rashi, Kimchi, Alshch, and others, that man, whithersoever he may turn, cannot by strength and skill attain great exaltation and prosperity.

(Note: E.g., Bamidbar Rabba ch. xxii.; whereas according to Berêshı̂th Rabba ch. lii. הרים is equivalent to דּרום.)

Thus it is according to the reading ממּדבּר, although Kimchi maintains that it can also be so explained with the reading ממּדבּר, by pointing to מרמס (Isaiah 10:6) and the like. It is, however, difficult to see why, in order to express the idea "from anywhere," three quarters of the heavens should be used and the north left out. These three quarters of the heavens which are said to represent the earthly sources of power (Hupfeld), are a frame without the picture, and the thought, "from no side (viz., of the earth) cometh promotion" - in itself whimsical in expression - offers a wrong confirmation for the dissuasive that has gone before. That, however, which the church longs for is first of all not promotion, but redemption. On the other hand, the lxx, Targum, Syriac, and Vulgate render: a deserto montium (desertis montibus); and even Aben-Ezra rightly takes it as a Palestinian designation of the south, when he supplements the aposiopesis by means of מי שׁיושׁיעם (more biblically יבע עזרנוּ, cf. Psalm 121:1.). The fact that the north is not mentioned at all shows that it is a northern power which arrogantly, even to blasphemy, threatens the small Israelitish nation with destruction, and against which it looks for help neither from the east and west, nor from the reed-staff of Egypt (Isaiah 36:6) beyond the desert of the mountains of Arabia Petraea, but from Jahve alone, according to the watchword of Isaiah: שׁפטנוּ ה (Isaiah 33:22). The negative thought is left unfinished, the discourse hurrying on to the opposite affirmative thought. The close connection of the two thoughts is strikingly expressed by the rhymes הרים and ידים. The כּי of Psalm 75:8 gives the confirmation of the negation from the opposite, that which is denied; the כּי of Psalm 75:9 confirms this confirmation. If it were to be rendered, "and the wine foams," it would then have been היּין; מסך, which is undoubtedly accusative, also shows that yayin is also not considered as anything else: and it (the cup) foams (חמר like Arab. 'chtmr, to ferment, effervesce) with wine, is full of mixture. According to the ancient usage of the language, which is also followed by the Arabic, this is wine mixed with water in distinction from merum, Arabic chamr memzûg'e. Wine was mixed with water not merely to dilute it, but also to make it more pleasant; hence מסך signifies directly as much as to pour out (vid., Hitzig on Isaiah 5:22). It is therefore unnecessary to understand spiced wine (Talmudic קונדיטון, conditum), since the collateral idea of weakening is also not necessarily associated with the admixture of water. מזּה refers to כּוס, which is used as masculine, as in Jeremiah 25:15; the word is feminine elsewhere, and changes its gender even here in שׁמריה (cf. Ezekiel 23:34). In the fut. consec. ויּגּר the historical signification of the consecutive is softened down, as is frequently the case. אך affirms the whole assertion that follows. The dregs of the cup - a dira necessitas - all the wicked of the earth shall be compelled to sip (Isaiah 51:17), to drink out: they shall not be allowed to drink and make a pause, but, compelled by Jahve, who has appeared as Judge, they shall be obliged to drink it out with involuntary eagerness even to the very last (Ezekiel 23:34). We have here the primary passage of a figure, which has been already hinted at in Psalm 60:5, and is filled in on a more and more magnificent and terrible scale in the prophets. Whilst Obadiah (Obadiah 1:16, cf. Job 21:20) contents himself with a mere outline sketch, it is found again, in manifold applications, in Isaiah, Habakkuk, and Ezekiel, and most frequently in Jeremiah (Jeremiah 25:27., Jeremiah 48:26; Jeremiah 49:12), where in Psalm 25:15. it is embodied into a symbolical act. Jahve's cup of intoxication (inasmuch as חמה and חמר, the burning of anger and intoxicating, fiery wine, are put on an equality) is the judgment of wrath which is meted out to sinners and given them to endure to the end.

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